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Relational Database Fundamentals

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This presentation gives you an idea about RDBMS concepts

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Relational Database Fundamentals

  1. 1. RDBMS Concepts – Part I Khalidc2001@gmail.com
  2. 2. NIC Wayanad 2 We Discuss…  What is a database  RDBMS Concepts  Relational Model  Entity – Relationship Model  Relationships  Constraints  Keys  Normalization  Transaction Control
  3. 3. NIC Wayanad 3 What is a database ?  A database is an organized collection of information  To manage databases, you need database management systems (DBMS)
  4. 4. NIC Wayanad 4 DBMS  A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database.  A computer program designed for the purpose of managing database
  5. 5. NIC Wayanad 5 Type of databases  Four main types of databases  Hierarchical  Network  Relational  Object Relational
  6. 6. NIC Wayanad 6 Relational Database Concept  Dr. E.F.Codd proposed the relational model for database system in 1970.  It is the basis for the relational database management system (RDBMS)
  7. 7. NIC Wayanad 7 Relational Database Model  Uses tables to organize data  Each table corresponds to an entity  Each row represents the instance of that entity  Tables can be related each other • Relation=Table • Tuple=Row • Attribute=Column
  8. 8. NIC Wayanad 8 RDBMS  Fundamental Features  ACID  Referential Integrity  Transactions  Unicode  other objects are supported  Data Domain  Cursor  Trigger  Function  Procedure  Database Capabilites  Union  Inner joins  Outer joins  Inner selects  Merge  Blobs
  9. 9. NIC Wayanad 9 Databases in marketRDBMS Maintainer   Software license   4th Dimension 4D s.a.s Proprietary Adabas Software AG ? Adaptive Server Enterprise Sybase Proprietary Apache Derby Apache Apache License DB2 IBM Proprietary DBISAM Elevate Software Proprietary ElevateDB Elevate Software Proprietary Firebird Firebird project IPL and IDPL Informix IBM Proprietary HSQLDB HSQL Development Group BSD H2 H2 Software Freeware Ingres Ingres Corp. GPL and proprietary InterBase CodeGear Proprietary MaxDB MySQL AB, SAP AG GPL or proprietary Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft Proprietary MonetDB The MonetDB Developer Team MonetDB Public License v1.1 MySQL MySQL AB GPL or proprietary HP NonStop SQL Hewlett-Packard Proprietary Oracle Oracle Corporation Proprietary Oracle Rdb Oracle Corporation Proprietary OpenEdge Progress Software Corporation Proprietary OpenLink Virtuoso OpenLink Software GPL or proprietary Pervasive PSQL Pervasive Software Proprietary PostgreSQL PostgreSQL Global Development Group BSD Pyrrho DBMS University of Paisley Proprietary SmallSQL SmallSQL LGPL SQL Anywhere Sybase Proprietary SQLite D. Richard Hipp Public domain Teradata Teradata Proprietary Valentina Paradigma Software Proprietary
  10. 10. NIC Wayanad 10 Relational Model Three key terms are used extensively in relational models  Relation • relation is a table with columns and rows  Attributes • The named columns of the relation are called attributes  Domains • set of values the attributes are allowed to take
  11. 11. NIC Wayanad 11 Relational Model ProducerID ProducerName Place Sex Caste DateBirth 1 BALAKRISHNAN.P.K VATTOLI BAZAR M GEN 2 VASUDEVAN NAMBIAR BALUSSERY M GEN 01/07/1948 3 HARIDASAN.M KARIYATHANKAVU M GEN 11/05/1962 4 ASIYA.N.K VATTOLI BAZAR F OBC 5 VELU VATTOLI BAZAR M OBC 02/10/1947 6 KELUKUTTI NAIR. P VATTOLI BAZAR M GEN 7 ROHINI. V.K VATTOLI BAZAR F GEN 01/07/1933 8 SURESH BABU.K.R KARIYATHANKAVU M ST 9 KUTTINARAYANAN NAIR VATTOLI BAZAR M GEN 07/10/1971 Tuple 10 LAKSHMI.T.P VATTOLI BAZAR F GEN 11 ABUBAKKAR. M KAPPURAM M OBC 22/04/1959 12 RAJAN NAIR.O.K KARIYATHANKAVU M GEN 15/11/1956 13 PRABAKARAN NAIR.K.K VATTOLI BAZAR M GEN 14 BALAN.K.P VATTOLI BAZAR M SC 25/09/1967 Domain •A relation has a unique name and represents particular entity •Each row of a relation referred to as a tuple •A Key is a part of tuple that uniquely distinguishes from other tuples •relation is a set of tuples
  12. 12. NIC Wayanad 12 Data Modelling Database Server Model of system in clients’s mind ER Model of Client’s model Table model of ER model Tables on disk
  13. 13. Analysis StageAnalysis Stage  Identifies::  entitiesentities - things of significance- things of significance  relationshipsrelationships - associations between entities- associations between entities  functionsfunctions - processes in the business- processes in the business  businessbusiness rulesrules - restrictions or constraints- restrictions or constraints  Does NOT identify tables, views, files, screens, reports, or other computer-specific items...
