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THE STATUS OF AS-SUNNAH       WITHIN THE LAWS OF ISLĀM                               INTRODUCTION      All praise is for A...
CONTENTSPREFACE                                               6CHAPTER 1   TAQDĪM                                    10   ...
A.   As Sunnah and its past opponents              53                 As Sunnah according to:                       54    ...
Statements from scholars concerning theissue of ḥadīth aḥād                      98Khātimah – Summary                     ...
PREFACE                     !           ...
              ...
O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allāh and fear Him, and      speak (always) the truth.      He will direct you to do...
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CHAPTER 1                                  TAQDĪM      The status of As Sunnah within the establishment of the laws of Isl...
The struggles of the enemies of Islām has continued unabated since theearliest times of the companions  until now. They e...
…                                                  ...
According to language, the word As Sunnah means a way or pursuit,whether commendable or appalling, in accordance with the ...
When it is called the Sunnatullāh, this means the laws of Allāh, Hiscommands and prohibitions explained to ‘mankind’.     ...
According to linguistic terminology it is: Everything that originates fromthe Prophet  by means of what he said, what he ...
b). Ḥadīth: ‫( ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬Fiʿlī – As Sunnah in the form of actions) is all the        actions of the Prophet  narrated by his c...
Afterwards he  said to the companion who had not repeated his           ṣalāt, ‘You have fulfilled the sunnah’, and to th...
them (in) the Book (the Qurʾān) and Al-Ḥikmah [the wisdom and        the Sunnah of the Prophet (i.e. his legal ways, state...
He it is who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger           (Muḥammad ) from among themselves, reciting to them His...
The Salafus Ṣāliḥ expound the meaning of As Sunnah to be the Dīn andSharīʿat brought by the Messenger  implicitly in issu...
Bidʿah according to linguistics is all issues newly established. Imām AshShāṭibiyyah said: “The expression of bidʿah has a...
‫ﻋﻦ ام اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ أم ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ ﻋـﺎﺋـﺸﺔ رﺿﻲ اﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ، ﻗﺎﻟﺖ : ﻗﺎل رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬           ‫ﺻﻠﻲ اﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ )ﻣﻦ أﺣﺪث ﻓﻲ أﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻫ...
understanding used within the principal propositions of proof, its status withinthe development of law, and the acts of Is...
Then, ever since that time, the scholars examine every chain of narration(sanad) that reaches them. When the conditions fo...
Aḥād aḥādīth are aḥādīth whose ranking is not up to the ranking ofmutawātir aḥādīth. Aḥād aḥādīth are divided into three k...
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CHAPTER 2       THE STATUS OF AS-SUNNAH WITHIN THE               SHARĪʿAT OF ISLĀM      The Islāmic community is agreed th...
                       ...
                           ...
                                              ...
                                           ...
                                       ...
between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey.” And such        are the prosperous ones (who will live forever in P...
                                                                              ...
1). From Abī Hurairah  - Indeed the messenger of Allāh  said:           “All of my community will enter paradise except ...
whoever disobeys Muḥammad, disobeys Allāh. Muḥammad           separated the people (i.e., through his message, the good is...
and says: We do not know. What we found in Allāh’s Book we have           followed.”49                                    ...
and the two will not be separated until they come to me at the lake           (in Paradise).51            ‫ ﻗﺎل: ﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎ ...
The proofs from Al Qurʾān ul Karīm and the aḥādīth of the Prophet above, provide crucial guidance for us, universal in ma...
phrase ‘…wa ʾaṭiyʿū-r Rasūla…’ (…and obey the Messenger…) as anotification that obedience towards the Messenger  is by la...
called upon to arbitrate with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh , theyimmediately fulfill the call by saying, “…samiʿn...
D. Dalāʾil of the Ijmāʿ commanding us to follow the Prophet   Muḥammad        The Islāmic community are unanimous concern...
Allāh  say: ‘Indeed when Allāh gives food to a Prophet, then he dies, and thenhe becomes a legacy for the people after hi...
manifests to us by means of him , and because of that it is obligatory for us tofollow in his footsteps”. 607). A woman c...
In actual fact there are still many more examples of the manner in whichthe companions and their followers held to the sun...
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The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam
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The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam

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Translation of the Indonesian book, 'Kedudukan As-Sunnah Dalam Syariat Islam' by Yazid Abdul Qadir Jawas - translator khalidroc

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The status of sunnah within the shari'at of islam

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. THE STATUS OF AS-SUNNAH WITHIN THE LAWS OF ISLĀM INTRODUCTION All praise is for Allāh. Peace and prayers be upon our respected ProphetMuḥammad  as well as upon his companions  and those people after themwho followed the guidance. Of late, it has become evident that there are groups and ideological trendsthat are in the process of endeavoring to ‘corner’ (to predicate and jam) AsSunnah (ḥadīth) by the establishment of criticism and condemnation without thesupport or endorsement of qualifying knowledge. When this is considered morethoroughly, these ‘emasculators of As Sunnah’ consist of three groups. Firstly,those who are critical of As Sunnah because some of the laws established by AsSunnah are in contradiction with their logic and desires and are deemed by themto be irrelevant, unscientific fables. Secondly, those who criticize As Sunnahbecause they follow the opinions of famous orientalists such as, Schacht,Goldzieher (Goldzihur), and Wensinck. Thirdly, those who have been injectedwith the zeal of the Shīʿa creed. These three groups, shoulder to shoulder,undertake serious efforts to stunt the plans and the status of As Sunnah withinthe laws of Islām. And serving as the basis of this above anxiety we expressly present thisbook as a provision for the youth, the dawāʿin (callers to Islām), and theMuslim community (in Indonesia as well as throughout the world). It is hopedthat Allāh guides us all. 2
  3. 3. CONTENTSPREFACE 6CHAPTER 1 TAQDĪM 10 A. The meaning of As Sunnah 12 According to Etymology 12 According to Ash Shariʿat 14 According to the Aṣ Ṣaḥābat and As Salafuṣ Ṣāliḥ 17 B. As Sunnah and Bidʿa 20 C. Sanad and Matn 23 D. The division of As Sunnah as materialized for us 24CHAPTER 2 THE STATUS OF AS SUNNAH WITHIN THE SHARʿAT OF ISLĀM 27 A. Dalāʾil concerning the Ḥujjat of as Sunnah 27 B. Aḥādīth that command us to follow the Prophet Muḥammad  in all matters 34 C. Guidance that can be taken from Al Qurʾān and As Sunnah 38 D. Dalāʾil of the Ijmāʿ commanding us to follow the Prophet Muḥammad  42CHAPTER 3 THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AS SUNNAH AND AL QURʾĀN 47CHAPTER 4 AS SUNNAH AND ITS OPPONENTS BOTH BEFORE AND NOW 53 3
  4. 4. A. As Sunnah and its past opponents 53 As Sunnah according to: 54 1 The Khawārij 54 2 The Muʿtazilah 54 3 The Shīʿa 55 B. As Sunnah and its present opponents 58 C. Dalāʾil from the rejecters of As Sunnah 59CHAPTER 5 THE RESPONSE AND ANSWERS TO THE OPPONENTS OF AS SUNNAH 64 A. The response and answer to the first dalīl 64 B. The response and answer to the second dalīl 66 C. The response and answer to the third dalīl - The recording of As Sunnah 69 D. The response and answer to the fourth dalīl 79CHAPTER 6 DALĀʾIL PRESENTED BY THE OPPONENTS OF KHABAR AḤAD 84CHAPTER 7 THE RESPONSE AND ANSWER TO THE OPPONENTS OF KHABAR AḤAD 88 - The answer to the above narrations 89CHAPTER8 DALĀʾIL CONCERNING THE NECESSITY OF PROOF WITH ḤADĪTH AḤAD IN THE FIELD OF ʿĀQIDAH 93 A. The first dalīl 93 B. The second dalīl 94 C. The third dalīl 95 D. The fourth dalīl 95 4
