UHB2422 / ULAB2112 - Final exam paper


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UHB2422 / ULAB2112 - Final exam paper JULY 2009

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UHB2422 / ULAB2112 - Final exam paper

  2. 2. UMSchool of ProfessionalandContinuingEducation (SPACE)UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIASemu a Pelaj arUn iversiti Tekn olo gi MalaysiaSaudara / i,PERINGATAN AKHIR PEPERIKSAANSelamat men duduki Pepcriksaan Akhir Semester Ill , 2008 / 2009 . Sau dara/ iadal ah DIINGATKAN u n tu k mem a tu h i peraturan dan tatatertib peperiksaanyang telah ditetapkan. Pih ak Universiti amat rnem aridari g berat di ataskesalah an aka demik (seperti meniru, membawa mas uk apa-ap ado kumen/ kertas ke dalam bilik peperiksaan, menulis apa-apa mak lumat ataugambar rajah d i mana-mana bahaqiari tubuh. atau tangan atau pakaian dansebagainya atau berhubung dengan mana-mana p elajar lain melalu i apacarap un atau dilihat dan boleh ditafsirkan s ebagai cuba menipu danseumpamanya) yang dilakukan oleh pelajar.2. Tin dakan ta ta tcrtib bolch dikenakan ke atas mana-man a pelajar yangdi tan gkap kerana kesalahan seperti di atas dan jika disabit kesalahan bolchdihuku m mela lui Perun tu kan Kaedah 48, Bahagian V, Ta tacara Tatat.ertib,Kaedah-Kaedah Un iversiti Teknologi Malaysia (Tata tertib Pelajar-Pelajar)1999 , yang m em bawa h ukum an maksima seperti "digantung daripadape ngajian" atau "dipecat" dari Universiti Teknologi Malaysia . Hukum anj uga boleh berda sarkan Pera tu ran Akadem ik, UTM Bahagian XIII yangm cmbawa hu kuman m aksima "m embatalkan keputusan keseluruhanpeperiksaan dan diberhentikan daripada pengajian".3. Pihak Un iversiti tidak teragak-agak u n tu k men gambil tindakan danm enja tuhkan hu kuman maksima jika saudara/i didapati bersal ah dalamm elakukan penyelewengan akademik.Sekian .DEKANSekolah Pendiclikan Profesion al clan Pendidikan BerterusanUniversiti Tekn ologi Malaysia30 J u n 2009
  3. 3. Instruction: Read the situation below and complete the task given using the primaryand secondary sources provided.SituationOne way of saving lives is to pledge our organs. However, despite the manycampaigns on organ donations, there are still people who are not aware of theimportance of this act and are not willing to pledge their organs. The Ministry ofHealth is very concerned about this matter and thus a committee has been set up toinvestigate the trend in pledging and donating organs among Malaysians over theyears, the types of organs pledged and the reasons for people not pledging theirorgans . Results from the survey are presented in the following pages .TaskYou are the head of the committee. Write a report of five to seven pages using relevantinformation from all the primary data and your background knowledge, and use at leasttwo (2) excerpts from the secondary data provided. Your report shoul d include thefollowing headings:INTRODUCTION (background, objectives, scope and significance of study)IETHODOLOG Y (sampling, instruments, and research procedure)FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONCONCLUSIONSRECOMMENDATIONSNote: Marks will be deducted for direct lifting of sentences from the excerpts.2
  4. 4. PRIMARY DATAThe following are the results obtained from the study.Table 1: Organ Pledgers and Donors According to Race~Race2005 2006 2007 2008 To talPledgers Donors Pledgers Don ors Pledgers Donors Pledgers Don ors Pledgers DonorsChinese 3499 5 4825 12 4068 14 5 751 16 18143 47ndian 2101 7 3 165 II 2377 3 2 3 14 4 9 957 25Malay 1 658 1 I 838 1 2279 5 2356 - 8 131 7p thers 236 - 257 1 165 3 184 3 842 7Source: National Transplant Resource Centre,Kuala Lumpur HospitalTable 2: Types of Organs Pledged~Organs2005 2006 2007 2008 TotalAll organs and tissues 5704 7767 6738 8023 28232Kidneys 173 267 198 20l 839Corneas 122 137 III 109 479Heart 103 112 129 131 475Skin 47 29 42 46 164Liver 41 31 44 40 156Bones 23 I 19 23 66Lungs 13 17 10 7 47Source: National Transplant Resource Centre,Kuala Lumpur Hospital3
  5. 5. Unaware of theOthers importance of organEthical and religious 2% donationconstraint 10%17%Do not know where toNot physically fit todonate organs......o)r--­sign up for organ- donation5% 7%Afraid to donateorgans23%Objection from familymembers36%Figure 1: Reasons for Not Pledging OrgansSECONDARY DATAExcerpt 1Vijaindren, A. (2008, December 2 1). When Pledges Aren t Honoured. New SundayTimes, p.23.KUALA LUMPUR: One month after a RM2 .4 million media campaign to promoteorgan and tissue donation began, the National Transplant Resource Centre (NTRC)said it had received some 1 000 new pledges from the public to donate organs.However, NTRC officials said pledges did not necessarily translate into actualdonations as family members could refuse to allow hospitals to harvest the organs ofdeceased donors.An NTRC media officer said the number of pledges usually went up after therewas publicity about organ donation. " Whether its television, radio or newsp aper4