  14. 14. NIC Wayanad 14 Entity – Relationship Model  It facilitates communication between the database designer and the end user during the requirement analysis.  To facilitate such communication the designer needs adequate communication tools
  15. 15. NIC Wayanad 15 Basic Elements of ER Model  Entity • An entity defines any person, place, thing or concept • Eg : (Producer, Taluk, Course)  Attribute • Characteristics (properties) of an entity • Eg: (ProducerName, MemberID, HouseName)  Relationship • Logical linkage between two entities
  16. 16. NIC Wayanad 16 ER Diagram
  17. 17. NIC Wayanad 17 Let us model  A Depot is a place where Producers pours their cow milk  A Producer is a person who belongs to a Depot and regularly pours Milk to Society  A Collection Agent, who procures Milk from Producers through Depot.  Procurement Register maintains by Collection Agent with the details of Milk poured by Producers  A Member is a Producer, who gets Membership through board resolution.
  18. 18. NIC Wayanad 18 ER Model - Entities  The highlighted words becomes entity  Entities are represented by rectangular box DepotDepot ProducersProducers MembersMembers Collection AgentCollection Agent Procurement RegisterProcurement Register
  19. 19. NIC Wayanad 19 ER Model - Attributes  Attributes are the properties of entities  Provides additional information about entity  Possible attributes for each entity  Depot : DepotID, Name, DateStart  Producers : Name, Address, DateofBirth, Sex, Caste and MemberID etc  Collection Agent : Name, Address  Members: MemberID, Date of Admission, Share Value  Procurement Register: ProducerID, Date, Time, MilkQty, Milk Value
  20. 20. NIC Wayanad 20 Relationships  A relationship is an association between two or more entities  Each entity in a relationship plays a role  Examples:  if we are identifying relationships between DEPOT and PRODUCER, then we might define the “pours”, “Belongs to”
  21. 21. NIC Wayanad 21 ER Model - Entities DepotDepot DepotIDDepotID NameName AddressAddress ProducersProducers ProducerNameProducerName AddressAddress SexSex CasteCaste PhonePhone MemberIDMemberID DateofJoinDateofJoin MembersMembers MemberIDMemberID DateofAdmissionDateofAdmission ShareNosShareNos ShareValueShareValue DateOfBirthDateOfBirth IDCardNoIDCardNo Proc_RegProc_Reg ProducerIDProducerID DateDate TimeTime MilkQtyMilkQty CLRCLR FATFAT SNFSNF MilkValueMilkValue Collection_AgentCollection_Agent AgentIDAgentID NameName AddressAddress DepotDepot DepotID Name Address
  22. 22. NIC Wayanad 22 ER Model - Relationships  Logical linkage between two entities  A relationship connects two or more entity sets  Relationships are represented by diamond shape box
  23. 23. NIC Wayanad 23 DepotDepot DepotIDDepotID NameName AddressAddress ProducersProducers ProducerNameProducerName AddressAddress SexSex CasteCaste PhonePhone MemberIDMemberID DateofJoinDateofJoin MembersMembers MemberIDMemberID DateofAdmissionDateofAdmission ShareNosShareNos ShareValueShareValue DateOfBirthDateOfBirth IDCardNoIDCardNo Proc_RegProc_Reg ProducerIDProducerID DateDate TimeTime MilkQtyMilkQty CLRCLR FATFAT SNFSNF MilkValueMilkValue Collection_AgentCollection_Agent AgentIDAgentID NameName AddressAddress Contains Becomes Pours Milk handles Managed by
