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Fundamentals of
Internet and World Wide Web
         Lecture 02
                         By:
                     Khalid Khan
            Department of Computer Science
                University of Peshawar




                                             1
   A Brief Introduction to      Web Servers
                                  ◦ Web Server Operation
    Internet                      ◦ General Server Characteristics
    ◦   Origins                   ◦ Apache, IIS etc.
    ◦   What Internet is?        Uniform Resource
    ◦   IP Addresses              Locators
    ◦   Domain Names              ◦ URL Formats
                                  ◦ URL paths)
   The World Wide Web           HTTP
    ◦ Origins                     ◦ Request Phase
    ◦ Web or Internet?            ◦ Response Phase
   Web Browsers                 FTP
                                 Searching on the
                                  Internet


                                                                2
   1958 – USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite.

   1960s – the US Department of Defence (DoD) gave the
    concept of a large scale computer network.

   1969-Software called Network Control Protocol (NCP)
    provided communication between the hosts.

   The US DoD’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)
    funded the construction of such network – called ARPAnet.
    ◦ ARPA Net was text based.
    ◦ Communicate through email.
    ◦ Technique (packet switching)
    ◦ Protocol (TCP)
    ◦ ARPA reach to the development of IP (Internetworking protocol)
      creating a network of networks.
    ◦ Combined set is called TCP/IP
                                                                       3
   1970s and early 1980s – other networks such as BITNET and
    CSNET were also created but never became dominant
    networks.

   1986 – NSFnet, sponsored by National Science
    Foundation(NSF) – initially connected five universities, but
    after establishment it became available to other institutions
    and laboratories too.

   1990 – NSFnet replaced ARPAnet
   1992– NSFnet connected more than 1 million computers
    around the world.

   1995 – a small part of NSFnet returned to being a research
    network, and the rest became known as INTERNET
                                                                    4
A Brief Introduction to Internet

                                             1985                1993
                                        NSFNET founded        Web Browser
   1969                   1983
                                        by The National    “Mosaic” invented
 ARPANET             DOD Mandated
                                            Science        by Mark Andreesen
R&D Project        Adoption of TCP/IP
                                          Foundation

         ARPANET                                          INTERNET

      1974                   1983
   Vinton Cerf          ARPANET Split              1991
and Robert Kahn       into ARPANET and        World Wide Web
Initiated TCP/IP            MILNET              Released by
                                              Tim-Berners Lee
   The Internet is a huge collection of computers
    connected in a communications network.
    ◦ The computers are of every manageable
      size, configuration, and manufacturer.
    ◦ Some of the devices connected are not computers at all
      e.g. plotter and printers etc.


   All of these diverse devices to communicate with
    each other using a protocol, TCP/IP.

   Each computer on a network is assign a unique ID
    called IP address, just like people home or street
    address.

                                                               6
   For people, Internet nodes are identified by names, for
    computers, they are identified by numeric addresses.
    ◦ If one wants to send data to the computer on same
      network, he needs the physical address of the computer to
      which data is intended to be sent.
    ◦ But if the receiving computer lies on another network, or
      Internet for example, then IP address of the recipient is
      required to address it.

   The Internet Protocol(IP) address of a machine is a
    unique 32-bit number (IPv4), written in the form of
    numbers separated by dots(.).e.g. 191.57.126.0.

   New IP standard, approved in 1998, is IPv6 in which the
    address space was expanded to 128bits.
    ◦ This change is essential to face the rapid growth of
      computers.
                                                                  7
   A domain name represents a group of hosts on the
    Internet.
   A full domain name is a sequence of labels separated by
    dots
   It combines a host name and a TLD to form a fully
    qualified host name which provides a user friendly way to
    uniquely identify a site on the Internet.
   The DNS translates fully –qualified names into IP
    addresses.
   For example a yahoo website can be reached by typing
    http://www.yahoo.com or alternatively you can type the
    IP address of the yahoo server (e.g. like 207.168.92.4) in
    to browser.


