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What is paragraph

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What is paragraph

  1. 1. ;fKgft- y]clG d[d[Tt' Z ;fKgft-: cfTtlGpfI kft-tlnf clt-pfKklNn[ (prose composition) tfIaf of r'Skf s'P[CclG (unit) ;fKgft- d[d[Tt'. ;fKgft-tlG k[GplI k[GplI tI;lGgfIV sfD;lGgfIV rS;lGgfI kf]i-. sF ;fKgft-tlG nTylS n'D;l ;fDbfI n'Da]s- g' t[Tgfd- d[TplI. cfTtlGpfI ;fKkGV ;fKd'Gw'DV v[bfCV ;'DV gl;fd-a]V zSclIPIV k]jfn[I ju[FfxfC ;fKgft- ;fKgft- xfM;lGgfI ;fK;lG. x[Ss]FlS s]d-afV oDaf ;fKkGxfCF[G s'gft-xfC (chapters) g' ;'DV v[bfCV zSclIPI ju[FfxfC ;fKgft- ;fKgft-tf] xfMdfF ;fKdfuq x[Gglk-kf_x[Gglk-dfxfCF[G glIs[;lDaff g' glIc'i-af kf]i-. ;fKgft-tlG tfIaf of s]d-afcfI kf]i-df ;'S. s]d-af kf]i-a]s-kfcf] rlFlylS of rla[tplS oFlS kf]i-df ;'S. sF cfSv[G s]d-af of tfIaf jfC;fI ;fKgft-tlG o[s-kf n'D;lcf] n'Da]s- kf]i-n kf]i-. x[Ss]cfI yfdlIilG g' n[TplIdfcfI dfi-PfC k]s-df d[g'Cg[G. ;fKgft- ;fKd[Nn[ rfxf s[hf]s-kf ylDxfC: ;fKgft- ;fKd[Nn[ cfKmfn-n[;fI df] s[aKkf ylDxfC glIjfC ;lufI o'Id[G o[s-kf jfC_ (1) ;fKgft-tlG ;fKd[Nn[ cfKmfn-n[;fI nTylS ofDa] of n'D;l ;fDbfI n'Da]s- kf]i-n kf]i. ;fKgft-tlG ;fKd[Nn ylS;lu]s-kf k[GplIif] n'D;lclNn[G s'a] mfi-df g' kf]wSdfF[G ofd-aS rf]u'F kf]i-. x[Ss]cfI n'D;lclGg' gfC;l v]i-;lGuqV d'Skfg-V kfg-n'D g' kfgjftlxfCcfI cf]ufK rf]s-df ;'St[T. sF ;fKgft-tlNn[ n'D;lclG n'Da]s- rf]s-dfcfI ;fKd[G o[s-kf jfC. (2) ;fKgft- ;fKd[Nn[ cfKmfn-n[;fI ;fKgft-tlNn[ n'D;lclG tfChlSkf kfofcf] (in logical order) j]C n'D;lxfCg' d[GeTt] yfs-gft-tf] (in sequence) ;fFfIifI ;fKdf kf]i-. x[Ss] kf]i-ilNn[ x[Gglk-kf_x[Gglk-dfxfCF[ d[glF'Nn[ ;fIFfIifI s';lI d[glt-t'. (3) rlgf]af ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[ nful k[GplIn[ ;fKk]clGgfI j]Cj] kFlSn[ n[SdfF ;fKd[Nn[ gf]af kf]i-. s'ef t[G k[GplIxfC s]d-af s'efcf] tfIaf g' s'efcf] rSk[GplIV mK_k[GplI g' s'efcf] ;'F'Caf k[GplIxfC ;fKdf ;'St[T. x[Ss]n-n[ ;fKgft-tlG glIu[;lDaf kf]i-ifI k]s-.