  24. 24. NIC Wayanad 24 Constraints….  are rules that describe what valid data look like  ensure the logical and semantic consistency  Rules used to ensure accuracy and integrity of data
  25. 25. NIC Wayanad 25 Constraint Types
  26. 26. NIC Wayanad 26 PRIMARY KEY Constraints  primary key is a candidate key to uniquely identify each row in a table . PCODE PANCH_NAME 01 KANIAMBETTA 02 KOTTATHARA 03 MEPPADI 04 MUTTIL 05 PADINJARETHARA
  27. 27. NIC Wayanad 27 PRIMARY KEY Constraints  Defining PRIMARY KEY CREATE TABLE Depot (DepotID INT, DepotName VARCHAR(20), CONSTRAINT dep_pk PRIMARY KEY(DepotID))  Add a PRIMARY KEY to an existing table ALTER TABLE Depot ADD CONSTRAINT pk_dep PRIMARY KEY (DepotID)
  28. 28. NIC Wayanad 28 FOREIGN KEY Constraints  Foreign key: a field in a table that is a primary key in another table  Foreign key creates a relationship between the two tables  Enforces referential integrity  Maps to the PRIMARY KEY in parent table DepotID Name 1 OFFICE 2 VADUVANA 3 ANDOOR 4 PAMBALA 5 KADALMADU 6 MUNNOORE ProducerID ProducerName DepotID 1 JOSEPH V.V 1 2 VELIYAN.V 3 3 JOHN.P.J 2 4 POULOSE. M M 2 5 JOSEPH.E.S 2 6 ACHANKUNHU N G 1 7 VARKY.M.M 1 8 MATHAI.M.M 5 9 APPACHAN.P.V 5 10 ISSAC.M.M 1 11 RAJU.P.T 2 Parent Table (FK) (PK)
  29. 29. NIC Wayanad 29 FOREIGN KEY Constraints..  Defining a FOREIGN KEY CREATE TABLE Depot(DepotID INT PRIMARY KEY,DepotName VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL); CREATE TABLE Producers(ProducerID INT,ProducerName VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,DepotID INT, CONSTRAINT pk_Prod PRIMARY KEY(ProducerID),CONSTRAINT fk_prod FOREIGN KEY(DepotID) REFERENCES Depot(DepotID) );  Add a FOREIGN KEY to an existing table ALTER TABLE Producers ADD CONSTRAINT fk_Prod FOREIGN KEY (DepotID) REFERENCES Depot(DepotID)
  30. 30. NIC Wayanad 30 UNIQUE KEY Constraints  No duplicates allowed in referenced column  NULL values are permitted ProducerID ProducerName DepotID MemberID 1 JOSEPH V.V 1 2 VELIYAN.V 3 245 3 JOHN.P.J 2 4 POULOSE. M M 2 5 JOSEPH.E.S 2 6 ACHANKUNHU N G 1 154 7 VARKY.M.M 1 8 MATHAI.M.M 5 453 9 APPACHAN.P.V 5 10 ISSAC.M.M 1 12 11 RAJU.P.T 2 CREATE TABLE Producers(ProducerID INT PRIMARY KEY,ProducerName VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,DepotID INT,MemberID INT UNIQUE,CONSTRAINT fk_prd1 FOREIGN KEY(DepotID) REFERENCES Depot(DepotID))
  31. 31. NIC Wayanad 31 CHECK Constraints  ensure valid data when adding or updating an entry in a table ProducerID ProducerName Sex DateJoin DateBirth ShareValue 1 JOSEPH V.V M 01/04/2001 11/04/1965 10 2 VELIYAN.V M 15/06/2007 12/09/1954 10 3 JOHN.P.J M 19/04/2003 08/05/1946 10 4 POULOSE. M M M 24/03/1997 10/05/1964 10 5 ANNAMMA F 26/07/2004 17/08/1959 10 6 ACHANKUNHU N G M 04/09/1992 18/07/1961 10 7 VARKY.M.M M 08/07/1991 19/03/1942 20 8 MATHAI.M.M M 17/08/1987 22/05/1938 10 M or F Date Join > Date Birth >0CHECK Constraints --> CREATE TABLE Producers(ProducerID INT ……,CONSTRAINT check_Sex CHECK(Sex=‘M’ OR ‘F’),CONSTRAINT chk_share CHECK(ShareValue>0))
