Khalid, kerala

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RESEARCH AND ETHICS : ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE

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Khalid, kerala

  1. 1. RESEARCH AND ETHICS : ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE Dr. KHALID UL REHMAN HAKEEM Unive rs iti Putra Malays ia
  2. 2. Islam means Peace, submission, obedience, and surrender to God (Allah). (Arabic root "Salema") It is both a religion and a comprehensive way of life that concerns all behaviors and character traits in all aspects of human existence.
  3. 3. Morality concerns: 1) What behavior we ought to do. 2) What kind of persons we ought to be. Ethics is the disciplined study of morality.
  4. 4. Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method.
  5. 5. KNOWLEDGE AND RESEARCH IN ISLAM It is worthwhile to emphasize the importance laid by Islam on the pursuit of learning Recite in the name of your Lord, Who created. He created man from a leech-like structure. Recite, and your Lord is Most Generous, Who has taught by the pen. He taught Man that what he knew not. (96: 15.) •Allah also says , addressing the Prophet ,‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬Say, “My Lord, increase my knowledge.” (20:114) Allah asks us to look inside ourselves and at the universe to discover God’s laws. Let man consider from what he is created.(86:5) And in another verse: Will they not reflect on camels, how they are created; the sky, how it is raised; the mountains, how they are erected; and the earth, how it is leveled.(88: 17-20)
  6. 6. Based on the above, scientific research is considered by some scholars as farḍ kifāya (collective religious duty). •The Prophet Muhammad ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬is reported to have said: Allah created disease and its cure except senility (death). Sons of Adam seek the cure but not use ḥarām (forbidden) things. (Sunan Abī Dāwūd,3874) •I was sent to complete the epitomes of Ethics. (Husn El Kholok, Hadith 8; 1951. p. 564.)
  7. 7. Islam puts emphasis on seeking knowledge (doing research) and benefits from it. There is no consideration for knowledge that provides no utility. Islam encourages precision in conducting research, which should add value. In addition, Islam forces dissemination of knowledge and prohibits hiding it. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever withholds knowledge arrives in the judgment day leashed with a leash from fire”. (Ahkam Al-Quran, Gassas AA)
  8. 8. Source & Characteristics of Islamic Ethics/Morality General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics
  9. 9. Are Moral and Ethical Systems Required?
  10. 10. Are Moral and Ethical Systems Required? In order to organize life and build up a healthy and harmonious society, Islam has legislated a universal moral law.
  11. 11. Are Moral and Ethical Systems Required? “And We have not sent down the Book (the Qur'an) to you (O Muhammad SAW), except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe. .” (An-Nahl 16, 64) “Allâh wishes to make clear (what is lawful and what is unlawful) to you, and to show you the ways of those before you, and accept your repentance, and Allâh is All­ Knower, All­Wise. ” (An-Nisaa 4, 26)
  12. 12. Source of Ethics/Morality in the West -the law -individual, family, and group’s experiences -religious beliefs -traditions -professional education, training, and consensus -authorities and experts’ opinions -institutional policies and practices
  13. 13. Source of Ethics/Morality in Islam The Divine Islamic Moral Law or The Shari’ah Al-Nas - Al-Qur’an (the direct words of Allah) - As-Sunna (prophet Muhammad’s words and acts - the indirect words of Allah) Ijtihad - consensus of independent Islamic scholars - opinion of individual Islamic scholar
  14. 14. Source of Ethics/Morality in Islam The Shari’ah “O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the last day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination” (An-Nissa 4,59)
  15. 15. Secularization, Islam, and ethics •Secularization means humans ruling their lives, with no regard or consideration to a higher spiritual authority. •This may be the basis as to why some societies have separated the church from every day life and replaced God’s rules with man made laws and guidelines. •The secular reasoning evolved when societies were faced with ethical and practical dilemmas. •These secular guidelines, for example, deal paradoxically with some situations, e.g. a man who marries two wives should be punished severely for the crime of bigamy, as the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1878. Plurality of wives (polygamy), as originally permitted by the Mormon religion, violated criminal law and was not defensible as an exercise of religious liberty. if on the other hand he co-habits with several women as girlfriends and has children with them, he will not be penalized so long he is paying child support. (Evan Bailyn. Bigamy and Polygamy,2005)
  16. 16. Islam is not only a religion; it is a way of life. As mentioned earlier, the Shari’a controls every day activities of Muslims. Once an individual joins Islam, he is bound by Islamic rules and hence he is obliged to follow instructions and rules in the Quran And so judge (you O Muhammad SAW) between them by what Allâh has revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they turn you (O Muhammad SAW) far away from some of that which Allâh has sent down to you. And if they turn away, then know that Allâh's Will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. And truly, most of men are Fâsiqûn (rebellious and disobedient to Allâh). (5:49)