  5. 5. Statements from scholars concerning theissue of ḥadīth aḥād 98Khātimah – Summary 101BIBLIOGRAPHY 105TRANSLITERATION TABLE 107 5
  6. 6. PREFACE !                                          6
  7. 7.                        All praise to Allāh, we seek His aid and His assistance, and ask Hisforgiveness and we seek refuge in Allāh from the evil of our soulsand from the evil of our actions. Whomever Allāh guides, none willbe able to able to mislead him. Whomever He leads astray, nobodycan guide him. I testify that there is no deity worthy of worshipexcept Allāh, alone without partner and that Muḥammad () is Hisslave and Messenger.O you who believe! Fear Allāh (by doing all that He has orderedand by abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should befeared. [Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Himalways], and die not except in a state of Islām (as Muslims) withcomplete submission to Allāh. 1 0FO mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, who created you from asingle person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife[Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men andwomen and fear Allāh through whom you demand your mutual(rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship).Surely, Allāh is ever an All-Watcher over you.2 1F1 Sūrah Āl ʿImrān (3) , ayah 102.2 Sūrah An Nisāʾ (4), ayah 1. 7
  8. 8. O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allāh and fear Him, and speak (always) the truth. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allāh and His Messenger () he has indeed achieved a great achievement (i.e. he will be saved from the Hell-fire and made to enter Paradise).3 Ammā baʿdu: Indeed the best speech is the speech of Allāh, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muḥammad (). And the worst of matters are those innovated by the people, and every innovated matter is a bidʿah and every bidʿah is astray, and every going astray is in the fire. The phenomenon that is disbelief has become increasinglyrampant. These Duʿāt ʿalā ʾAbwāb Jahannam (‫ - ﺩﻋﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ‬Callers tothe Doors of Hellfire) generate tashkik (instill within the community doubts)concerning the truth of Al Qurʾān and As Sunnah. They endeavor to returnIslām to the sources of the Jews, the Christians, and the teachings of ancestorsas well as other endeavors. In being confronted by these challenges, there is no other way but theobligation to return to Al Qurʾān and As Sunnah with the understanding upheldby As Salafuṣ Ṣāliḥ (‫ – ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ ﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺃﺟﻤﻌﻴﻦ‬May Allāh bless them all), andwe must practice and call to them both in the same manner as practiced andcalled to by them. It is the driven intention that the author will truly discourse the status ofAs Sunnah within the Shariʿat of Islām, rebuttals against those who oppose it,and also what is the legal position for those who contest and oppose As Sunnah. Salatiga, 26 Jumādīl Ākhir 1412 H 1st January 1992 (Yazid Jawas) 3 Sūrah Al Aḥzāb (33), āyāt 70-71. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. CHAPTER 1 TAQDĪM The status of As Sunnah within the establishment of the laws of Islām,and their influence within the lives of the Muslims, starting from the ProphetMuḥammad , his companions , the Tābiʿūn and the Tābiʿ al-Tābiʿīn, untilnow and until the Day of Judgement, constitute an indubitable axiom. Whoeverhas studied Al Qurʾān and As Sunnah will surely have discovered thecontribution of As Sunnah within the establishment of the Shariʿat of Islām andthe grandeur as well as the permanence that cannot be denied by the expertswho understand this issue. The establishment of these noble laws are acknowledged by experts invarious fields of knowledge from amongst all earthly experts. Theirastonishment continues further when they have judiciously studied As Sunnahby means of its classification, known as sānad (to corroborate its credibility), ascarried out by ḥadīth experts, that is, by looking at the chain of sānad through tothe Prophet , from the ḥadīth experts who have already carefully examinedand assayed as well as having created books on Al Jarḥ wa’l taʿdīl ( ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺡ ﻭ‬‫ - ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬challenging the validity, and settlement, or amendment) about thenarrators of ḥadīth (pl. aḥādīth), so that by these means one is able todifferentiate which aḥādīth are ṣaḥīḥ (sound), ḍaʿīf (weak) and mauḍūʿ(questionable – spurious or fabricated). However, besides there being scholars who have struggled to protect andnurture As Sunnah, there are also people who undermine anything concerningIslām, that is, by rejecting As Sunnah, casting doubt upon the evidence of AsSunnah, as well as also casting doubt upon the aḥādīth collections and theconveyance of the narrators from amongst the companions, the Tābiʿūn and theTābiʿ al-Tābiʿīn, as well as those after them. Within such deviated opinions asthese, there exists a compatibility between the opponents of Islām from amongstthe realms of the disbelieving, heretic Persians and the Orientalists. 10
  11. 11. The struggles of the enemies of Islām has continued unabated since theearliest times of the companions  until now. They endeavor to extinguish thelight of Islām and crush all that is related to Al Qurʿān and as Sunnah. This alsomeans (that they desire) to destroy the dissemination of the standards of Islāmand pervert the true facts of Islām’s history. It is ironic that in the midst of these opponents of Islām are found eminentscholars and intellectuals who are influenced and manipulated by these enemiesof Islām from amongst the Jews, Christians, and Orientalists. Now, the causes for the Muslims becoming ensnared by the Orientalists,Jews, and Christians who are against Islām are: a) They have no control over the essence of Islām which has been ‘bequeathed’ and has not been analyzed as being from the original sources. b) Deceived by an apparent scientific system with the result that it invites them to conflict. c) The desire to be well-known as a philosopher, or so that it is stated that ‘one’ is a prominent figure and an intellectual. d) They themselves are dominated by their desires to the point where their manner of thinking is deviated and incapable of being active except only to imitate the Orientalists. There is no further doubt that consequences occur as a result ofopposition within the Islāmic community. Besides that, the opponents of Islāmuninterruptedly carried out their mission, prior to their evil intent being exposedand defeated. This opposition is taking place between what is ‘right’ and thedesires, between knowledge and ignorance, between the patient and burningvengeance, between light and darkness. According to the Sunnatullāh, Al Ḥaqq (the ‘Right’), ʿIlmu (knowledge),patience, and light will assuredly win. In the manner decreed by Allāh in Hisdecree: 11
  12. 12. …             Nay, We fling (send down) the Truth (this Qurʾān) against the falsehood (disbelief), so it destroys it, and behold, it (falsehood) is vanished… 4 3F Amongst those prominent figures who oppose As Sunnah are: MaḥmūdAbū Rayyah in his book, ʾAḍwāʾu ʿalas Sunnah al Muḥammadiyah ( ‫ﺃﺿـﻮﺍء ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫‘ – )ﻟـﺴـﻨـﺔ ﺍﻟـﻤـﺤـﻤـﺪﻳـﺔ‬Spotlight on the Sunnah of Muḥammad’; Dr. ṬaḥaHussein; Aḥmad Ibrāhīm; Dr. ʿAli Ḥassan Abdul Qadir; Anderson; Goldzieher;Schacht; H.A.R. Gibb; Philip Khuri Hitti; Dr. Taufiq Sidqy, etc.A The Meaning of As Sunnah1. According to Etymology According to etymology of language, as Sunnah is taken from the words: ‫ﺳﻦ – ﻳَﺴﻦ – ﻭﻳَﺴُﻦ – ﺳﻨﱠﺎ ﻓَﻬُﻮ ﻣﺴﻨُﻮﻥ ﻭﺟﻤﻌﻪُ ـ‬ ُ ْ َ ٌ ْ َ َ َ ‫ِ ﱡ َ ﱡ‬ ‫َ ﱠ‬ ُ‫ﺳﻨَﻦ ﻭﺳﻦ ﺍﻷَﻣﺮ : ﺃﻯ ﺑَﻴﱠﻨَﻪ‬ ُ ْ ‫ُ َ َ َ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﱠﺔُ : ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺮﺓُ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱠﺒِﻴﻌﺔُ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﱠﺮﻳﻘَﺔُ ـ‬ ِْ َ َْ َ َ ْ‫ﱠ‬ ‫َ ﱡ‬ ُ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨَﺔُ ﻣﻦ ﷲِ : ﺣﻜﻤﻪُ ﻭﺍَﻣﺮﻩُ ﻭﻧَﻬﻴُﻪ‬ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ُُ ُ َ ِ ‫َ ﱡ‬ Age – and so it is prescribed and collected. Present evidence and the Sunnah: Ways of enactment: The Sīrah, character, and method. And the Sunnah from Allāh: Laws, and commands, and prohibitions 4 Sūrah Al ʾAnbiyāʾ (21)¸ayāh 18. 12