  32. 32. NIC Wayanad 32 NOT NULL Constraints  Ensures that a specified column cannot contain a Null Value CREATE TABLE Depot(DepotID INT PRIMARY KEY,DepotName VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL); DepotID Name 1 OFFICE 2 VADUVANA 3 ANDOOR 4 PAMBALA 5 KADALMADU 6 MUNNOORE DepotID Name 1 OFFICE 2 VADUVANA 3 ANDOOR 4 PAMBALA 5 6 MUNNOORE Violation against NOT NULL
  33. 33. NIC Wayanad 33 Surrogate key  A surrogate key in a database is a unique identifier  surrogate key is not derived from application data  A surrogate key may be used as the primary key  some possible candidates for generating surrogates:  Globally Unique Identifiers (GUIDs)  Object Identifiers (OIDs)  Sybase or SQL Server identity column  Oracle SEQUENCE  PostgreSQL serial  MySQL AUTO_INCREMENT  MS Access AUTONUMBER
  34. 34. NIC Wayanad 34 Relationships The following relationships can be included in an E-R Model:  One-to-one  One-to-many  Many-to-many
  35. 35. NIC Wayanad 35 One-to-one Relationship  Each occurrence (row) of data in one entity is related to only one occurrence of data in the other entity  Example: Each Producer has just one MemberID and each MemberID is assigned to just one Producer ProducerID ProducerName DepotID MemberID 1 JOSEPH V.V 1 5 2 VELIYAN.V 3 26 3 JOHN.P.J 2 4 POULOSE. M M 2 125 5 JOSEPH.E.S 2 110 6 ACHANKUNHU N G 1 12 7 VARKY.M.M 1 35 8 MATHAI.M.M 5 9 APPACHAN.P.V 5 10 ISSAC.M.M 1 11 RAJU.P.T 2 2 MemberID DateAdmit ShareValue 2 12/04/1987 10.00 5 12/04/1987 10.00 12 25/07/1988 10.00 26 25/09/1988 20.00 35 12/08/1997 10.00 110 02/12/2000 10.00 125 16/08/1998 10.00 PRODUCERS MEMBERS
  36. 36. NIC Wayanad 36 One-to-many Relationship  Each occurrence of data in one entity can be represented by many occurrences of the data in the other entity  Example: each Depot carries many producers PRODUCERS DEPOT DepotID Name 1 OFFICE 2 VADUVANA 3 ANDOOR 4 PAMBALA 5 KADALMADU 6 MUNNOORE ProducerID ProducerName DepotID 1 JOSEPH V.V 1 2 VELIYAN.V 3 3 JOHN.P.J 2 4 POULOSE. M M 2 5 JOSEPH.E.S 2 6 ACHANKUNHU N G 1 7 VARKY.M.M 1 8 MATHAI.M.M 5 9 APPACHAN.P.V 5 10 ISSAC.M.M 1 11 RAJU.P.T 2
  37. 37. NIC Wayanad 37 Many-to-many Relationship  Data can have multiple occurrences in both entities  In a proper design, this can’t be included in the physical database
  38. 38. NIC Wayanad 38 ER Diagram of
  39. 39. NIC Wayanad 39 DepotDepot DepotIDDepotID NameName AddressAddress ProducersProducers ProducerNameProducerName AddressAddress SexSex CasteCaste PhonePhone MemberIDMemberID DateofJoinDateofJoin MembersMembers MemberIDMemberID DateofAdmissionDateofAdmission ShareNosShareNos ShareValueShareValue DateOfBirthDateOfBirth IDCardNoIDCardNo Proc_RegProc_Reg ProducerIDProducerID DateDate TimeTime MilkQtyMilkQty CLRCLR FATFAT SNFSNF MilkValueMilkValue Collection_AgentCollection_Agent AgentIDAgentID NameName AddressAddress Contains Becomes Pours Milk handles Managed by
  40. 40. NIC Wayanad 40 Normalization  ..is a process you can use to split out non-relational tables into relational tables.  ..is a technique for designing relational database tables to minimize duplication of information  .. is to safeguard the database against data anomalies
  41. 41. NIC Wayanad 41 Bad Design  Update anomaly Employee 519 is shown as having different addresses on different records.
