Gestalt Psychology By R.Khalili


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Psychology In Language Teaching

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Gestalt Psychology By R.Khalili

  1. 1. R.Khalili Gestalt Psychology
  2. 2. Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt – "shape or form") School of psychology founded in the 20th century that provided the foundation for the modern study of perception. Gestalt theory emphasizes that the whole of anything is greater than its parts. The word Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has been “placed,” or “put together.” There is no exact equivalent in English. “Form” and “shape” are the usual translations; in psychology the word is often interpreted as “pattern” or “configuration.”
  3. 3. Gestalt theory was introduced as a contrast to at the time dominant structuralism, which claimed that complex perceptions could be understood through breaking them into smaller elementary parts of experience, like splitting graphical forms into sets of dots or melody into sequence of sounds. The idea of Wertheimer was that the ability to perceive objects was an ability of the nervous system, which tends to group together objects that are nearby, similar, form smooth lines, form most of the shape we can recognize.
  4. 4. Gestalt Laws of Organization •Figure/Ground •Closure •Proximity •Continuity •Similarity
  5. 5. Figure/Ground We tend to organize perceptions into the object being looked at (the figure) and the background against which it appears (the ground).
  6. 6. There is a tendency in our perception to complete incomplete figures, to fill in gaps. Closure
  7. 7. Proximity Parts that are close together in time or space appear to belong together and tend to be perceived together
  8. 8. Continuity There is a tendency in our perception to follow a direction, to connect the elements in a way that makes them seem continuous or flowing in a particular direction.
  9. 9. Similarity Similar parts tend to be seen together as forming a group.
  10. 10. Insight Learning Wolfgang Kohler was the first psychologist who developed the insight learning in which he described an experiment with apes that could use boxes and sticks as tools to solve problem.
  11. 11. in the box problem, the banana is attached to the top of a chimpanzee’s cage. The banana is out of reach but can be reached by climbing upon and jumping from a box. Only one of Kohler’s apes(Sultan)could solve this problem. A much more difficult problem involved stacking the boxes. This problem required the ape to stack one box on another , and master gravitational problems by building a stable stack. Kohler also gave the apes sticks which were used to take food into the cage. Sultan, Kohler‘s very intelligent ape, was able to master a two-stick problem by inserting one stick into the end of the other in order to reach the food.
  12. 12. The important aspect of learning was not reinforcement, but the coordination of thinking to create new organizations. Kohler referred to this behavior as insight or discovery learning. Creative thought Gestalt laws Good learning
  13. 13. the cross-curricular & critical thinking The cross-curricular approach embodies the concept of wholeness in learning and offers to students a “Gestalt” type view and understanding of the world around them. Gestalt refers to the idea that the ‘whole’ of something represents more than just the sum of its parts. An EFL class, for example, might involve students in researching material about historical events they are currently studying about in their history class and then might involve having them present their findings in English. In one novel class an ESL teacher had students write poems concerning mathematics principles. Simply said, the content from other classes becomes the ‘material’ with which students come to grip with the English language.
  14. 14. The unique thing about the cross-curricular approach to learning is that you end up with a matrix of activities, all supporting a central goal, while at the same time providing a plethora of opportunities for students to put theoretical concepts from other disciplines into practice. This in turn makes both the tasks and subjects meaningful. Furthermore, the exposure and involvement aids memory retention across disciplines. In the best light, the material is wrapped around the student as opposed to the student being wrapped around the material.
  15. 15. Thank you for all your attention 