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  1. 1. Malaysia 1
  2. 2. Layout of Presentation Pre-independence History Post-independence History Life of Mahathir Mohammad Mahathir Mohammed as a Leader Achievements of Mahathir Current Malaysia Conclusion Questions and Answers Session 2
  3. 3. Presenters Sohail Maqbool Maira Rathore Hirra Pervaiz Khalid Shah Sadia Niazi 3
  4. 4. Mr. Sohail Maqbool 4
  5. 5. MALAYSIA “Important things happened not only centuries before, but also decades ago” 5
  6. 6. Pre-Independence History at a Glimpse AD 1400 S P Parameswara set up a trading base in Malacca 1511 Portuguese took control 1641 Dutch captured Malacca 1786 British adventurer entered Penang Malay 6
  7. 7. Pre-Independence History at a Glimpse 1824 Anglo-Dutch treaty signed, British controlled Malacca, Singapore and Penang Dutch controlled Sumatra 1840s Influx of Chinese tin miners to the western coast 1919 British colonial rule throughout the peninsula 7
  8. 8. Pre-Independence History at a Glimpse 1941 Japanese invaded and took control of Malaya and ruled until 1945 1948 After the war, the British returned The Malays, Chinese and Indians joined forces to form an Alliance to fight for independence 8
  9. 9. 31st August 1957 Independence Day 9
  10. 10. Post-Independence History 1957 On August 31, Federation of Malaya became independent of Britain with Tunku Abdul Rahman as prime minister 1963 Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak joined the Federation; Malaya became Malaysia 1965 Singapore withdrew from the Federation 10
  11. 11. Post-Independence History 1970 Abdul Rahman's resignation, Tun Abdul Razak became the 2nd prime minister and formed the political coalition 11
  12. 12. Ms. Maira Rathore 12
  13. 13. Emerging Malaysia Malaysia grown rapidly into an important trading partner of both USA and Europe A large Islamic nation with a diverse population of Malays, Chinese and Indians Preserves many traditional values while adapting an increasingly international look 13
  14. 14. Secret Behind the Success There is only one top secret behind the whole story i.e. 14
  15. 15. Mahathir Mohammad was born on December 20, 1925, in Alor Setar in Northern Malaysia Graduated in 1953 from University of Malaya Singapore According to Mahathir, “ This gave me a very good starting point in life: a strong family, a solid education and a good religious grounding” Elected to parliament in 1964 as a member of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) 15
  16. 16. Conti… In 1969 Mahathir was expelled from UMNO because of conflict with Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman Rejoined UMNO in 1970 Reelected to its Supreme Council in 1972 and to parliament in 1974 Later in 1974 appointed minister of education. In 1976 he became deputy prime minister In June 1981 was elected president of UMNO. 16
  17. 17. Mahathir Mohammad as PM He became prime Minister in July 1981 The first commoner to hold that office 17
  18. 18. Mahathir as PM Transformed Malaysia Reformed the tax structure and reduced trade tariffs Privatized numerous state-owned enterprises Abridge Malaysia’s ethnic divisions by increasing general prosperity The NEP (New Economic Policy)has been replaced in 1991 by the NDP (New Development Policy) 18
  19. 19. Mahathir as PM Transformed Malaysia Malaysia prospered economically, with growing manufacturing sector an expanding middle class rising literacy rates increased life expectancies Significant infrastructure project North-South Expressway, a highway that runs from the Thai border to Singapore 19
  20. 20. Mahathir says, “I inherited the strength of will and pragmatism from previous prime ministers. From the 1st I learnt how to handle race relations. From 2nd I learnt pragmatism. I am less diplomatic. I feel something is right and should be done, I will do it and will say it. That’s really the difference. All these ideas were put in place by my predecessors, so I owe it to them.” 20
  21. 21. Ms. Hirra Pervaiz 21
  22. 22. Example of positive discrimination between Malays and Chinese living in Malaysia Chinese Malays Chinese Mostly businessmen Healthy and influential Developed and economically dominant Socially effective educated MALAYS (Bumiputras, the sons of the soil) Rice Cultivation- Common occupation Live in Small Communities Have Limited Social Contacts Mostly Poor and Illiterate 22
  23. 23. Constructive protection was incorporated in NEP (New Economic Policy) by Abdul Razzak According to Mahathir, “ The principal purpose was to draw the Malays into the main stream of the country’s economic life. The idea isn’t to expropriate or redistribute the wealth of other ethnic groups, but to enrich the Malays through expanding ECONOMIC CAKE” 23
  24. 24. Quotas were set and Malays receive a higher number of scholarships as per their deserving ratios MCS (Malaysian Civil Service) Reforms in Malays land Reserve Laws Issuance of more business contracts and licenses to Malays. Credits, office space and other benefits and economic advantages 24
  25. 25. Employment rate 4 million in 1970 4.8 million in 1980 Unemployment decreased from 7.8% to 5.7% Average Annual Growth Rate 7.3% for 2nd plan period 8.6 for 3rd plan period 25