  42. 42. NIC Wayanad 42 Bad Design  Insertion anomaly Until the new faculty member is assigned to teach at least one course, his details cannot be recorded.
  43. 43. NIC Wayanad 43 Bad Design  Deletion anomaly All information about Dr. Giddens is lost when he temporarily ceases to be assigned to any courses.
  44. 44. NIC Wayanad 44 First Normal Form (1NF) Remove repeating columns by creating new table moving the columns into the new table, and linking back to the old table in a on-to-many relationship. ProducerID ProducerName Address Day1Qty Day1Value Day2Qty Day2Value Day3Qty Day3Value 1 JOSEPH V.V KALPETTA 1.2 15.25 1.9 22.5 2 VELIYAN.V MEPPADI 2.4 36.3 2.9 39.5 3.5 49.5 3 JOHN.P.J KALPETTA 5.4 68.5 4 POULOSE. M M BATHERY 6.4 79.8 7.1 89.9 6.5 78.5 5 JOSEPH.E.S PULPALLY . 2.9 34.35 PRODUCERS_PROCUREMENT •To Eliminate repeating groups
  45. 45. NIC Wayanad 45 First Normal Form (1NF) ProducerID ProducerName Address Day1Qty Day1Value Day2Qty Day2Value Day3Qty Day3Value 1 JOSEPH V.V KALPETTA 1.2 15.25 1.9 22.5 2 VELIYAN.V MEPPADI 2.4 36.3 2.9 39.5 3.5 49.5 3 JOHN.P.J KALPETTA 5.4 68.5 4 POULOSE. MM BATHERY 6.4 79.8 7.1 89.9 6.5 78.5 5 JOSEPH.E.S PULPALLY . 2.9 34.35 Before After ProducerID ProducerName Address 1 JOSEPH V.V KALPETTA 2 VELIYAN.V MEPPADI 3 JOHN.P.J KALPETTA 4 POULOSE. M M BATHERY 5 JOSEPH.E.S PULPALLY ProducerID Day Qty Value 1 1 1.2 15.25 1 3 1.9 22.5 2 1 2.4 36.3 2 2 2.9 39.5 2 3 3.5 49.5 3 3 5.4 68.5 4 1 6.4 79.8 4 2 7.1 89.9 4 3 6.5 78.5 5 2 2.9 34.35 PRODUCERS PROCUREMENT PRODUCERS_PROCUREMENT
  46. 46. NIC Wayanad 46 Second Normal Form (2NF) Move repeating fields into a new table that contains a primary key and relate it back to the old table using a foreign key PRODUCERS •The table must be in 1NF •Creates many-to-one relationship, separating static from dynamic information ProducerID ProducerName Place 1 JOSEPH V.V KALPETTA 2 VELIYAN.V MEPPADI 3 JOHN.P.J KALPETA 4 POULOSE. M M BATHERY 5 JOSEPH.E.S PULPALLY
  47. 47. NIC Wayanad 47 Second Normal Form (2NF) ProducerID Day Qty Value 1 1 1.2 15.25 1 3 1.9 22.5 2 1 2.4 36.3 2 2 2.9 39.5 2 3 3.5 49.5 3 3 5.4 68.5 4 1 6.4 79.8 4 2 7.1 89.9 4 3 6.5 78.5 5 2 2.9 34.35 PlaceID Place 1 MEPPADI 2 VYTHIRI 3 BATHERY 4 KALPETTA 5 PULPALLY ProducerID ProducerName Placeid 1 JOSEPH V.V 4 2 VELIYAN.V 1 3 JOHN.P.J 4 4 POULOSE. M M 3 5 JOSEPH.E.S 5 ProducerID ProducerNamePlace 1 JOSEPH V.V KALPETTA 2 VELIYAN.V MEPPADI 3 JOHN.P.J KALPETTA 4 POULOSE. M MBATHERY 5 JOSEPH.E.S PULPALLY Before After ProducerID Day Qty Value 1 1 1.2 15.25 1 3 1.9 22.5 2 1 2.4 36.3 2 2 2.9 39.5 2 3 3.5 49.5 3 3 5.4 68.5 4 1 6.4 79.8 4 2 7.1 89.9 4 3 6.5 78.5 5 2 2.9 34.35