  13. 13. According to language, the word As Sunnah means a way or pursuit,whether commendable or appalling, in accordance with the sayings of theProphet Muḥammad . ‫ﻋﻦ ﺟﺮﻳﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪاﷲ ﻗﺎل : ﻗﺎل رﺳﻮل اﷲ: ﻣﻦ ﺳـﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻹﺳـﻼم ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﻨﺔ ﻓﻠﻪ أﺟﺮﻫﺎ وأﺟﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ أن ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ أﺟﻮرﻫـﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﻲء ، وﻣﻦ ﺳﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻹﺳـﻼم ﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺌـﺔ ﻛﺎن ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وزرﻫـﺎ ووزر ﻣﻦ ﻋـﻤﻞ‬ .‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ أن ﻳﻨﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ أوزارﻫـﻢ ﺷﻲء‬ From Jabīr bin ʿAbdillāh who said: “The Messenger of Allāh  once said: ‘Whoever gives an example of a good act, ‘he’ will receive blessings for that act as well as the blessings of a person who follows ‘him’ (until the Day of Judgement), without any reduction in their acts whatsoever. And whoever gives an example of a bad act, then ‘he’ will receive the sin for that act and the sins of the people who follow ‘him’ (until the Day of Judgement), without any reduction in their sins whatsoever”.5 4F Furthermore, in another ḥadīth he  also said: ‫ﻋﻦ أﺑﻲ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ اﻟﺨﺪري ﻗﺎل ﻗﺎل رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﺒﻌﻦ ﺳﻨﻦ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻜﻢ ﺷﺒﺮا ﺑﺸﺒﺮ وذراﻋﺎ ﺑﺬراع ﺣﺘﻰ ﻟﻮ دﺧﻠﻮا‬ … ‫ﻓﻲ ﺟﺤﺮ ﺿﺐ ﻻﺗﺒﻌﺘﻤﻮﻫﻢ‬ Abu Said Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, reported: Allahs Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: You would tread the same path that was trodden by those before you span by span and cubit by cubit (inch by inch and step by step) so much so that if they had entered into the hole of the lizard, you would follow them in this also…6 5F5 Ḥadīth narrated by Tirmidhiy, Aḥmad 4: 357-359, Muslim 3: 88-89; 8: 61-62, Nasāʾī, Dārimiy, Ibnu Mājah,Ṭaḥāwiy, Ṭayālisī and Baihaqiy.6 Ḥadīth narrated by Aḥmad, Bukhārī, Muslim, and Ibnu Mājah. 13
  14. 14. When it is called the Sunnatullāh, this means the laws of Allāh, Hiscommands and prohibitions explained to ‘mankind’. Allāh decrees:               That was the Way of Allāh in the case of those who passed away of old, and you will not find any change in the Way of Allāh. 7 6F Amongst the expressions of Sunnah within Al Qurʾān that mean a waythat is good or bad:  …          Allāh wishes to make clear (what is lawful and what is unlawful) to you, and to show you the ways of those before you,.. 8 7F That is to say, Allāh will advise all of you the ways of the people beforeyou, namely the ways of worship in their lives. Sometimes also, sunnah means in response to moral turpitude, that is, Hissunnah regarding the destruction of communities rebellious towards HisMessengers. Amongst which is:          They would not believe in it (the Qurʾān), and already the example of (Allāh’s punishment of) the ancients (who disbelieved) has gone forth.9 8F2. According to Sharīʿat7 Sūrah Al Aḥzāb (33), ayāh 62.8 Sūrah An Nisāʾ (4), ayāh 26.9 Sūrah Al Ḥijr (15), ayah 13. 14
  15. 15. According to linguistic terminology it is: Everything that originates fromthe Prophet  by means of what he said, what he performed, what he decided,and the characteristics of his body as well as behavior, which is meant by himas legislation for the Islāmic community. As for aḥādīth according to its etymology it means something new.Whereas linguistically it is the same as As-Sunnah according to the majority ofthe scholars. There are scholars who state that etymologically, sunnah is for what isperformed and what is decided, whereas aḥādīth is for what is said. However,there are many scholars who have forgotten the linguistic meaning and use thecommonly used term. That is, As-Sunnah is synonymous with aḥādīth. According to the definition of the scholars of Islāmic jurisprudence (Uṣūlal-fiqh - ‫ ,)ﺃﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‬As-Sunnah is: Everything that has as its source the Prophet, except Al Qurʾān, whether it be deeds, speech, and decisions, which aresufficient to be proofs for the laws of legislation. Regarding this matter, thescholars of Islāmic jurisprudence have discussed it from all the facets that areprescribed for ‘mankind’ such as laws for life, and have laid down theirprinciples as legislation. As Sunnah according to the definition of the experts in jurisprudence(Ahl al-fiqh - ‫ )ﺍﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‬is: Everything that has been settled by the Prophet  andis by law not obligatory or sunnah. 10 9F Examples of the definition of As Sunnah contained within aḥādīth are: a). Ḥadīth: ‫( ﻗﻮﻟﻰ‬Qauli - As Sunnah in the form of speech) is all statements of the Prophet  that have a connection with legislation. For example: ‫ﻗﺎل رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ و ﺳﻠﻢ : ﻣﻦ ﺣﺴﻦ اﺳﻼم اﻟﻤﺮء ﻛﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻌﻨﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ The Messenger of Allāh  said: ‘Part of someones being a good Muslim is his leaving alone that which does not concern him’.11 10F10 Irshād ul Fuḥūl p. 31, Imām Shawkānī; Fatḥ ul Bārī 13/245; Mafhūm Ahlis-Sunnah, pp. 37, 39. 15
  16. 16. b). Ḥadīth: ‫( ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬Fiʿlī – As Sunnah in the form of actions) is all the actions of the Prophet  narrated by his companions . They concerned Wuḍūʾ, Ṣalāt, Ḥajj, etc. For example: ‫ﻋﻦ ﻋﺜﻤﺎن ﺑﻦ ﻋﻔﺎن ان اﻟﻨﺒﻰ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ و ﺳﻠﻢ ﻛﺎن ﻳﺨﻠﻞ ﻟﺤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‘From ʿUthmān bin ʿAffān that the Prophet  (when he performed Wuḍūʾ) he used to permeate his beard (with water)’.12 1F c). Ḥadīth: ‫( ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺮ‬Taqrīr – As Sunnah in the form of that which is established) is all the actions of the companions  known from the Prophet , and he allowed them (as a sign of agreement) they were not denied. For example: ‫وﻟﻤﺎ روى أﺑﻮ ﻫﺮﻳﺮة رﺿﻲ اﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ أن اﻟﻨﺒﻲ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎل ﻟﺒﻼل ﻋﻨﺪ ﺻﻼة‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺠﺮ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻼل ﺣﺪﺛﻨﻲ ﺑﺄرﺟﻰ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ اﻹﺳﻼم ﻓﺈﻧﻲ ﺳﻤﻌﺖ دف ﻧﻌﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺪي‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻗﺎل ﻣﺎ ﻋﻤﻠﺖ ﻋﻤﻼ أرﺟﻰ ﻋﻨﺪي أﻧﻲ ﻟﻢ أﺗﻄﻬﺮ ﻃﻬﻮرا ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻟﻴﻞ أو ﻧﻬﺎر إﻻ‬ . ‫ﺻﻠﻴﺖ ﺑﺬﻟﻚ اﻟﻄﻬﻮر ﻣﺎ ﻛﺘﺐ ﻟﻲ أن أﺻﻠﻲ‬ As narrated by Abū Hurairah  that the Prophet  said to Bilāl at the dawn prayer: ‘O Bilāl. Inform me of the sweetest deed you have done in Islām because I have heard the sound of your sandals close to me in paradise?’ He answered: ‘The sweetest deed I performed was that everytime I made wuḍūʾ day or night, then I performed ṣalāt (sunnah) with as many rakaʿāt as I could’. 13 12F Or, the narrative of two companions who were travelling and neither of them found any water (for wuḍūʾ), whereas the time for ṣalāt was upon them. So, both of them performed tayammum and ṣalāt. Afterwards, after ṣalāt they found some water and it was there was still time for that ṣalāt. One of the two companions repeated his ṣalāt after performing wuḍūʾ (with the water) and the other companion did not repeat his ṣalāt. Later on, the two of them met the Messenger of Allāh  and told him of that event.11 Narrated by Tirmidhī.12 Narrated by Tirmidhī, Ibnu Majāh, Ibnul Jārūd, Ḥākim and Ḥākim said: Its sanad is ṣaḥīḥ; Tirmidhī states:ḥasan ṣaḥīḥ.13 Narrated by Bukhārī and Muslim. 16