  26. 26. Mahathir as a Leader Constructive protection (Positive Discrimination) Peaceful coexistence Tolerance but not at the cost of principles Trust Social justice Desire to excel Visionary and committed Discourage hegemony Effective role in regional, Islamic and Int’l Politics 26
  27. 27. Lessons We Can Learn From His Leadership Willing to learn Dare to take the challenge Communication skills Passion for belief Make a correct decision & work it out to achieve the goals Understand the requirements of the market place Sensitive to the fast changing world Professionally handle the Diversity at work place Confident, responsible & visionary 27
  28. 28. Achievements 1989 Communist Party of Malaysia signed peace accord to abandon its armed struggle 1990 Sarawak Communist insurgent signed a peace accord with the government Vision 2020 through NDP 1993 4 Constitutional amendments to avoid delaying legislation 1998 Kuala Lumpur become the first Asian city to host the Common Wealth Games 28
  29. 29. Achievements 1999 Mahathir expelled Anwar his Deputy Prime Minister from the party, United Malays National Organization (UMNO), found guilty and sentenced to nine years in prison 2001 Government decided to proceed with construction of the huge Bakun hydroelectric power project in Sarawak 2002 Aug new laws against illegal immigrants came into effect Modernization and rapid infrastructure development 29
  30. 30. Mr. Khalid Shah 30
  31. 31. Malaysia After Mahathir’s Reign 31
  32. 32. Current Malaysia Datuk Seri Najib Tun Prime Minister of Malaysia 32
  33. 33. Current Malaysia Floating Mosque of Malaysia 33
  34. 34. Current Malaysia Official Languages Bahasa Melayu Other Languages Chinese , English, Tamil, indigenous Work force (10.89 million, 2007) Services: 57% Industry: 28% (manufacturing-19%, mining and construction-9%) Agriculture-15% 34
  35. 35. Current Malaysia Area: 329,847 sq. km Capital: Kuala Lumpur Population 29,179,952 (July 2011 est.) Annual population growth rate 1.542% (2011 est.) 2.0%, (2010) Ethnic groups: (2012) Malay and Indigenous 61.4%, Chinese 23.7%, Indian 7.1%, others 7.8% Religions: (2012) Islam 60.4%, Buddhist 19.2%, Christian 9.1%, Hindu 6.3%, Other 5% 35
  36. 36. ECONOMY 36
  37. 37. ECONOMY Nominal GDP: $247.6 billion (2011 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $9204 Natural resources Agricultural products Industry 37
  38. 38. ECONOMY Trade Marchandise Exports: $212.7 billion (2011 est.), $197billion(2010) Electronic products, machinery, liquid natural gas, petroleum and petroleum products, telecom equipment. Major markets 38 China , Singapore, Japan, U.S. , Thailand
  39. 39. Import and Export Exports: $212.7 billion (2011 est.), Imports: $168 billion (2011 est.), Electronic Equipment Petroleum and Liquefied Natural gas Wood and its Products Palm Oil Rubber Textile Electronics Machinery Petroleum Products Plastics Vehicles Iron and Steel Products 39
  40. 40. Education Education expenditures: 4.1% of GDP (2008) Budget: RM30 billion (USD10 billion) Literacy (2000 census) Total Population: 88.7% Male: 92% Female: 85.4% (2000 census) Literacy (2009 census) Total Population: 95% 40
  41. 41. Ms. Sadia Niazi 41
  42. 42. Government 42
  43. 43. GOVERNMENT Federal parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch Constitution: 1957 Subdivisions: 13 states and three federal territories (Kuala Lumpur, Labuan Island, Putrajaya federal administrative territory). Each state has an assembly and government headed by a chief minister 43
  44. 44. Branches of Government Executive Legislative Judicial 44
  45. 45. Malaysian Military Strength LAND ARMY (2011) Total Land Weapons: 2,465 Tanks: 74 Towed Artillery: 54 Mortars: 200 AT Weapons: 1,124 AA Weapons: 733 Logistical Vehicles: 3,200 45
  46. 46. Malaysian Military Strength NAVAL POWER (2011) Total Navy Ships: 65 Merchant Marine Strength: 321 Major Ports & Terminals: 5 Submarines: 2 Frigates: 4 Patrol Craft: 37 Mine Warfare Craft: 4 46 Amphibious Assault Craft: 1
  47. 47. Malaysian Military Strength AIR POWER (2011) Total Aircraft: 258 Helicopters: 103 Serviceable Airports: 118 47
  48. 48. Transport of Malaysia One of the world’s best transport system is in Malaysia 48
  49. 49. Some quotes by Mahathir Mohammad 49
  50. 50. “I'm a fundamentalist in the true sense. That is to say, I follow the fundamentals of religion... But for over 1,400 years people have been interpreting and re-interpreting the religion to suit their own purpose! ... These [extremist and terrorist acts] are not Islamic fundamentals any more than the Christians who burned people at the stake are fundamentalist. They are actually deviating from the teachings of the religion!” 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. “The financial turmoil has underscored the many challenges inherent in globalization, ... Even as we embrace it, we must be wary of the dangers which accompany it.” 52
  53. 53. “If that is everybody's desire we will have to consider it” “I have promised not to interfere in politics and I have not said anything about many things which were done wrong” 53
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. Conclusion 55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. 57
  58. 58. 58