  48. 48. NIC Wayanad 48 Third Normal form (3NF) PRODUCERS DEPOT DepotID Name 1 OFFICE 2 VADUVANA 3 ANDOOR 4 PAMBALA 5 KADALMADU 6 MUNNOORE ProducerID ProducerName DepotID 1 JOSEPH V.V 1 2 VELIYAN.V 3 3 JOHN.P.J 2 4 POULOSE. M M 2 5 JOSEPH.E.S 2 6 ACHANKUNHU N G 1 7 VARKY.M.M 1 8 MATHAI.M.M 5 9 APPACHAN.P.V 5 10 ISSAC.M.M 1 11 RAJU.P.T 2 Before After ProducerIDProducerName 1 JOSEPH V.V 2 VELIYAN.V 3 JOHN.P.J 4 POULOSE. M M 5 JOSEPH.E.S 6 ACHANKUNHU N G DepotID Name 1 OFFICE 2 VADUVANA 3 ANDOOR 4 PAMBALA 5 KADALMADU 6 MUNNOORE DEPOTPRODUCERS ProducerID DepotID 1 2 2 3 3 1 4 1 5 4 6 1 7 2 PROD_DEPOT
  49. 49. NIC Wayanad 49 Why Denormalization.,,,  Higher degrees on normalization….  involve more tables  need for a larger number of joins  can reduce performance
  50. 50. NIC Wayanad 50 Database transaction  is a unit of interaction with a DBMS  is a series of database operations which either all occur, or all do not occur (Atomic)  are also called Logical Units of Work.  a database system will guarantee the properties of ACID for each transaction.
  51. 51. NIC Wayanad 51 ACID  Atomicity:  Either all the tasks in a transaction must be done, or none of them.  The transaction must be completed, or else it must be undone (rolled back).  Consistency:  Every transaction must preserve the integrity constraints — the declared consistency rules — of the database.
  52. 52. NIC Wayanad 52 ACID  Isolation:  Two simultaneous transactions cannot interfere with one another.  Intermediate results within a transaction are not visible to other transactions.  Durability:  Completed transactions cannot be aborted later or their results discarded.
  53. 53. NIC Wayanad 53 Operating system support RDBMS Windows    Mac OS  X   Linux   BSD   UNIX   4th Dimension Yes Yes No No No Adabas Yes No Yes No Yes Adaptive Server Enterprise Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Apache Derby 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes DB2 Yes No Yes No Yes Firebird Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes HSQLDB 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes H2 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Informix Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Ingres Yes No Yes Yes Yes InterBase Yes No Yes No Yes (Solaris) MaxDB Yes No Yes No Yes Microsoft SQL Server Yes No No No No MonetDB Yes Yes Yes No Yes MySQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Oracle Yes Yes Yes No Yes OpenEdge Yes No Yes No Yes OpenLink Virtuoso Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes PostgreSQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pyrrho DBMS Yes (.NET) No Yes (Mono) No No SmallSQL 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes SQL Anywhere Yes Yes Yes No Yes SQLite Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Teradata Yes No Yes No Yes Valentina Yes Yes Yes No No
  54. 54. NIC Wayanad 54 To Be Discussed  SQL in detail…  Security  User Accounts  Backup / replication  Data warehousing  Data mining
  55. 55. NIC Wayanad 55 END

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