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Hata model + youngs model + okumara model summarizad

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hata model
youngs model
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Hata model + youngs model + okumara model summarizad

  1. 1. Page 1 KHALIDBASHIR 12107 AHRAR HUSSAIN 12132 TAYYAB KHAN 12130 ASAD IQBAL 12162
  2. 2. Page 2 HATA MODEL The term Hata Model refers to a radio propagation model that is based on the Okumura Model. It is turn has developed separate models for varying environments:  Hata Model for Urban Areas  Hata Model for Suburban Areas  Hata Model for Open Areas There are more specific models for special uses. For example the cost hata model, an urban Hata Model, was developed by the Cooperation euro penne dins le domain de la recherché Scientifique Technique. HATA MODEL FOR URBAN AREA In wireless communication, the Hata model for urban areas, also known as the Okumura–Hata model for being a developed version of the Okumura model, is the most widely used radio frequency propagation model for predicting the behavior of cellular transmissions in built up areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from Okumura model and develops it further to realize the effects of diffraction, reflection and scattering caused by city structures. This model also has two more varieties for transmission in suburban areas and open areas. Hata Model predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular communications APPLICATION TOUNDER CONDITION This particular version of the Hata model is applicable to the radio propagation within urban areas. This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions and it is based on extensive empirical measurements taken. PCS is another extension of the Hata model. The Walfisch and Bertoni model is further advanced. COVERAGE  Frequency: 150–1500 MHz  Mobile Station Antenna Height: 1–10 m  Base station Antenna Height: 30–200 m  Link distance: 1–10 km
  3. 3. Page 3 MATHEMATICALFORMULATION The Hata model for urban areas is formulated as following: For small or medium sized city, And for large cities, Where = Path loss in urban areas. Unit: decibel (dB) = Height of base station antenna. Unit: meter (m) = Height of mobile station antenna. Unit: meter (m) = Frequency of transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz). = Antenna height correction factor = Distance between the base and mobile stations. Unit: kilometer (km) LIMITATION Though based on the Okumura model, the Hata model does not provide coverage to the whole range of frequencies covered by Okumura model. Hata model does not go beyond 1500 MHz while Okumura provides support for up to 1920 MHz HATA MODEL FOR SUBURBAN AREA The Hata model for suburban areas, also known as the Okumura–Hata model for being a developed version of the okumura model, is the most widely used model in radio frequency propagation for predicting the behavior of cellular transmissions in city outskirts and other rural areas. This model incorporates the graphical information from Okumura model and develops it further to better suit the need. This model also has two more varieties for transmission in urban areas and open. The Hata model predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular communications. And is a function of transmission frequency and the average path loss in urban areas.
  4. 4. Page 4 APPLICATION TOUNDER CONDITION This particular version of Hata model is applicable to the transmissions just out of the cities and on rural areas where man-made structures are there but not so high and dense as in the cities. To be more precise, this model is suitable where buildings exist, but the mobile station does not have a significant variation of its height. This model is suited for both point-to-point and broadcast transmissions COVERAGE  Frequency: 150 MHz – 1.50 GHz MATHEMATICALFORMULATION Hata model for suburban areas is formulated as, Where, LSU = Path loss in suburban areas. Unit: decibel (dB) LU = Average path loss in urban areas for small sized city. Unit: decibel (dB) f = Frequency of transmission. Unit: megahertz (MHz). POINTS TONOTE  This model is based on Hata model for urban areas and uses the median path loss from urban areas. HATA MODEL FOR OPEN AREA The Hata model for open areas, also known as the Okumura–Hata model from its origins in the Okumura model, is the most widely used model for predicting the behavior of cellular radio transmissions in open areas. It further exploits the graphical information from the Okumura model. Two additional varieties for transmission are urban areas and suburban areas. The Hata model for open areas predicts the total path loss along a link of terrestrial microwave or other type of cellular communications. It is a function of transmission frequency and the median path loss in urban areas.
  5. 5. Page 5 APPLICATION TOUNDER CONDITION This version of Hata model is applicable to the transmissions in open areas where no obstructions block the transmission link. It is suited for both point-to- point and broadcast transmissions. COVERAGE  Frequency: 150 MHz to 1.5 GHz MATHEMATICALFORMULATION The Hata model for open areas is formulated as: Where  LO = Path loss in open area. Unit: decibel (dB)  LU = Path loss in urban areas for small sized city. Unit: decibel (dB)  f = Frequency of transmission. Unit: Megahertz (MHz) POINTS TONOTE  This model is dependent on the Hata model for urban areas. YOUNG MODEL Young model is a radio propagation model that was built on the data collected on City. It typically models the behavior of cellular communication systems in large cities. HISTORY Young model was built on the data of 1952 in New York City. APPLICATION TOUNDER CONDITION This model is ideal for modeling the behavior of cellular communications in large cities with tall structures. COVERAGE  Frequency: 150 MHz to 3700 MHz MATHEMATICALFORMULATION The mathematical formulation for Young model is:
  6. 6. Page 6 Where, L = path loss. Unit: decibel (dB) GB = gain of base transmitter. Unit: decibel (dB) GM = gain of mobile transmitter. Unit: decibel (dB) hB = height of base station antenna. Unit: meter (m) hM = height of mobile station antenna. Unit: meter (m) d = link distance. Unit: kilometer (km) = clutter factor OKUMURA MODEL The Okumura model for urban areas is a Radio propagation model that was built using the data collected in the city of Tokyo, Japan. The model is ideal for using in cities with many urban structures but not many tall blocking structures. The model served as a base for the Hata Model. Okumura model was built into three modes. The ones for urban, suburban and open areas. The model for urban areas was built first and used as the base for others. COVERAGE  Frequency = 150–1920 MHz  Mobile station antenna height: between 1 m and 10 m  Base station antenna height: between 30 m and 1000 m  Link distance: between 1 km and 100 km MATHEMATICALFORMULATION The Okumura model is formally expressed as:
  7. 7. Page 7 Where, L = the median path loss. Unit: Decibel (dB) LFSL = the free space loss. Unit: decibel (dB) AMU = Median attenuation. Unit: decibel (dB) HMG = Mobile station antenna height gain factor. HBG = Base station antenna height gain factor. Kcorrection = Correction factor gain (such as type of environment, water surfaces, isolated obstacle etc. POINTS TONOTE  Okumura's model is considered to be among the simplest and best in terms of accuracy in path loss prediction for mature cellular and land mobile radio systems in cluttered environments.  It is very practical and has become a standard for system planning in modern land mobile radio systems in Japan. The major disadvantage with the model is its slow response to rapid changes in terrain therefore the model is fairly good in urban and suburban areas, but not as good in rural areas. Common standard deviations between predicted and measured path loss values are around 10 dB to 14 Db.
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