                                                                 8
    We would go crazy if we would have to remember the
     IP addresses of all the web sites that we wanted to visit




     The Domain Name System translates between domain
      names and IP addresses of devices connected to the
      Internet
    ◦    A domain name (a part of the URL) is a unique
         alphanumeric name such as upesh.edu
    ◦    The top level domain name is edu and the
         secondary level domain name is upesh in the above
         example (there could be up to 127 levels, but more
         than 4 is rare)
   The fully qualified host name of a computer on
    Internet has three major parts:

   The host name: The hostname is the name of the
    particular host on the internet.

   The domain name: A domain name is usually the
    name of the company that owns the site or a word
    or phrase that otherwise describes the site.
   Domain encapsulate host names

   The TLD: It usually refers to the type of
    organization that owns the domain name e.g.
    com, org, edu, gov, pk etc
    . www.university.peshawar.net                      10
11
Domain Name and Host

   IP ADDRESSES                             DOMAIN NAMES
Every device connected
has a unique 32-bit                           Human
                               DNS           Readable
address
                                             cnn.com
                                                     Every device
                            Translation              connected has an
  Machine Readable                                   alphanumeric
                              Between
  e.g. 151.196.19.22                                 address
                          domain Names
                         and IP Addresses
   Domain Names.

   Generic top level domains
   .com
   .biz
   .info
   .edu
   .mil
   .net, etc.

   Country codes or Country Domain
   .pk, .jp, .cn, .us, etc.
1945 – Vannevar Bush




                       1945 – Invent Memex



                 ?
                                             14
   1965 – Ted Nelson
◦ Coined the term “hypertext”
◦ Project: “Xanadu”:
◦ “A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the
Indeterminate.” 20th National Conference, New
York, Association for Computing Machinery, 1965.

   In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee at CETN (European
    Laboratory for Particle Physics) proposed a new
    protocol for the internet as well as a system of
    document access to use it.

   This new system was called World Wide Web
    (WWW) which allow scientists around the world
    to use the Internet to exchange document to
    describe their work.
                                                             15
   The release of the first graphical interface, Mosaic, in
    February 1993.
   1995 – 2001
    ◦ “Dot coms” like AOL, Yahoo, Netscape,
    ◦ Google
    ◦ Internet Explorer”




                                                               16
   The Internet and the Web are not the same thing.

   Internet is a collection of computers and other devices
    connected by equipment that allows them to communicate
    with each other.

   The web is a collection of distributed documents referred to
    as “pages” located on computers (servers) all over the world.

   Servers store hypertext markup language(HTML) files and
    respond to requests.

   The Internet was quite useful before the Web was developed,
    and is still useful without it.

   However, most users use Internet through the use of Web.
                                                                    17
The web is based on a three-part architecture.
  HTML
  HTTP
  GUI
                                                            Databases




                TCP/IP-based network                 GUI     Content




Web clients                            Web Servers          Software
                                                           applications
The Web operates in a client/server configuration:
 Client: A client computer is one which requests for services to a
  server.

   Client uses a software called Web Browser for this purpose.
   Server: A computer that send responds to a client request, using
    a software called Web Server.

   HTTP is the most common protocol used for the communication
    between browsers and servers.

Examples of browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape
Navigator, Opera, Chrome, Mozilla Firefox etc.




                                                                       19
   Web servers are programs that provide documents to the
    requesting browsers.
   Servers are slave programs:
    ◦ A web server stores web pages and delivers those pages upon
      client request. A web server software is installed on the web
      server.
    ◦ They act only when requests are made to them by browsers
      running on other computers on the Internet.
   Examples of Web Servers are:
     Microsoft Internet Information Server(IIS)

     Apache

     SunONE etc.