  17. 17. Afterwards he  said to the companion who had not repeated his ṣalāt, ‘You have fulfilled the sunnah’, and to the second companion who had repeated his ṣalāt he said, ‘You have received two rewards’. 143. According to the Companions and the Salafus Ṣāliḥ Often we refer to the Book of Allāh, Al Qurʾān, and the sunnah of theMessenger of Allāh , meaning that the sunnah is a valued source oflegislation. Al Qurʾān attributes as Sunnah with the meaning of Ḥikmah -wisdom.                   “Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allāh answered their invocation by sending Muḥammad ), who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qurʾān) and Al-Ḥikmah (full knowledge of the Islāmic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom or Prophethood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.”15 14F                           Indeed Allāh conferred a great favour on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger (Muḥammad ) from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Qurʾān), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and instructing14 Narrated by Abū Dāwūd: 338-339; An-Nasāʾī: 1.213 from Abū Saʿīd Al Khudrī.15 Sūrah Al Baqarah (2), ayāh 129. 17
  18. 18. them (in) the Book (the Qurʾān) and Al-Ḥikmah [the wisdom and the Sunnah of the Prophet (i.e. his legal ways, statements, acts of worship, etc.)], while before that they had been in manifest error. 16         …         Allāh has sent down to you the Book (the Qurʾān), and Al-Ḥikmah (Islāmic laws, knowledge of legal and illegal things i.e. the Prophet’s Sunnah - legal ways), and taught you that which you knew not. And ever great is the Grace of Allāh unto you (O Muḥammad ).17 16F                 And remember (O you the members of the Prophet’s family, the graces of your Lord), that which is recited in your houses of the Verses of Allāh and Al-Ḥikmah (i.e. Prophet’s Sunnah legal ways, etc. so give your thanks to Allāh and glorify His praises for this Qurʾān and the Sunnah). Verily, Allāh is ever Most Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things.18 17F                      16 Sūrah Āl ʿImrān (3), ayah 164.17 Sūrah An Nisāʾ (4), ayah 113.18 Sūrah Al Aḥzāb (33), ayah 34. 18
  19. 19. He it is who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muḥammad ) from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Qurʾān, Islāmic laws and Islāmic jurisprudence) and Al-Ḥikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship, etc. of Prophet Muḥammad ). And verily, they had been before in manifest error; 19 The mentioning of the Book in the above āyāt means (refers to) AlQurʾān and what is meant by ḥikmah is As Sunnah. Imām Shāfʿī said: “Allāh mentions Al Kitāb which means Al Qurʾān, andmentions Al Ḥikmah; I heard in my country from the knowledgeable expertswho understand Al Qurʾān that Al Ḥikmah is As Sunnah”. Qatadah said: “What is meant by Al Ḥikmah is As Sunnah”. ʿAṭaʾ binYasār said: “Obedience towards the Messenger  is to follow the Book and theSunnah”. Shaikhul Islām Ibnu Taimiyyah said: “many of the Salafus Ṣāliḥ say,‘That Al Ḥikmah is As Sunnah, because in truth what is read in the houses ofthe wives of the Prophet  (may Allāh reward them) is the Sunnah of theProphet . He  said: ِ ِ ِ ‫ﱢ‬ ُ‫أَﻻ إِﱐ أُوﺗﻴﺖ اﻟْﻜﺘَﺎب وﻣﺜْـﻠَﻪُ ﻣﻌﻪ‬ ََ َ َ ُ [Know that] indeed, I have been given the Book and, with it, that which is similar to it (the Sunnah). 20 19F Ḥasan bin ʿAtiyyah said: “Jibrīl  descended to the Prophet  bearingAs Sunnah in the same manner as he bore Al Qurʾān, and also taught AsSunnah in the same manner as he taught Al Qurʾān”. Refer also to books of tafsīr that explain this ayāh (Al Aḥzāb (33), ayah34).19 Sūrah Al Jumuʿah (62), ayāh 2.20 Narrated by Aḥmad, Abū Dāwūd Vol. IV, p. 200, Ṣaḥīḥ ul-Jāmi, Ibn Hajar, al-Isaba, Vol. I, p. 488. 19
  20. 20. The Salafus Ṣāliḥ expound the meaning of As Sunnah to be the Dīn andSharīʿat brought by the Messenger  implicitly in issues of knowledge, deeds,and whatever was received by the Ṣaḥābat (companions), the Tābiʿūn (thefollowers of the companions), the Tābiʿ at-Tābiʿīn (the followers of thefollowers of the companions), and the Salafus Ṣāliḥ (pious predecessors)themselves within the branch of ʿAqīdah (creed) and Furūʿ (appliedjurisprudence). Abū Bakr  said: “Sunnah is the strong rope of Allāh”. ʿAbdullāh bin AdDailamī (from the Tābiʿūn) said: “The first thing to be abandoned in thereligion is the Sunnah”. Ḥasan al Baṣrī and Sufyān ath Thaurī at the time they explained the ayāh:               “Then We have put you on a plain Way of (Our) Commandment. Sofollow you that, and follow not the desires of those who know not.” 21 20FBoth of them said: “Namely, you are on the Sunnah”. Shaikhul Islām Ibnu Taymiyyah said: “Indeed as Sunnah is Sharīʿat, thatis, whatever has been legislated by Allāh and His Messenger  in this Dīn”. AsSunnah is what is intended within the sound aḥādīth.B. As Sunnah and Bidʿah Sunnah with the meaning of whatever has been legislated by HisMessenger  is the opposite of bidʿah, that is, whatever is new and which wasnever typified by the Messenger of Allāh . 22 21F21 Sūrah Al Jāthiyah (45), ayah 18.22 Mafhūm Ahlus Sunnah, Dr. Nāṣir bin ʿAbdul-Karīm al ʿAql, pp. 32, 35. 20
  21. 21. Bidʿah according to linguistics is all issues newly established. Imām AshShāṭibiyyah said: “The expression of bidʿah has as its source whatever has notyet been exemplified”. Amongst the known uses of the word bidʿah, is the word bidʿah found inthe following decree of Allāh:  …                 The Originator of the heavens and the earth… 23 2F The meaning of  - badīʿu – here is that it is Allāh who made orcreated the ‘…heavens and the earth…’ in a fashion for which there had notbeen an example of beforehand. Also within His decrees is:                …       Say (O Muḥammad ): “I am not a new thing among the Messengers (of Allāh)…” 24 23F What is meant by bidʿah here is that the Prophet  is not the firstMessenger to bring a message from Allāh to His servants, and in fact, therehave already been Messengers before him . When it is said that ‘so-and-so’has made a bidʿah, then it means that ‘so-and-so’ has brought about a way thatno person has carried out before except ‘him’. Bidʿah according to Ash Sharīʿat is something which is held to by‘mankind’, both in words and deeds within religion, and for which there is noexplanation for (or as to) its legitimacy from the Messenger of Allāh  and hiscompanions , which means to carry it out as worship.23 Sūrah Al Baqarah (2), ayah 117.24 Sūrah Al Aḥqāf (46), ayah 9. 21
  22. 22. ‫ﻋﻦ ام اﻟﻤﺆﻣﻨﻴﻦ أم ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ ﻋـﺎﺋـﺸﺔ رﺿﻲ اﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ، ﻗﺎﻟﺖ : ﻗﺎل رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻲ اﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ )ﻣﻦ أﺣﺪث ﻓﻲ أﻣﺮﻧﺎ ﻫـﺬا ﻣـﺎ ﻟـﻴـﺲ ﻣـﻨﻪ ﻓﻬـﻮ رد‬ ( On the authority of the Mother of the Faithful, ʾUmm ʿAbdillāh g ʿĀʾishah , who said: The Messenger of Allāh  said: “He who innovates something in this matter of ours [i.e. Islām] that is not of it will have it rejected [by Allāh]”.25 24F And he  further said: g ‫ ) ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻋﻤﻼً ﻟﻴﺲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ اﻣﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺖ : ﻗﺎل رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ ﻋـﺎﺋـﺸﺔ‬ ( ‫ﻓﻬﻮرد‬ g From ʿĀʾishah who said: The Messenger of Allāh  said: “He who does an act which we have not commanded, will have it rejected [by Allāh]”.26 25F Ibnu Taymiyyah, when defining bidʿah said: “Bidʿah is everything thatviolates the Book of Allāh, As Sunnah, and the unanimity or concensus (‫- ﺍﺟﻤﺎﻉ‬ijmāʿ) of the Salafus Ṣāliḥ both in matters of ʿaqīdah and in matters of ʿibādah,such as the statements of the Khawārij, the Rāfiḍah, the Qadarīyah, theJahmiyyah, and also those people who worship as well as dance and sing in themosques”. Thus, oftentimes As Sunnah means that which opposes bidʿah. Forinstance, when it is said that ‘so-and-so’ follows the sunnah, it means that ‘so-and-so’ practices according to whatever came from the Messenger of Allāh and his companions . However, when it is said that ‘so-and-so’ performsbidʿah, it means that ‘so-and-so’ practices that which violates whatever waspracticed by the Messenger of Allāh  and his companions . As Sunnah mentioned in this discussion, means the sunnah according tothe scholars of the elemental principles of jurisprudence, because this is the25 Narrated by Bukhārī and Muslim.26 Narrated by Muslim. 22