  2. 2. (4) k[GplI k[GplIxfC rSdfF[ nful dlIufDn[G o[s-gfDaf g' o[s-d[GgfDaf ;'Tnf sFV g'V sDef;fIV x[Ss]uqV ofV y]cfIa]a[Nn[V o[Ddf]V vf;fIV d[g-pfIV sqV gleuqV x[Ss]cfIV cfIV x[Ss]n-n[V v[Nn[V d[g-uq ju[FfxfC o[s-kf g' sfKofIaf d[jfC. sSs]bIaf ;'TnfxfC yIjfclaf (comparative) ;fKgft-tf] oFlS rfxfaf jfC. x[Ss]cfI j]Cj] kFlSkf ;fDgft-tf]cfI sfKofIaf g' cf]ufKtlDaf d[jfC. sSs]bIaf ;'TnfxfC ;fKgft- ;fKd[Nn[ cf]ufK rf]s-dfuq ;fKgft-tlG glIc'i-af kf]i-. ;fKgft-n[G kFlSxfC: c[Ss]a[Kdf] ;fKgft-tlG kFlS if;lcf] xfMdf ;'St[T_ (1) kf]wSslaf (Descriptive) (2) r[Id'Sslaf (Narative) (3) yIjfclaf (Comparative) (4) k]x[Gglaf (Evaluative) (5) ySjfblDaf (Imaginative) (1) kf]wSslaf ;fKgft-: cfTtlG ;fKgft-tf] cfTtlGpfI ofDa] of rluf]s-jfxfCF[G kf]wS o[s-kf g' n'D;l ;fDbfI kf]iv[GglG kf]wSslaf ;fKgft- d[d[Tt'. sG kFlSkf ;fKgft-tf] ;[SvfblIaf g' cf];]i-jfaf (fact and figure)F[ kfg-V x[Ghlnf g' s'a]mfi-dfF[ kfg-V kFi=ufclaf kfg-xfC oFlSs] d[bfM. (2) r[Id'Sslaf ;fKgft-: c[Ss]a[Kdf] (generally), r[Id'Sslaf ;fKgft-tf] r[Id'Sk[Nn[ (narrator) y[df;fI n[;'afV gl;'afV clt-gld- rf]u'af kfg-xfC g' m[Gwf]s-V xlGwf]s-V r[ofd-ef]xfCF[ kfg-xfC yStls(narrate) rf]u'cfI xSt'. (3) yIjfclaf ;fKgft-: cfTtlGpfI ofDa] of rluf]s-jf ;fDbfI ;fKgft-tlG yIdfF[ kfg- xS;lGuq yIjfclaf ;fKgftkf]i-. sGgf] r'Skf_oDafV s]d-af_tfIafV gf]af_m[DafV ju[FfF[G kfg-xfC yIdfF[G ofd-aS kf]i-. (4) k]x[Gglaf ;fKgft-:
  3. 3. y[df;fI ofDa] of rluf]s-jf of ySslG k]x[GdfF ;fKdfgf ;fKgft-tlG k]x[Gglaf ;fKgftkf]i-. sKdf] y];fI k]x[DdfcfI gf]af_m[Daf nCFlS vfFf]g- (judgement) rf]s-dF[G kfg-xfC f d[bfM. sSs]bIaf ;fKgft-tlG ySo[Daf (personality), zf]w'Iu[DafV ;fDglafV nfDnf]afV ;fKrfafV nfh]C yf]af]V gl;fD yf]af] ju[FfxfC ;fDbfI kf]i-. (5) ySjfblDaf ;fKgft-: clt-pfKk[Nn[ y[df;fI ofDa] ;fDbfI clt-t'cfI ySjf ;lufI jfg-b'cfI ;fKt'af ;fKgft-tlG ySjfblDaf ;fKgft- kf]i-. sG kFlSkf ;fKgft-tf] y[df;fI ofDa] ;fDbfI clt-df]cljf (reasoning) rf]s-dfcfI ;fKdfF[G kfg- tfM. dld-V d]FlIV t'Sv]jfV ;'Sv]jfV ;[KdfV clalt-V ;gfFIV xlIdGV o[DV sfCcl ju[FfxfC ;fDbfI ;fKgft- ;fKd[Nn[ oFlS clt-df]cljfV clt-plD g' ' ySjfdf] rf]s-dfF[G ;'Daf] rfxf rf]s-. v[Nn[ rf]u'Nn[ sSs]bIaf ofDa] ;fDbfI ;fKgft-tlG ySjfblDaf kf]i-. ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[G ylS_g[Tpl s';lIxfC: if;l kFlSn[G ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[G s';lIxfC df] d[aT_ (1) kf]wSslaf ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[G s';lIxfC (s) ofSy'I ;'jfIxfC ;'SvlD vfDP'af c'gf o[Dg'c] s[o'Iaf nTylS vfDaf]i-af;l Ff]. ;'dfhlaf_ofIhlS glt- (2005_2006) cl;ls- v'glC vf]t-tfIilG 56959 jfC. sDefcf] 28706 ;'SvlD vfDP'F[G gfDwf y'D s[o'IafV 12992 gfDu[G y'D s[o'IafV 10617 nfIu[T y'D s[o'Iaf g' 4643 yfIu[T s[o'Iaf d[jfC. (v) nfKr[g-hlC ;'SvlD vfDP'F[G gfDwf y'Ddf] k]n-nlIg' ;lNnl g[Tplw] gf_gfS g[. sG t[GglG tIa] 1670n[ ;'SvlD nfh]Caf gl;lu]s-kf d'b[G xfI t[G;'I gfDu[NF[ ;'D;lu]s-df s'xlD;fdfV of]of]xfIdfF[ s'dlIif] nTylS nf]s-mfu[G ;lIPlD rf]u'a[G c]ufI ;'SvlD nfh]CF[G gl;lu]s-kf xfIafIoS kf]s-v[afFf]. sG t[Ggf] nf]mfu[G;lIPlDdlG rf]s-df r'F[g' xfIilNn[ of]of]xfIdf v[G xlDdlG dlIjfg- kfIv'. of]of]xfIdfF[ ‘;'xlD’ nC dlIjfg-b'a[G ;'SvlD nfr]CclNn[ s'dlIilGwf] ;'SvlD g' c]ufI ;lSvlD kf]s-v[cfI k]afFf].
  4. 4. (2) r[Id'Sslaf ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[G s';lI: (s) eU;] d[Kdfgfa[G gfDwf ;'SvlDn[G nTylS ylSn]k-kf t[Ggf] nlhlFl nluKkl;fI yfa'u[G ;lInfn-n[ sa'af gfi-ululaf t[Ggf] g[. m'Ijfd-df o[Dn[ sG t[Ggf] rfg- rfg-af kgf]gf]af yf]sm[Snf m'IxfC d[e[Sk[Nn[ m'IgfDn[ t[GglGwf] d'd'S d'd'S s[gfDaf kf]i-ifI g[. j]Cj] kFlSkf rfg- rfg-n[G kgf]gf]af yf]s-m[Snf m'IxfC d[e[Sk[G cf]d[Tp[ dfi-PfC dfi-PfCaf dgfxfC tfSsG g' glIjfC tfD;[ d[bfM. sG t[Ggf] kFlS kFlSkf yS;fu[G s'a'xfC d[ofSkfn-n[ n'Id[G kxlds[xld-af ;fDnf]u[G clSnfxfCcfI v[Ddf vfM]b[T. (v) mf]Ffaf o[G o[Gglt-glt- 15V ss-m[Sjf nfn-n[ mlblD y'Daf m[bl kfIe]Ccf] nTylS xlDdf] dl nf;[cfI xlDbfIaf if;lcf] ;'D;l xlD ;oi-afxfCF[ yfs- k]. v[G xlDdf] dl nfk-df x]s-t[g' s[F[Ss] kfIe]C;fafxfC d[b[OcfI dlclG df] vldf] ;[Kdf d[uf]t-t';fI dlclG ;ldf d[;'St[Ga[Nn[ xlD ;lufIaf ;Dd]t-plTtfI nk-dfcfI v[TplGdf d[Gp'St'G. xlDafc[G g' nTylS r'S;f o[GslTpf;fclNnC xlDdf]g' nd-dfcfI v[TplIdf vfM];[;l. v[G m[Gwf]s-slG dgfxfC d[xfMa[af g' d[c'M;[af clSnfclNn[ rld'cfI g[;[. m[Gwf]s-slG kf]CF'IifI clIufVcfI cfof]d- k'CF[V