                                                                      20
   URLs are used to identify documents (resources) on the
    Internet.
   Different types of resources identified by different forms of
    URLs, but with same general format:
   Scheme: object-address




                                                                    21
    Each page of information on the web has a unique address
       called the URL at which it can be found.



http://faculty.uscupstate.edu/atzacheva/lecture1.html



 The document
can be obtained     Host Name -   Path to the Web   File Name     Denotes that the File
   using the        The Name of         Page                       is Written in HTML
   Hypertext         Web Server                                    HyperText Markup
Transfer Protocol                                                      Language
     (HTTP)
                       2
         1                                                        3
                    Host Name
      Protocol                                                  File Name
   Scheme: object-address
   Scheme: a communications protocol
   Common schemes include
    http, ftp, gopher, telnet, file, mailto, and news.
   Most important is HTTP, which supports the Web, and used to
    request and send eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language
    (XHTML) documents.
   In case of using HTTP, the form of the object address of a
    URL is:
   http://fully-qualified-domain-name/path-to-document.html




                                                                  23
   All Web communications transactions use the same
    protocol, the HTTP.
   The current version of HTTP is 1.1, defined by World Wide
    Web Consortium (W3C) in June 2011, as
   HTTP consists of two phases:
   Request phase
   Response phase
   Each HTTP communication (request or response) between a
    browser and a Web server consists of two parts:
   Header – contains information about communication
   Body – contains the data of the communication, if there is
    any.



                                                                 24
i.   The Request Phase   ii. The Response Phase




                                                  25
   FTP works on the client/server principle.
   A client program enables the user to interact with a server in
    order to access information and services on the server
    computer.
   Files that can be transferred are stored on computers called
    FTP servers.
   To access these files, an FTP client program is used.
   This is an interface that allows the user to locate the file(s) to
    be transferred and initiate the transfer process
   There are two modes of transfer in FTP:
   ASCII is used only for files saved in ASCII format (this includes
    Postscript files)
   Binary is used for files that are formatted and saved using a
    word processing software like WordPerfect
    (.txt), spreadsheets (.xls), images (.jpg, .gif), and many
    executable programs (.exe) and videos (.avi).
                                                                         26
   Searching the Web
   The two most basic and commonly used Web-based search
    tools are:
   Directories
   A directory enables you to search for information by selecting
    categories of subject matter.
   The directory separates subjects into general
    categories, which are broken into increasingly specific
    designers.
   http://www.lookmart.com
   Search Engines
   A search engine lets you search for information by typing one
    or more words.
   The engine then displays a list of Web pages that contain
    information related to your words.
   http://www.google.com.pk/                                        27
28
29

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Lecture 02 fundamental concepts of internet and www khalid khan