  23. 23. understanding used within the principal propositions of proof, its status withinthe development of law, and the acts of Islāmic law. Nevertheless, within anhistorical analysis it will also be set forth in general as that which is used by theexperts in aḥādīth.C. Sanad and Matn 27 Sanad or Isnād (‫ )ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ - ﺳﻨﺪ‬linguistically mean support,28 meaning that 27Fit is a way that is connected with its matn, its narrators who have narrated thematn of the ḥadīth and conveyed it. Sanad started from the first narrator (beforejotting down the ḥadīth) and ended with the person who was formerly acompanion of the Messenger of Allāh . For instance, Bukhārī has narrated aḥadīth, and so Bukhārī is said to be the mukhārrij (‫ – ﻣﺨﺎﺭﺝ‬the one whopronounces the ḥadīth) or mudawwin (‫ – ﻣﺪﻭﻥ‬the one who writes the ḥadīthdown), and the narrator before Bukhārī is said to be the beginner of the sanad,whereas the companion who narrated that ḥadīth is said to be the end of thesanad. Matn linguistically means: firm, strong, solid; meaning that it is thecontent, speech, or enunciation of the ḥadīth found after the narrator from theend of the sanad. The experts of aḥādīth do not want to accept aḥādīth that come to them,except when they have sanad, and they have carried this out since the spread offalsehood in the name of the Prophet , which was pioneered by the people ofthe Shīʿah. A tābiʿūn by the name of Muḥammad bin Sīrīn (died 110 H) said:“They (that is the aḥādīth experts) previously did not ask about the chain ofnarrators, but when the fitnah (slanderous defamation) began, they said, ‘Tellus the names of your narrators, and when we have seen that they are amongstthose who conveyed the Sunnah we will accept their aḥādīth, but when they areamongst those who conveyed bidʿah we will reject their aḥādīth.27 ‘…Sanad (chains of the reporters)and Matn (text of Ḥadīth)…’, Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaib Hasan, Criticism of ndHadith among Muslims with reference to Sunan ibn Maja, p. 32, Ta Ha Publishers Ltd, London, 2 Edition,1986.28 ‘…Sanad literally means: On which something is dependable…’, ibid. 23
  24. 24. Then, ever since that time, the scholars examine every chain of narration(sanad) that reaches them. When the conditions for ḥadīth ṣaḥīḥ and ḥasan havebeen fulfilled, then they accept the particular ḥadīth as ḥujjah (valid orcompetent in authority, proof), and when it does not fulfill the conditions theyreject it. ʿAbdullāh bin Mubārak (died 181 H) said: “Sanad is from religion, andwhen it is the case that there is no chain of narration, then a person will saywhat he wants, at will”. 29 The scholars of aḥādīth have already determined the qaidah (theobjectives of) and principles deliberated within every sanad and matn in theacceptance of a ḥadīth. The knowledge which deals with this is the knowledgeof the Muṣṭalaḥ of aḥādīth (Classification of Hadith).D. The Division of As Sunnah in accordance with us The Sunnah that has arrived with us from the Messenger of Allāh  isseen, in terms of its arrival, as being divided into two, that is, Mutawātir andAḥād. A mutawātir ḥadīth is a report from the Messenger of Allāh  which hasbeen delivered simultaneously by trusted people in a manner that would beimpossible for them to agree to lie. Mutawātir aḥādīth possess four requirements:1). Trustworthy (‫ - ﺛﻘﺎﺕ‬thiqāt) narrators and understanding of what wasreported and with definite words.2). Dependency upon submission of something that is concrete, such as:witnessing or hearing directly. As an example:3). The number or amount of them, because of its being impossibleaccording to their custom, to lie, for instance.4). Their numbers remain are fixed, from the beginning of the sanad, frommidway to final sanad, with a minimal of ten narrators to report it.29 Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, Imām Nawawī 1/87. 24
  25. 25. Aḥād aḥādīth are aḥādīth whose ranking is not up to the ranking ofmutawātir aḥādīth. Aḥād aḥādīth are divided into three kinds:1). Aḥādīth Mashhūr, are aḥādīth that are narrated with three sanad.2). Aḥādīth ʿAzīz, are aḥādīth narrated with two sanad.3). Aḥādīth Gharīb, are aḥādīth narrated with one sanad. 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER 2 THE STATUS OF AS-SUNNAH WITHIN THE SHARĪʿAT OF ISLĀM The Islāmic community is agreed that whatever comes from theMessenger of Allāh , whether it be speech, deeds, or decisions that came to usby means of ṣaḥīḥ Mutawātir and Aḥād sanad, must obligatorily be accepted byus and practiced. The conferral of the terms Mutawātir and Aḥād are in order toindicate the value of their sanad, and not in order to permit us consideration ofthe acceptance or rejection of their proofs. As Sunnah that is qaṭʿī (‫ – ﻗﻄﻌﻰ‬definite, positive) and ẓannī (‫- ﻅﻨﻰ‬presumptive, supposed) is evidential proof when its sanad is ṣaḥīḥ, because AsSunnah is a source for the establishment of Islāmic laws by the scholars andMujtahidīn (‫ – ﻣﺠﺘﻬﺪﻳﻦ‬a legist formulating independent decisions in legal ortheological matters, based on the interpretation and application of the four uṣūl)which serves as references for ʾIstinbāṭ (‫ – ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ‬source, cause) and the laws ofAsh Sharīʿat. In other words, laws that are within As Sunnah constitute lawsthat are within Al Qurʾān, which function as laws and legislation that must beobeyed.A. Argumentation (Reasoning) concerning Proof of As Sunnah Al Qurʾān ul Karīm (The Noble Qurʾān) orders us to judge with theSunnah of the Messenger of Allāh . It is evident by how many āyāt of AlQurʾān there are which order us to obey the Messenger of Allāh  and arbitrateby means of him . 27
  28. 28.                            It is not for a believer, man or woman, when Allāh and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. And whoever disobeys Allāh and His Messenger, he has indeed strayed in a plain error.30 29F                     O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allāh and His Messenger (), and fear Allāh. Verily! Allāh is All- Hearing, All-Knowing. 31 30F              Say (O Muḥammad ): “Obey Allāh and the Messenger (Muḥammad ).” But if they turn away, then Allāh does not like the disbelievers. 32 31F30 Sūrah Al Aḥzāb (33), ayāh 36.31 Sūrah Al Ḥujurāt (49), ayāh 1.32 Sūrah Āl ʿImrān (3), ayāh 32. 28
  29. 29.                                      Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allāh, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself. And We have sent you (O Muḥammad ) as a Messenger to mankind, and Allāh is sufficient as a witness. He who obeys the Messenger (Muḥammad ), has indeed obeyed Allāh, but he who turns away, then We have not sent you (O Muḥammad ) as a watcher over them. 33 32F                                   O you who believe! Obey Allāh and obey the Messenger (Muḥammad ), and those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allāh and His Messenger (), if you believe in Allāh and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. 34 3F33 Sūrah An Nisāʾ (4), āyāt 79-80.34 Sūrah An Nisāʾ (4), ayāh 59. 29
  30. 30.                  And obey Allāh and His Messenger, and do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength depart, and be patient. Surely, Allāh is with those who are Aṣ-Ṣābirīn (the patient ones, etc.). 3534F                 And obey Allāh and the Messenger (Muḥammad), and beware (of even coming near to drinking or gambling or Al-Anṣāb, or Al-Azlām, etc.) and fear Allāh. Then if you turn away, you should know that it is Our Messenger’s duty to convey (the Message) in the clearest way. 36 35F                   They (hypocrites) are those of whom Allāh knows what is in their hearts; so turn aside from them (do not punish them) but admonish them, and speak to them an effective word (i.e. to believe in Allāh, worship Him, obey Him, and be afraid of Him) to reach their innerselves.37 36F35 Sūrah Al Anfāl (8), ayāh 46.36 Sūrah Al Māʾidah (5), ayāh 92.37 Sūrah An Nūr (24), ayāh 63. 30
  31. 31.                         O you who believe! Answer Allāh (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when He () calls you to that which will give you life, and know that Allāh comes in between a person and his heart (i.e. He prevents an evil person to decide anything). And verily to Him you shall (all) be gathered.38 37F                                         These are the limits (set by) Allāh (or ordainments as regards laws of inheritance), and whosoever obeys Allāh and His Messenger (Muḥammad ) will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and that will be the great success. And whosoever disobeys Allāh and His Messenger (Muḥammad ), and transgresses His limits He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment. 39 38F38 Sūrah Al Anfāl (8), ayāh 24.39 Sūrah An Nisāʾ (4), āyāt 13-14. 31