cfdlSjf y[O. (3) yIjfclaf ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[G s';lI: (s) ofSy'I ;fKkfg-glG ;'SvlD vfDP'af nTylS vfDP' ;xfIo'Skf ;fKkfg-nf]. ;'SvlD ;lufI vf]s-tfI 56929 ofSy'I ;'jfI d[o'Iafcf] 34292 (vKd[G 66V73%) ofSy'IafxfC ofSy'I ;fKkfg- d[aft-. sF d'b[Daf g' cld]k-kf ;fKkfg-xfCF[G s'a[GxfC kf]Cdfuq ofSy'I ;fDkfgs[afk-kfxfC vfDP'cf] 46174FC d[jfC;fI ;fKkfg- s[afk-kfxfC 35728 (77V37%) g'n-n[ oFlSs] d[jfC. x[Ss]FlSs] d'b[Daf ;oi-afxfC sfSn[ 49837 d[jfC sF ;fKkfg- s[afk-kfxfC 41823 (83V12%) d[jfC. ;'SvlD vfDP' ;lufI ofSy'I ;fKkfg- s[afk-kfxfC ;'SvlDaf d'b[Daf g' cld]kkf ;fKkfg- s[afk-kfxfCg'n-n[ oFlSs] cf;'g-af yfclI kf]i-. (v) zS;fclG clSn[I rf]s-d[Nn[ j]C zS;fxfCF[G s'efC d[g-g] clSn[I s[af]i-a[G s'a'I zS;f kf]i- sF ylufIgf (on the other side or hand) j]C zS;fF[G s'efC rfxf s[hf]s-k[G s'wS zS;f kf]i-. s'a'I zS;fclG rf]s-o'Daf kf]i-af sF s'wS zS;fclG rf]s-d[Go'Daf kf]i-afn-n[ clSn[I rf]s-d[Nn[ s'a'I zS;fxfC ;fDbfI t[Tgfd- kf]i-. s'a'I zS;fclG clSn[I rf]s-d[Nn[ v[G s'a'I zS;fclNn[ s'c]ufI j]CzS;fxfC rlI;lGgfI ofSkf vf]Md[b[Tg[G s';lI ‘c’ kfk-d[Nn[ ‘c’
  5. 5. clNn[ s'c]ufI ‘c’ clGwf] c'i-;lGgfI ofS sF s'wS zS;fclG clSn[I rf]s-d[Nn[ s'a'I zS;fclG rlI;lGaf vfM]b[T s';lI ‘s’ kfk-d[Nn[ ‘s’ clNn[ s'c]ufI ‘c’ clG rlI;lGgfI ofSkf vfM]b[T. s'a'I zS;fcf] cV cfV clV c'V c]V c}V cf]V cf}V c[VxfC d[bfM ylufIgf s'wS zS;fcf] sV vV uV iV rV pV hV gV tV yV bV wV kV mV aV dV oV FV nV jV zV ;V xV PV xfC d[bfM. (u) cf;fDuf] ;fDe[Ff g' ;lefS ofMxfC ;';'Nnl ofSy'I ;'jfIF[G ylS;]i-jfF[ cla';lFf]. v'glC d'FfnfD j[a'Gcf]g' rfJ s[a'GafcfI j[a'Gbfq] s[Fd-a[G ;fDhlS d'Gw'D d[d[Tt'. cf;fDuf] ;fDe[FfclNn[ xlD ;lufI (m[bfIdf d[xf]k-uq) dfI vMdf g' ;fD ;fdfF[G od-aS rf]u' sF ;lefS ofMclNn[ clw'S ;f]Pf gfk-dfV c]k-n[ ;Ibf]s- o[Ddf of yfMdfV rlg-pf xfCdfV ;;lC oIbI n[Idf rfMdfV ju[FfxfCF[G ofd-aS rf]u'C. cf;fDuf] ;fDe[FfclNn[ s'ufKnf kfufV j[hf]V ;lUkIV o[yfnfxfC kf]i- sF ylufIgf ;lefS ofMclNn[ s';fUbfDxfC o[;lDV kfIef]CclV j[;fi-V o[;'s-jfV kfufFlV o[ufKnfSV o[yfnf ju[FfxfC d[af]i-. (4) k]x[Gglaf ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[G s';lI: (s) ;fIufqDaf eUgfwf]h- rI ofSy'In'Ddf] nTylS