  • 1. Fundamentals of Internet and World Wide Web Lecture 02 By: Khalid Khan Department of Computer Science University of Peshawar 1
  • 2. A Brief Introduction to  Web Servers ◦ Web Server Operation Internet ◦ General Server Characteristics ◦ Origins ◦ Apache, IIS etc. ◦ What Internet is?  Uniform Resource ◦ IP Addresses Locators ◦ Domain Names ◦ URL Formats ◦ URL paths)  The World Wide Web  HTTP ◦ Origins ◦ Request Phase ◦ Web or Internet? ◦ Response Phase  Web Browsers  FTP  Searching on the Internet 2
  • 3. 1958 – USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite.  1960s – the US Department of Defence (DoD) gave the concept of a large scale computer network.  1969-Software called Network Control Protocol (NCP) provided communication between the hosts.  The US DoD’s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) funded the construction of such network – called ARPAnet. ◦ ARPA Net was text based. ◦ Communicate through email. ◦ Technique (packet switching) ◦ Protocol (TCP) ◦ ARPA reach to the development of IP (Internetworking protocol) creating a network of networks. ◦ Combined set is called TCP/IP 3
  • 4. 1970s and early 1980s – other networks such as BITNET and CSNET were also created but never became dominant networks.  1986 – NSFnet, sponsored by National Science Foundation(NSF) – initially connected five universities, but after establishment it became available to other institutions and laboratories too.  1990 – NSFnet replaced ARPAnet  1992– NSFnet connected more than 1 million computers around the world.  1995 – a small part of NSFnet returned to being a research network, and the rest became known as INTERNET 4
  • 5. A Brief Introduction to Internet 1985 1993 NSFNET founded Web Browser 1969 1983 by The National “Mosaic” invented ARPANET DOD Mandated Science by Mark Andreesen R&D Project Adoption of TCP/IP Foundation ARPANET INTERNET 1974 1983 Vinton Cerf ARPANET Split 1991 and Robert Kahn into ARPANET and World Wide Web Initiated TCP/IP MILNET Released by Tim-Berners Lee
  • 6. The Internet is a huge collection of computers connected in a communications network. ◦ The computers are of every manageable size, configuration, and manufacturer. ◦ Some of the devices connected are not computers at all e.g. plotter and printers etc.  All of these diverse devices to communicate with each other using a protocol, TCP/IP.  Each computer on a network is assign a unique ID called IP address, just like people home or street address. 6
  • 7. For people, Internet nodes are identified by names, for computers, they are identified by numeric addresses. ◦ If one wants to send data to the computer on same network, he needs the physical address of the computer to which data is intended to be sent. ◦ But if the receiving computer lies on another network, or Internet for example, then IP address of the recipient is required to address it.  The Internet Protocol(IP) address of a machine is a unique 32-bit number (IPv4), written in the form of numbers separated by dots(.).e.g. 191.57.126.0.  New IP standard, approved in 1998, is IPv6 in which the address space was expanded to 128bits. ◦ This change is essential to face the rapid growth of computers. 7
  • 8. A domain name represents a group of hosts on the Internet.  A full domain name is a sequence of labels separated by dots  It combines a host name and a TLD to form a fully qualified host name which provides a user friendly way to uniquely identify a site on the Internet.  The DNS translates fully –qualified names into IP addresses.  For example a yahoo website can be reached by typing http://www.yahoo.com or alternatively you can type the IP address of the yahoo server (e.g. like 207.168.92.4) in to browser. 8
  • 9. We would go crazy if we would have to remember the IP addresses of all the web sites that we wanted to visit  The Domain Name System translates between domain names and IP addresses of devices connected to the Internet ◦ A domain name (a part of the URL) is a unique alphanumeric name such as upesh.edu ◦ The top level domain name is edu and the secondary level domain name is upesh in the above example (there could be up to 127 levels, but more than 4 is rare)
  • 10. The fully qualified host name of a computer on Internet has three major parts:  The host name: The hostname is the name of the particular host on the internet.  The domain name: A domain name is usually the name of the company that owns the site or a word or phrase that otherwise describes the site.  Domain encapsulate host names  The TLD: It usually refers to the type of organization that owns the domain name e.g. com, org, edu, gov, pk etc . www.university.peshawar.net 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. Domain Name and Host IP ADDRESSES DOMAIN NAMES Every device connected has a unique 32-bit Human DNS Readable address cnn.com Every device Translation connected has an Machine Readable alphanumeric Between e.g. 151.196.19.22 address domain Names and IP Addresses
  • 13. Domain Names.  Generic top level domains  .com  .biz  .info  .edu  .mil  .net, etc.  Country codes or Country Domain  .pk, .jp, .cn, .us, etc.
  • 14. 1945 – Vannevar Bush 1945 – Invent Memex ? 14