  32. 32.                                                   Have you seen those (hyprocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Ṭāghūt (false judges, etc.) while they have been ordered to reject them. But Shaiṭān (Satan) wishes to lead them far astray. And when it is said to them: “Come to what Allāh has sent down and to the Messenger (Muḥammad ),” you (Muḥammad ) see the hypocrites turn away from you (Muḥammad ) with aversion.40 39F                                The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allāh (His words, the Qurʾān) and His Messenger (), to judge40 Sūrah An Nisāʾ (4), āyāt 60-61. 32
  33. 33. between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey.” And such are the prosperous ones (who will live forever in Paradise). And whosoever obeys Allāh and His Messenger (), fears Allāh, and keeps his duty (to Him), such are the successful ones.41                                            What Allāh gave as booty (Fāʾi) to His Messenger (Muḥammad ) from the people of the townships, - it is for Allāh, His Messenger (Muḥammad ), the kindred (of Messenger Muḥammad ), the orphans, Al-Masākīn (the poor), and the wayfarer, in order that it may not become a fortune used by the rich among you. And whatsoever the Messenger (Muḥammad ) gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it), and fear Allāh. Verily, Allāh is severe in punishment.42 41F                      Indeed in the Messenger of Allāh (Muḥammad ) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allāh and the Last Day and remembers Allāh much. 43 42F41 Sūrah An Nūr (24), āyāt 51-52.42 Sūrah Al Ḥashr (59), ayāh 7.43 Sūrah Al Aḥzāb (33), ayāh 21. 33
  34. 34.                       By the star when it goes down, (or vanishes). Your companion (Muḥammad ) has neither gone astray nor has erred. Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is only an inspiration that is inspired.44 43F                 With clear signs and Books (We sent the Messengers). And We have also sent down unto you (O Muḥammad ) the Reminder and the advice (the Qurʾān), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought. 45 4FB. Aḥādīth that command us to follow the Prophet  in all matters Likewise also, this matter is encompassed within the aḥādīth of theProphet , wherein we encounter many commands that obligate us to follow theProphet  in all matters. Amongst them are: : ‫ﻋﻦ أﰊ ﻫﺮﻳﺮة - رﺿﻲ اﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ - أن رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎل‬ ‫" ﻛﻞ أﻣﱵ ﻳﺪﺧﻠﻮن اﳉﻨﺔ إﻻ ﻣﻦ أﰉ !! ﻗﺎﻟﻮا : وﻣﻦ ﻳﺄﰉ ﻳﺎ رﺳﻮل اﷲ ؟ ﻗﺎل‬ " ‫ﻣﻦ أﻃﺎﻋﲏ دﺧﻞ اﳉﻨﺔ وﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﺎﱐ ﻓﻘﺪ أﰉ‬44 Sūrah An Najm (53), āyāt 1-4.45 Sūrah An Naḥl (16), ayāh 44. 34
  35. 35. 1). From Abī Hurairah  - Indeed the messenger of Allāh  said: “All of my community will enter paradise except those who refuse!” They said: “And who will refuse O Messenger of Allāh ()?” “Whoever obeys me will enter Paradise and whoever disobeys me has refused”.46 ‫ﻋﻦ ﺟﺎﺑﺮ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ اﷲ رﺿﻲ اﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎل : ﺟﺎءت ﻣﻼﺋﻜﺔ إﱃ اﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ وﻫﻮ ﻧﺎﺋﻢ ﻓﻘﺎل ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ : إﻧﻪ ﻧﺎﺋﻢ وﻗﺎﻟﺒﻌﻀﻬﻢ : إن اﻟﻌﲔ‬ : ‫ﻧﺎﺋﻤﺔ واﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﻘﻈﺎن ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮا : إن ﻟﺼﺎﺣﺒﻜﻢ ﻫﺬا ﻣﺜﻼ ﻓﺎﺿﺮﺑﻮا ﻟﻪ ﻣﺜﻼﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮا‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻛﻤﺜﻞ رﺟﻞ ﺑﲎ دارا وﺟﻌﻞ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﺄدﺑﺔ وﺑﻌﺚ داﻋﻴﺎ ﻓﻤﻦ أﺟﺎب اﻟﺪاﻋﻲ‬ ‫دﺧﻼﻟﺪار وأﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ اﳌﺄدﺑﺔ وﻣﻦ ﱂ ﳚﺐ اﻟﺪاﻋﻲ ﱂ ﻳﺪﺧﻞ اﻟﺪار ﱂ ﻳﺄﻛﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﳌﺄدﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﺎﻟﻮا : أوﻟﻮﻫﺎ ﻳﻔﻘﻬﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺎل ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ : إﻧﻪ ﻧﺎﺋﻢ وﻗﺎل ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ : إن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﲔ ﻧﺎﺋﻤﺔ واﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﻳﻘﻈﺎﻧﻔﻘﺎﻟﻮا ﻓﺎﻟﺪار اﳉﻨﺔ واﻟﺪاﻋﻲ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫وﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻤﻦ أﻃﺎع ﳏﻤﺪا ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻮﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ أﻃﺎع اﷲ وﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﻰ ﳏﻤﺪا‬ ‫ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻋﺼﻰ اﷲ وﳏﻤﺪ ﺻﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻬﻌﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻓﺮق ﺑﲔ‬ .‫اﻟﻨﺎس‬ 2). From Jābir bin ʿAbdullāh  who said: “Some angels came to the Prophet  while he was sleeping. Some of them said, “He is sleeping.” Others said, “His eyes are sleeping but his heart is awake.” Then they said, “There is an example for this companion of yours.” One of them said, “Then set forth an example for him.” Some of them said, “He is sleeping.” The others said, “His eyes are sleeping but his heart is awake.” Then they said, “His example is that of a man who has built a house and then offered therein a banquet and sent an inviter (messenger) to invite the people. So whoever accepted the invitation of the inviter, entered the house and ate of the banquet, and whoever did not accept the invitation of the inviter, did not enter the house, nor did he eat of the banquet.” Then the angels said, “Interpret this example to him so that he may understand it.” Some of them said, “He is sleeping.” The others said, “His eyes are sleeping but his heart is awake.” And then they said, “The houses stands for Paradise and the call maker is Muḥammad; and whoever obeys Muḥammad, obeys Allāh; and46 Narrated by Bukhārī. 35
  36. 36. whoever disobeys Muḥammad, disobeys Allāh. Muḥammad separated the people (i.e., through his message, the good is distinguished from the bad, and the believers from the disbelievers).”47 ‫ﻋﻦ أَﺑِﻲ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﱠﺒِﻲ ﺻﻠﱠﻰ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﻋﻠَْﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﱠﻢ ﻗَﺎل إِﻧﱠﻤﺎ ﻣﺜَﻠِﻲ وﻣﺜَﻞ‬ ُ ََ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ِ َ ‫ُ َ َْ ﱢ‬ َْ ‫ﻣﺎ ﺑَـﻌﺜَﻨِﻲ اﻟﻠﱠﻪُ ﺑِﻪ ﻛﻤﺜَﻞ رﺟﻞ أَﺗَﻰ ﻗَـﻮﻣﺎ ﻓَـﻘﺎل ﻳَﺎ ﻗَـﻮِم إِﻧﱢﻲ رأَﻳْﺖ اﻟْﺠ ْﻴﺶ‬ َ َ ُ َ ْ َ َ ًْ ٍَُ ِ ََ ِ َ َ ِ ِ ِ ‫َ َﺔ‬ ِ ‫ﺑِﻌ ْﻴـﻨَﻲ وإِﻧﱢﻲ أَﻧَﺎ اﻟﻨﱠﺬﻳﺮ اﻟْﻌُﺮﻳَﺎن ﻓَﺎﻟﻨﱠﺠﺎءَ ﻓَﺄَﻃَﺎﻋﻪُ ﻃَﺎﺋِﻔ ٌ ﻣﻦ ﻗَـﻮﻣﻪ ﻓَﺄَدﻟَﺠﻮا‬ ُ ْ ْ ْ َ ُ ْ ُ َ‫َ ﱠ‬ ِ ِ ‫ﻓَﺎﻧْﻄَﻠَﻘﻮا ﻋﻠَﻰ ﻣﻬﻠﻬﻢ ﻓَـﻨَﺠﻮا َﻛﺬﺑَﺖ ﻃَﺎﺋِﻔ ٌ ﻣ ْﻨـﻬﻢ ﻓَﺄَﺻﺒَﺤﻮا ﻣﻜﺎﻧَـﻬﻢ‬ ْ ُ َ َ ُ ْ ْ ُ ‫ُ َ َ َ ِ ْ َ ْ وَ ﱠ ْ َ ﺔ‬ ‫ﻓَﺼﺒﱠﺤﻬﻢ اﻟْﺠ ْﻴﺶ ﻓَﺄَﻫﻠَﻜﻬﻢ واﺟﺘَﺎﺣﻬﻢ ﻓَﺬﻟِﻚ ﻣﺜَﻞ ﻣﻦ أَﻃَﺎﻋﻨِﻲ ﻓَﺎﺗﱠـﺒَﻊ ﻣﺎ‬ ََ َ ْ َ ُ َ َ َ ْ َُ ْ َ ْ َُ ْ ُ َ ْ َُ َ ‫ِ ُ ِ َ َ ُ َ ْ َ َ وَ ﱠ َ َ ِ ُ ِ ِ ْ َ ﱢ‬ ‫ﺟ ْﺌﺖ ﺑِﻪ وﻣﺜَﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺼﺎﻧِﻲ َﻛﺬب ﺑِﻤﺎ ﺟ ْﺌﺖ ﺑِﻪ ﻣﻦ اﻟْﺤﻖ‬ 3). Narrated Abū Mūsā : From the Prophet  who said, “My example and the example of what I have been sent with is that of a man who came to some people and said, ‘O people! I have seen the enemy’s army with my own eyes, and I am the naked warner; so protect yourselves!’ Then a group of his people obeyed him and fled at night proceeding stealthily till they were safe, while another group of them disbelieved him and stayed at their places till morning when the army came upon them, and killed and ruined them completely. So this is the example of that person who obeys me and follows what I have brought (the Qurʾān and the Sunnah), and the example of the one who disobeys me and disbelieves in the truth I have brought.” 48 47F : ‫ﻋﻦ أﺑﻲ راﻓﻊ رﺿﻲ اﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ أن رﺳﻮل اﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ وﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎل‬ ‫" ﻻ أﻟﻔﻴﻦ أﺣﺪﻛﻢ ﻣﺘﻜﺌﺎً ﻋﻠﻰ أرﻳﻜﺘﻪ ﻳﺄﺗﻴﻪ اﻷﻣﺮ ﻣﻦ أﻣﺮي ﻣﻤﺎ أﻣﺮت ﺑﻪ‬ " ‫أو ﻧﻬﻴﺖ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻓﻴﻘﻮل : ﻻ ﻧﺪري ﻣﺎ وﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎب اﷲ اﺗﺒﻌﻨﺎﻩ‬ 4). From Abī Rāfiʿ, , that the Messenger of Allāh  said: “Let me not find one of you reclining on his couch, when he hears something regarding me which I have commanded or forbidden,47 Narrated by Bukhārī, 8: 139-140.48 Narrated by Bukhārī and Muslim. 36