vfKk'cf]af s'hfCcl g' s[xfDaf dlufi-jf jo[. v'g[C cfKmfn-n[;fI xfIilNn[ s'g;fg-;lufI sTt'af s'h'Sjfx'S jo[ kfk-d[Nn[ glafg- of ;fDafg- d[af]i-g[G. v[G o[Dn[ eUgfwf]h- rI x[Ss]bIaf nfDnf]af ofSnfu[G ofSy'In[ vfM]d[Gwf] oDaf tSofg- jo[. v'g[C s'nfDnf]cf] ofSy'I ;'jfIn[ tIa] 1967n[ rI o'Sgf xfInfD cfPMf];'D. sD;]d-af kf]i-dfF[G ;'o[D cfPfM];'Da[Nn[ ofSy'I ;fKkfg-glG gl;fDxlDxfCcf] x'Cdf g' glk-dfF[G clIb[D kf]s-v[. v[G o[Dn[ eUgfwf]h- rI x[Ss]bIa[G gl;fDaf jo[uqd[G ofSy'I ;'jfIn[G ofd-aS cfSv[G kf]i-df ;'St[d[G. ofSy'I ;'jfI yf]nlIwf] cfu[F[d[G. (v) ‘kjlt-tqf ’ v[bfCclG zf]w'Iu[G alValVd'FlInfF[ kfn-n[I rf]u'af o[Tpl v[bfCxfCcf] nTylS s'glnlIaf v[bfCFf]. sG v[bfCclG dlIzf]bfIaf (renowned), s'glnlI;fKkf (psychologist) g' j[GpfKkf al;J];U kq;fb- sf]clFfnfF[ ;fKt'af Ff]. sG o[Tpl v[bfCcf] kjlt-tfq v[bfCclG kFlS kFlSkf ;jfxfC s[ofSaf rlc'i-d'Skf g' yfi-;f]a[Daf jfC. v[bfC ;lufI s';fI d[Nndfgf j[Gjfdf kjlt-tfqF[ s'glIjfCF[G s'glnlIaf kf]wS g' ;lufI ;lufIaf n'IdfC ;fOt- s[FCaf s'xfdhSjfV s'd]FlI g' s'b'SdfxfC d[ofS.
  6. 6. (5) ySjfblDaf ;fKgft- ;fKdfF[G s';lI: (s) glIjfC d[Kdfgfa[G dfIh'D dfIjf g' clh'D cljf x[Ss]a}Ff]. rKn[S sKdf] jfC o[Ddf] rKn[Sn[ cfTtl cfTtl tfSsG rfg' dfi-PfC dfi-PfC s[T. gf]gf]af t[G g' rluf]s-jfxfCcf] rKn[S xfKt'cfI gfd-;lG. glIjfCclG n[Kk'I x[Ss] ng-gfI k]s- sF o[Ddf] s'i-ifI tfM. k[GhlFl k[DdlSslG cfTtlG k[GplI v[Kdf] vfFfSs] s[TV tfSsG rf. ySslG g[Tgfcf] g[;fIV o'St[Ggf] o'I;fI glIjfCclG d[GgfC;lIi] vfM s'efo[G yf] tS;Iwf] s'efo[G of] ;]i-Pfof] s'efo[G dfi-PfC kf]i-n jfC. (v) xlIdGglG nTylS clS;fu[G vfDa]s-d[Nn[ rd'af m'Icls-sf] s[e[SkfcfI s[o'Iaf g[Ttlu[G s'e'Inf]. xlIdGa[Nn[ sG clS;fu[G vfDa]s-sf]af s[F[S ;fi-u[DafxfCF[G kf]i-. sG xlIdGglG cfKmfn-n[cfI cfh'glaf d[af]i-g[GVd[xlIg[G. o[D ;lufI jfC o[D ;lufI xlIifI o[D ;lufIi] g'KkfI k]s-. g[Ttlu[G m'IilGgfI ylSo[G nTylS r'Skf ;lI;f kf]i-ifI nlIV kfM]cfI s';'Ss'D rf]C;lI x[Ss]cfI mf]g-nSslG rf]C;lGgfI rfg- rfg-n[ m[SV d'd'S d'd'S s'gfD ;[F. sF v[GgfI;fC o[D ;lufIi] kfM] m[S x[Ss]cfI cDb'cfI n's- k]s-. xlIdGglGgfI x[Ss]bIa} cfNnf] jfC cfSvf] d[jfCg[G. c}G jffC tfg-blS d[jfCg[G.

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