  • 15. 1965 – Ted Nelson ◦ Coined the term “hypertext” ◦ Project: “Xanadu”: ◦ “A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate.” 20th National Conference, New York, Association for Computing Machinery, 1965.  In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee at CETN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) proposed a new protocol for the internet as well as a system of document access to use it.  This new system was called World Wide Web (WWW) which allow scientists around the world to use the Internet to exchange document to describe their work. 15
  • 16. The release of the first graphical interface, Mosaic, in February 1993.  1995 – 2001 ◦ “Dot coms” like AOL, Yahoo, Netscape, ◦ Google ◦ Internet Explorer” 16
  • 17. The Internet and the Web are not the same thing.  Internet is a collection of computers and other devices connected by equipment that allows them to communicate with each other.  The web is a collection of distributed documents referred to as “pages” located on computers (servers) all over the world.  Servers store hypertext markup language(HTML) files and respond to requests.  The Internet was quite useful before the Web was developed, and is still useful without it.  However, most users use Internet through the use of Web. 17
  • 18. The web is based on a three-part architecture. HTML HTTP GUI Databases TCP/IP-based network GUI Content Web clients Web Servers Software applications
  • 19. The Web operates in a client/server configuration:  Client: A client computer is one which requests for services to a server.  Client uses a software called Web Browser for this purpose.  Server: A computer that send responds to a client request, using a software called Web Server.  HTTP is the most common protocol used for the communication between browsers and servers. Examples of browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Opera, Chrome, Mozilla Firefox etc. 19
  • 20. Web servers are programs that provide documents to the requesting browsers.  Servers are slave programs: ◦ A web server stores web pages and delivers those pages upon client request. A web server software is installed on the web server. ◦ They act only when requests are made to them by browsers running on other computers on the Internet.  Examples of Web Servers are:  Microsoft Internet Information Server(IIS)  Apache  SunONE etc. 20
  • 21. URLs are used to identify documents (resources) on the Internet.  Different types of resources identified by different forms of URLs, but with same general format:  Scheme: object-address 21
  • 22. Each page of information on the web has a unique address called the URL at which it can be found. http://faculty.uscupstate.edu/atzacheva/lecture1.html The document can be obtained Host Name - Path to the Web File Name Denotes that the File using the The Name of Page is Written in HTML Hypertext Web Server HyperText Markup Transfer Protocol Language (HTTP) 2 1 3 Host Name Protocol File Name
  • 23. Scheme: object-address  Scheme: a communications protocol  Common schemes include http, ftp, gopher, telnet, file, mailto, and news.  Most important is HTTP, which supports the Web, and used to request and send eXtensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) documents.  In case of using HTTP, the form of the object address of a URL is:  http://fully-qualified-domain-name/path-to-document.html 23
  • 24. All Web communications transactions use the same protocol, the HTTP.  The current version of HTTP is 1.1, defined by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in June 2011, as  HTTP consists of two phases:  Request phase  Response phase  Each HTTP communication (request or response) between a browser and a Web server consists of two parts:  Header – contains information about communication  Body – contains the data of the communication, if there is any. 24
  • 25. i. The Request Phase ii. The Response Phase 25
  • 26. FTP works on the client/server principle.  A client program enables the user to interact with a server in order to access information and services on the server computer.  Files that can be transferred are stored on computers called FTP servers.  To access these files, an FTP client program is used.  This is an interface that allows the user to locate the file(s) to be transferred and initiate the transfer process  There are two modes of transfer in FTP:  ASCII is used only for files saved in ASCII format (this includes Postscript files)  Binary is used for files that are formatted and saved using a word processing software like WordPerfect (.txt), spreadsheets (.xls), images (.jpg, .gif), and many executable programs (.exe) and videos (.avi). 26
  • 27. Searching the Web  The two most basic and commonly used Web-based search tools are:  Directories  A directory enables you to search for information by selecting categories of subject matter.  The directory separates subjects into general categories, which are broken into increasingly specific designers.  http://www.lookmart.com  Search Engines  A search engine lets you search for information by typing one or more words.  The engine then displays a list of Web pages that contain information related to your words.  http://www.google.com.pk/ 27
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Editor's Notes

  1. BITNET: Because It’s Time Network, City University of New York.CSNET: Computer Science Network, Purdue University, University of Delaware, University of Wisconsin, RAND Corporation, Bolt, Beranek, and Newman.