  37. 37. and says: We do not know. What we found in Allāh’s Book we have followed.”49 ِ ِ ِ ‫ أَﻧﱠﻪُ ﻗَﺎل أَﻻ إِﻧﱢﻲ‬ ‫ ﻋﻦ رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﱠﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ اﻟْﻤﻘﺪام ﺑْﻦ ﻣﻌﺪي ﻛﺮب‬ ِ َ َ َُ َْ َ ِ َ َْ ِ ِ َ ْ ْ َ ُ ُ ِ َ ِ َ ُ َ َ ٌ ُ َ ُ ِ َ َ َ َِ َ ِ ُ ‫أُوﺗِﻴﺖ اﻟْﻜﺘَﺎب وﻣﺜْـﻠَﻪُ ﻣﻌﻪُ أَﻻ ﻳُﻮﺷﻚ رﺟﻞ ﺷ ْﺒـﻌﺎن ﻋﻠَﻰ أَرﻳﻜﺘِﻪ ﻳَـﻘﻮل‬ ِ ْ ِ ٍَ ِِ ْ ‫ﻋﻠَْﻴﻜﻢ ﺑِﻬﺬا اﻟْﻘﺮآن ﻓَﻤﺎ وﺟﺪﺗُﻢ ﻓِﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻼل ﻓَﺄَﺣﻠﱡﻮﻩُ وﻣﺎ وﺟﺪﺗُﻢ ﻓِﻴﻪ‬ ِ ْ َ َ ََ َ ْ ْ َ َ َ ُْ َ َ ْ ُ َ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮام ﻓَﺤﺮﻣﻮﻩُ أَﻻ ﻻ ﻳَﺤﻞ ﻟَﻜﻢ ﻟَﺤﻢ اﻟْﺤﻤﺎر اﻷَﻫﻠِﻲ وﻻ ﻛﻞ ذي‬ ِ‫ِ ِ ْ ْ ﱢ َ ُﱡ‬ ِ ِ َ َ ُ ْ ْ ُ ‫ْ َ َ ٍ َﱢُ َ َ ﱡ‬ ِ ٍِ ‫ﻧَﺎب ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﺒُﻊ وﻻ ﻟُﻘﻄَﺔُ ﻣﻌﺎﻫﺪ إِﻻ أَن ﻳَﺴﺘَـﻐْﻨِﻲ ﻋ ْﻨـﻬﺎ ﺻﺎﺣﺒُـﻬﺎ وﻣﻦ‬ ِ ْ َ َ َ َ َ َ َ ْ ْ ‫ٍ ْ ﱠ ِ ََ َ ُ َ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻧَـﺰل ﺑِﻘﻮٍم ﻓَـﻌﻠَْﻴﻬﻢ أَن ﻳَـﻘﺮوﻩُ ﻓَِﺈن ﻟَﻢ ﻳَـﻘﺮوﻩُ ﻓَـﻠَﻪُ أَن ﻳُـﻌﻘﺒَـﻬﻢ ﺑِﻤﺜْﻞ‬ ِ ِ ْ ُ ِْ ْ ُْ ْ ْ ُْ ْ ْ ِ َ َْ ََ ُ‫ﻗِﺮاﻩ‬ َ 5). From Al-Miqdām ibn Maʿdī Karīb  from the Prophet  who said: “Beware! I have been given the Qurʿān and something like it, yet the time is coming when a man replete on his couch will say: Keep to the Qurʾān; what you find in it to be permissible treat as permissible, and what you find in it to be prohibited treat as prohibited. Beware! The domestic ass, beasts of prey with fangs, a find belonging to confederate, unless its owner does not want it, are not permissible to you. If anyone comes to some people, they must entertain him, but if they do not, he has a right to penalize them to an amount equivalent to his entertainment.”50 49F ‫ﻋﻦ أﺑﻲ ﻫﺮﻳﺮة رﺿﻲ اﷲ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﺎل : ﻗﺎل رﺳﻮل اﻟﻠﻬﺼﻠﻰ اﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ( ‫وﺳﻠﻢ : ﻛﺖ ﻓﻴﻜﻢ ﺷﻴﺌﻴﻦ ﻟﻦ ﺗﻀﻠﻮا ﺑﻌﺪﻫﻢ ) ﻣﺎ ﺗﻤﺴﻜﺘﻢ ﺑﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ . ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﷲ وﺳﻨﺘﻲ وﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﻔﺮﻗﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻳﺮدا ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﻮض‬ 6). From Abī Hurairah  who said: The Messenger of Allāh  said: I am leaving behind me two matters, you will not go astray as long as you cling to them both, the Book of Allāh and my Sunnah;49 Narrated by Aḥmad, Abū Dāwūd, Tirmidhī, Ibnu Mājah, and Ṭaḥāwī.50 Narrated by Abū Dāwūd, Tirmidhī, Ḥakīm, pronounced ṣaḥīḥ by Ḥakīm and Aḥmad. 37
  38. 38. and the two will not be separated until they come to me at the lake (in Paradise).51  ‫ ﻗﺎل: ﺻﻠﻰ ﺑﻨﺎ رﺳﻮل اﷲ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ اﺑﻰ ﻧﺠﻴﺢ )اﻟﻌﺮﺑﺎض( ﺑﻦ ﺳﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ٍ ‫ذات ﻳﻮم )ﻓﻰ. رواﻳﺔ : ﺻﻼة اﻟﻔﺠﺮ(، ﺛﻢ أﻗﺒﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﻓﻮﻋﻈﻨﺎ ﻣﻮﻋﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻴﻐﺔ ذرﻓﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻌﻴﻮن، ووﺟﻠﺖ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ اﻟﻘﻠﻮب. ﻓﻘﺎل ﻗﺎﺋﻞ: ﻳﺎ رﺳﻮل‬ ‫اﷲ، ﻛﺄن ﻫﺬا ﻣﻮﻋﻈﺔ ﻣﻮدع، ﻓﻤﺎذا ﺗﻌﻬﺪ إﻟﻴﻨﺎ ؟ ﻓﻘﺎل: أوﺻﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺘﻘﻮى‬ ّ ‫اﷲ واﻟﺴﻤﻊ واﻟﻄﺎﻋﺔ وان ﻋﺒﺪ ﺣﺒﺸﻲ، ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻳﻌﺶ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ ﺑﻌﺪي‬ ّ ،‫ﻓﺴﻴﺮى اﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎً ﻛﺜﻴﺮاً، ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺴﻨﺘﻲ وﺳﻨﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﺎء اﻟﻤﻬﺪﻳﻴﻦ اﻟﺮاﺷﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺴﻜﻮا ﺑﻬﺎ وﻋﻀﻮا ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻮاﺟﺬ، واﻳّﺎﻛﻢ وﻣﺤﺪﺛﺎت اﻷﻣﻮر، ﻓﺈن ﻛﻞ‬ ّ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﺛﺔ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ، ﻛﻞ ﺑﺪﻋﺔ ﺿﻼﻟﺔ‬ ‫و‬ 7). From Abī Najīḥ (Al ʿArbāḍ) bin Sāriyyah  who said: The Messenger of Allāh  gave us some advice that truly penetrated (our hearts), so much so that our hearts trembled and tears streamed down. Then we said: “O Messenger of Allāh (), this feels like the advice of a person who wants to leave (us forever), so order us! He  said: “I counsel you to have Taqwā of Allāh and to hear, and obey, even if an Abyssinian slave were to command you. For, verily, whoever amongst you lives (to grown old), he will see many differences. So stick to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the rightly guided khalīfahs. Cling tightly onto it and hold onto it with your molar teeth. And beware of newly invented matters. For, indeed, every newly invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is a thing that leads astray, and everything that leads astray is in the Hellfire.”52 51FC. Guidance that can be obtained from Al Qurʾān and As Sunnah51 Narrated by Ḥakīm.52 Narrated by Abū Dāwūd and Tirmidhī. 38
  39. 39. The proofs from Al Qurʾān ul Karīm and the aḥādīth of the Prophet above, provide crucial guidance for us, universal in manner, as follows:1). There is no difference between the laws of Allāh and the laws of HisMessenger , because a muʾmīn must not discriminate with the intent toviolate, and such (behaviour) is included within disobedience to the Messengerof Allāh  in the same manner as ‘he’ is disobedient to Allāh. Such actions aremanifest errors.2). A person must not come before the Messenger of Allāh  in the samemanner as ‘he’ must not go before Allāh, that is, ‘he’ must not violate theSunnah of the Messenger of Allāh . Ibnu Qayyim said in his book, ‘Iʿlām alMuwaqqiʿīn’ concerning the meaning of ayah (1) from Sūrah Al Ḥujurāt (49),that is: “(All of you) do not speak until he speaks, and (all of you) do not ruleuntil he has ruled, and do not decree something until he has decreed, and do notestablish a matter until he has judged it”.                     O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allāh and His Messenger (), and fear Allāh. Verily! Allāh is All- Hearing, All-Knowing. 53 52F3). Obedience towards the Messenger of Allāh  means obedience towardsAllāh.4). A person who turns away from obedience to the Messenger of Allāh  isincluded amongst the disbelievers.5). When disputes arise in religious matters, it is obligatory for us to return toAllāh and His Messenger . Ibnu Qayyim said, “Allāh  commanded(‘mankind’) to obey Him and to obey His Messenger . He (Allāh) repeated the53 Sūrah Al Ḥujurāt (49), ayāh 1. 39
  40. 40. phrase ‘…wa ʾaṭiyʿū-r Rasūla…’ (…and obey the Messenger…) as anotification that obedience towards the Messenger  is by law obligatory,without reward and without further need for comparison with the Book ofAllāh. Moreover, it is obligatory to obey his () command absolutely, whetherthat command is Al Qurʾān or not, because he has been given the book and thelike thereof. And Allāh does not apply the word obedience for the ʾŪlī-l ʾAmrī(those Muslims in authority), moreover He ( does away with the act of )obedience, because towards the ʾŪlī-l ʾAmrī is implicit in obedience towardsthe Messenger . The ʿUlamāʾ (scholars) e in agreement that returning to Allāhmeans returning to His Book and returning to the Messenger  at the time hewas still alive, and after he  died returning to his  sunnah, and such isincluded within the conditions of faith.6). The fall of the Muslims and their loss of strength are caused by theircontinual quarreling and their desire not to return to As Sunnah.7). A person (persons) who violates the commands of the Messenger of Allāh will receive fitnah on this earth and a painful punishment in the Hereafter.8). A person (persons) violate the commands of the Messenger of Allāh  willreceive bad consequences on the earth and in the Hereafter.9). It is obligatory to fulfill the call of the Messenger  (that is to fulfill hissunnah), because by those means one will be in receipt of happiness in thisworld and in the Hereafter.10). Obedience towards the Prophet  is the eminent cause for a person to enterinto Paradise and the achievement of realization of success. Conversely, aperson who is rebellious towards him  will enter into Hell and therein receivea humiliating punishment.11). Amongst the characteristics of hypocrites, is that whenever they are invitedto judge (arbitrate issues) by the Messenger of Allāh  and his sunnah, theyrefuse and even make efforts to block people who want to return to him .12). Those people who are muʾmin (believing, faithful) are diferent to thosepeople who are munāfiq (hypocrites), because those who are muʾmin when 40