  6. 6. advertising, the numbers always go lip. The campaign is especially important as wevefallen short of our target. Instead of the expected 50 donors this year, weve onlyreceived 24 donors. Many people are not pledging their organs because theyre notaware of the importance of organ donation or they dont know where to sign up."In the past 12 years, the majority of the organ pledgers were Chinese (61percent), followed by Indians (23 percent) and Malays (13 percent). This year, morethan 5 000 Chinese have pledged to donate their organs. The officer added that thenumber of pledges would go up as long as there was media coverage about organdonation. "Its an obvious trend. After the huge media coverage on heart transplantrecipient Tee Hui Vi, organ pledges increased. Sadly, it went down again after themedia focus ended. Although pledges are pouring in, upon-death donations are stilllow. Families are still very reluctant to donate the organs of their deceased lovedones."Selayang Hospital Tissue and Organ Procurement (TOP) team member ChitraRamasamy said persuading fami lies to allow organs to be harvested was its biggestchallenge. She said, "Sometimes it takes hours of talking to convince the fami ly todonate the organs and tissues even though the deceased individual is a pledged donor.If the deceased family does not agree to the donation upon death, we cant take theorgan. Hence, it is important to inform the fami ly about ones wish to donate organs."Excerpt 2(2004, April 4). Speech by YB Dato Chua l ui Ming, The Minister of Health Malaysia,in officiating the "Blood and Organ Donations Campaign 2004" at Plaza Pelangi, JohorBahru. Retrieved 12 June 2009 fromwww.moh.gov.myfMohPortal/DownloadService?id=89&type5
  7. 7. Ladies and Gentlemen,If we talk of the need for organ donation, every year about 2200 new patients arediagnosed with end stage renal failure. Currently, there are more than 8 500 patients ondialysis nationwide. Of these, more than 50 percent would be suitable for kidneytransplantation. Similarly, about 700 corneal transplants and 200 liver transplants arerequired each year. As for heart transplants, Institut Jantung Negara (UN) sees 15 to20 patients yearly who may benefit from a new heart.As we know, transplantations cannot take place without organs, and we cannot haveorgans without donors. Lack of organs remains the main obstacle to the success of atransplantation program, not only in Malaysia but also in the world. Fortunat Iy, thesituation has started to improve over the last few years. To date, a total of 130 localcadaveric donors had donated their organs, 99 of them (76 percent) within the last threeyears; some donating single organs only such as kidneys, others single tissues onlysuch as corneas, but more and more (50-75 percent) are now donating multiple organsand tissues. More and more donations are also now famil y initiated. Families arccom ing forward on their own to donate the organs of their relatives who have just died.Indeed, there are no legal or religious reasons to prevent one from donating tissues ororgans after death. Legally, our Human Tissues Act 1974 allows the removal of bodyparts from dead people for the purpose of medical treatment, education and research.But the organs can only be procured with the consent of the fam ilies or if the deceasedhave expressed, verbally or in wr itten form, their wish to donate their organs. There arealso no objections from all religions regarding organ donation, as long as it is donealtruistically and with no commercial intent. It is seen as the greatest act of charity thatone can do after death to help another person - to give the gift of life. Even Islampermits organ donation and there arefatwas both in Malaysia and other Islamiccountries that support it. In fact, Saudi Arabia, which can be considered an ort hodoxMuslim country, has a very successful organ transplantation program, with an organdonation rate of three to four donations per million population, ahead of our rate of 1.3donations per million population.6
  8. 8. Excerpt 3Razak Abdullah. (2008). Why Muslims Are Not Organ Donors. ISLAlv! Newsletter,p.18.Many Muslims are reluctant to become organ donors because they fear that theirbodies would be mutilated. This was the main reason given by more than half, or 56.3percent of the respondents in a random survey carried out by the Institute of IslamicUnderstand ing Malaysia (IKIM) last year. The survey, which involved 500 Muslims inthe Klang Valley, also found that religious factor only affected 5.2 percent of therespondents. It also revealed various misconceptions among those surveyed. Amongthem are that:• family members of a donor would have to pay for the organs to be removed;• doctors would be reluctant to save the life of a known donor;• a recipients sin will have to be borne by a donor; and• organs from Muslims must only be donated to another Muslim."It is ignorance whic h is deterring Muslims from becoming organ donors. What theydo not realise is that a majority of those waiting for organs are Muslims," said anexasperated Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen Shaikh Mohd Salleh, IKIMs former SeniorFellow (Centre for Scie nce and Techno logy) who was in charge of the survey.The reluctance has resulted in the comparatively small number of Muslims who havepledged their organs for donation as compared to other races. Between 1997 and now,only 10 193 Muslims have pledged their organs as compared with 60 876 Chinese and22 565 Indians. Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen further states that although the num ber ofpledges have increased over the years, a lot still needed to be done to encourageMuslims to come forw ard. He pointed out that the National Fatwa Council had statedin 1970 that organ don ation was permissible in Islam. "The reluctance on the part ofmany Muslims may be a result of the lack of information, lack of understanding orpure selfishness," he said, although many Muslim countries have supported organ andtissue donation.7