  17. 17. Characteristics of Islamic Ethics/Morality - Combines “who is to say what is right or wrong” with “what is to say an action is right or wrong”. Divine Command Conscience Duty and Virtue Common Good, Justice, Rights/Respects and Utilitarianism - Provides one source for Law and morals.
  18. 18. Ethical/Moral Classification of Behaviors and Character Traits in Islam Forbidden Discouraged Neutral (permitted) Recommended (desirable) Obligatory (required)
  19. 19. Ethical/Moral Classification of Behaviors and Character Traits in Islam Desirability 0 + - O R Neutral D F
  20. 20. General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics The purpose of the Shari’ah is to promote and protect the interests of people by bringing benefits and preventing harms in relation to their necessities, needs, and wants Necessities take precedence over needs, and needs take precedence over wants It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces towards East or West; but it is righteousness- to believe in God and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; to fulfill the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the God-fearing (Al Baqarah (2): 177).
  21. 21. Islamic ethical guidelines of research are derived from the purposes and principles of the Islamic law (Shari’a). Medical research in an Islamic community should be conducted for one of five reasons, which are known as Maqasid Al- Shari’a . (Kasule OH. Medical ethics from Maqasid Al-Shariat) These reasons or goals for conducting medical research are: 1)preservation of religion and morality; 2)preservation of life and health; 3) preservation of progeny (curing infertility); 4) preservation of intellect; and 5) preservation of wealth. If any of the five purposes is at risk, permission is then considered granted to undertake human experiments that would be otherwise morally according to Islam prohibited.
  22. 22. General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics THE FIVE NECESSITIES The Shari’ah (culture and group survival) Individual life Sound mind Integrity/Dignity Property
  23. 23. General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics Harm should be removed Harm should not be removed by harm A smaller harm is tolerated in order to prevent a bigger harm Individual harm is tolerated in order to prevent public harm Preventing harm takes precedence over bringing benefit Necessities render that what is forbidden allowable Necessities should be carefully assessed
  24. 24. General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics Difficulty brings ease (Such as the difficulties arising from travel, illness, being forced, forgetness, unawareness, impracticality, and legal incompetence) Difficulty should be removed Needs are considered necessities in regard to rendering what is forbidden allowable
  25. 25. General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics “But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, then he is guiltless. For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Al-Baqara 2,173) “ and (Allah) has imposed no difficulties on you in religion.” (Al-Hajj 22,78) “Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you to difficulties.” (Al-Baqara 2,185) “ Allah doth wish to lighten your (difficulties): for man was created weak (in flesh).” (An-Nisaa 4,28)
  26. 26. General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics All things are permitted until proven otherwise People are innocent until proven otherwise Tradition (orf) is taken into account unless it contradicts Shari’ah Obligations and engagements should be fulfilled
  27. 27. General Aims & Guiding principles of Islamic Ethics “ O ye who believe! Fulfill (all) obligations.” (Al-Maidah 5,1) “and fulfill (every) engagement, for every engagement, will be enquired into (on the day of Reckoning).” (Al-Israa 17,34)
  28. 28. Conclusion Islam promotes seeking Knowledge and performing research . Islamic law is based on a complete system of morality that can provide a moral context in Research fields from a legal perspective. Muslim teaching is also very flexible and adaptable to many new and novel situations. Morality and ethics in Islam are absolute and are of divine origin. Islamic law automatically bans all immoral actions as ‘‘Haram’’ and automatically permits all what is moral as Mubaah. Ethical guidelines are both fixed and variable. The fixed moral and legal principles are broad enough to encompass the needs of all times and places. Islam rejects secularization. Accordingly, in a Muslim community a researcher should observe that research and the procedures followed are within the context of Shari’a.
  29. 29. References FURTHER READING: ‫علم أصول مصادر التشريع اللسل مي فيمالصنص فيه‬ ‫دار القلم‬ ‫الوهاب خل ف‬ ‫عبد‬ ‫مؤلسسة الرلسالة‬ ‫دار القلم‬ ‫محمد عبد اللة دراز‬ ‫عبد الوهاب خل ف‬ A primer on bioethics. of Medicine ‫دلستور الخل ق في القرآن‬ ‫علم أصول الفقة‬ L B McCullough, PhD, Baylor College The evolution of ethics www.evolutionaryethics.com Markkula center for applied ethics, Santa Clara University www.scu.edu/SCU/Centers/Ethics/
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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