  41. 41. called upon to arbitrate with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh , theyimmediately fulfill the call by saying, “…samiʿnā wa ʾaṭaʿnā…” (we hear andwe obey).13). It is obligatory for us to follow each and every command of the Messengerof Allāh  and whatever he has forbidden it is obligatory for us to distanceourselves from it.14). An exemplary model for the Islāmic community in all matters of religion isthe Messenger of Allāh .15). Every word uttered by the Messenger of Allāh  connected with religionand matters of the unseen that are unable to be known of or experimented, thenthat issue constitutes revelation from Allāh to him  without any invaliditywithin it.16). As Sunnah constitutes the explanation of Al Qurʾān which was revealed tohim .17). Al Qur’ān must be demonstrated by means of As Sunnah, and moreover asSunnah is the same as Al Qurʾān in regards in matters that are mandatory toobey and follow.18). What has been declared ḥarām by the Messenger of Allāh  is the same asthat which has been declared ḥarām by Allāh, and likewise everything that hasbeen brought by the Messenger of Allāh , that is not contained within AlQurʾān, is the same as Al Qurʾān based upon the generality of ḥadīth no. 5.19). ‘Mankind’ can be saved from error and deviation merely by holding ontoAl Qurʾān and As Sunnah, and such as that constitutes the law permanentlyuntil the Day of Resurrection, and there must not be any division between thetwo of them.20). The obligation to follow the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allāh encompasses issues of ʿaqīdah as well as aḥkām (matters of judgement), andincludes all religious issues, as well as directing anyone who comes to hismessage of daʿwah before the Day of Resurrection. 41
  42. 42. D. Dalāʾil of the Ijmāʿ commanding us to follow the Prophet Muḥammad  The Islāmic community are unanimous concerning the obligation to actupon (put into practice) the authentic (ṣaḥīḥ) sunnah of the Prophet , andindeed the call of Allāh and His Messenger . The Islāmic community acceptAs Sunnah in the same manner as they accept al Qurʾān, because as Sunnahconstitutes the source of tashrīʿ (legislation) as witnessed by Allāh. In themanner stated within His decree:                                   Say (O Muḥammad ): “I dont tell you that with me are the treasures of Allāh, nor (that) I know the unseen; nor I tell you that I am an angel. I but follow what is revealed to me by inspiration.” Say: “Are the blind and the one who sees equal? Will you not then take thought?” 54 53F The Islāmic community, since the time of the companions  of theMessenger of Allāh , the Tābiʿūn, the tābiʿ at tābiʿīn, and the generationsthereafter them until today have always returned any religious matter to AlQurʾān and As Sunnah, holding to it as well as guarding it. Amongst the Dalāʾil that state that the companions  and the Tābiʿūnheld to As Sunnah are:1). At the time that Abū Bakr controlled the Caliphate, Fāṭimah bintiMuḥammad, Messenger of Allāh , went to meet him to ask something abouther father, and he (Abū Bakr) said to her: “Indeed I heard the Messenger of54 Sūrah Al Anʿām (6), ayāh 50. 42
  43. 43. Allāh  say: ‘Indeed when Allāh gives food to a Prophet, then he dies, and thenhe becomes a legacy for the people after him’. Because of that I beheld thatwhat remained of your father must be returned to the Islāmic community”. ThenFāṭimah said: “You know better than I about what you have heard from theMessenger of Allāh ”. 55 In another narration he (Abū Bakr) said: “I will not leave anything behindthat has been conveyed (implemented) by the Messenger of Allāh , because Iworry when I leave behind his  commands I will be astray”. 562). ʿUmar  said: “Indeed I sent them (qāḍin - judges) so that they teach AlQurʾān and the Sunnah of the Prophet  to the community in order that theymeasure out the spoils of war justly, and whoever is in doubt let ‘him’ come tosee me”.573). ʿUmar ibn al Khaṭṭāb  stood before the Ḥajr al ʾAswad (the blackstone) saying, “Indeed I know that you are a stone, and in the event that I do notsee my treasured one (the Prophet Muḥammad ) kissing you or touching you,then surely I will not touch or kiss you”. 584). Saʿid ibn al Musayyib  said, “I perform wuḍūʾ like the wuḍūʾ of theMessenger of Allāh () and I ṣalāt in the same way as the ṣalāt of theMessenger of Allāh ()”.5). ʿAlī  said in regard to standing when a funeral procession passes, “Ionce saw the Messenger of Allāh  stand, so we stood, and he sat, so we sat”. 596). Some people said to ʿAbdullāh bin ʿUmar , “We did not find anythingwithin al Qurʾān about how to pray whilst travelling?” Ibn ʿUmar  said,“Indeed Allāh  has sent His Prophet Muḥammad  to us as before him wehad not known anything, and because of that we intended to do anything weacted in the same manner as we had seen the prophet Muḥammad acting”.Within another narration he said, “Before we were astray, and then Allāh55 Narrated by Aḥmad 1: 160.56 Narrated by Aḥmad.57 Narrated by Dārimiy 1: 72.58 Narrated by Aḥmad 1: 197-213.59 Narrated by Aḥmad 2: 52. 43
  44. 44. manifests to us by means of him , and because of that it is obligatory for us tofollow in his footsteps”. 607). A woman came to ʿAbdullāh bin Masʿūd  and she said, “I have heardnews that you forbid women from attaching wigs?” ʿAbdullāh bin Masʿūdanswered, “Yes!” The woman asked, “Is that prohibition in the Book of Allāh(Al Qurʾān) or did you hear it (directly) from the Messenger ?” ʿAbdullāh binMasʿūd answered, “I found (that prohibition) within the Book of Allāh and fromthe sayings of the Messenger of Allāh ”. The woman said again, “By Allāh, Ihave read the pages of Al Qurʾān from the beginning to the end, and yet I wasunable to find that prohibition”. Ibnu Masʿūd said, “Is there not in it an ayāh(that states)” ‘And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsoeverhe forbids you, abstain (from it)’”. “Yes”, answered the woman. After that IbnuMasʿūd said, “Indeed I heard the Messenger of Allāh  prohibit the plucking ofhairs from the eyebrows, sharpening of the teeth, wearing of wigs, and piercingunless sick”.618). Muʿāwiyah  once gave a khuṭbah (speech, lecture) on the minbar(rostrum), and after praising Allāh and lauding Him, he said, “O Arabs, byAllāh, were it to be that you did not implement the Sunnah of the Prophet ,then other than you there will be no one to carry it out”. 629). Abu Naḍrah  narrated from the companion ʿImrān bin Ḥusain , aperson came to him and asked him about something, then ʿImrān bin Ḥusainanswered him from the Sunnah of the Prophet . Then the person who hadasked said, “Answer from the Book of Allāh, and don’t you answer fromanything other than it!” ʿImrān bin Ḥusain said, “You are a fool…Do you findin the Qurʾān that the Ẓuhr (noon) prayer consists of four rakaʿāt (bending ofthe torso from an upright position, bowing) and that it is not read aloud, orabout the rakaʿāt in ṣalāt, or how to calculate zakat?”, and then he said further,“Do you find all of that explained within Al Qurʾān? Know that Al Qurʾāncommands, and it is As Sunnah that explains or clarifies it”. 6360 Narrated by Aḥmad and Ḥakīm.61 Narrated by Aḥmad.62 Al Marūzy, As Sunnah page. 14.63 Jāmiʿu Bayān ul ʿIlmu wa Faḍlihi. 44
  45. 45. In actual fact there are still many more examples of the manner in whichthe companions and their followers held to the sunnah of the Prophet , andwhich was then carried on by those people who followed after them. Fromamongst those who were the Tābiʿūn was a man called Muṭarrif bin ʿAbdullāhibn ash Shakhīr  who was once probed by someone, “Don’t you produce forus anything besides what is only from Al Qurʾān”. Muṭarrif answered, “ByAllāh we have no desire to alter what is from Al Qurʾān, however we want (toconvey) explanations from a person who has more knowledge of Al Qurʾānthan us, that is the Messenger of Allāh . He  was the one who explained AlQurʾān, applied it within his speech, explained the intent and purpose of thedecrees of Allāh, as well as detailing his laws by means of his pure sunnah. Hewas the qudwah (exemplar) for the Muslims (until the Day of Resurrection).And for that reason all of you hold to As Sunnah in the same manner as youhold to Al Qurʾān ul Karīm, and guard as Sunnah in the same nmanner as youguard Al Qurʾān”. 45
  46. 46. 46

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