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Environmental hazards


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Environmental hazards

  1. 1. Hazardsin our environment by Dr M Khalid Munir Hyderabad, India
  2. 2. Sample medical caseSomeone with diffuse and otherwise unexplained symptoms such as stomach upset,hair loss, and fainting spells or someone with heart disease may be concerned about how much mercury his or her body carries, since some studies link mercury to these problems. A change of diet can usually lower levels of mercury, if biomonitoring data indicates that an individual’s levels are high.
  3. 3. LeadLead and lead compounds are used in storage batteries,ammunition, metal products (solder and pipes), roofing,gasoline, and devices to shield people from X-rays.Because of health concerns, lead had been BANNED fromgasoline, ceramic products, paints for residential use, andsolder used on food cans.Industrially, lead and lead-contaminated dusts are releasedinto the environment from the burningof fossil fuels or waste. Lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust from thistype of paint are the primary sources of lead exposurein the home.
  4. 4. CadmiumIn industry and consumer products, it is used for batteries,pigments, metal coatings, and plastics.Cadmium gets into the environment from the weathering ofrocks and minerals that contain cadmium.Cadmium exposure can also occur from exposure tocigarette smoke.
  5. 5. CadmiumThe kidney is a critical target for cadmium.Renal tubular damage and glomerular damage can becaused by high-dose chronic exposureIncreased urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus anddecreased hydroxylation of vitamin D metabolites thataccompany advanced tubular damage may result in overt,and often painful, osteomalacia or osteoporosis, typified bya condition known as “Itai-Itai disease” that afflictedwomen living in a cadmium-polluted region of Japan.
  6. 6. AntimonyAcute inhalational exposure to antimony has been associatedwith irritation of the respiratory tractAntimony is used in storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipemetal, bearings, castings, and pewter. Antimony oxide is added totextiles and plastics to prevent them from catching fire. It is alsoused in paints; ceramics; fireworks; and in enamels for plastics,metal, and glass.Antimony gets into the environment from natural sources andfrom industry. Exposure to antimony can come from food,drinking water, or air.Inorganic antimony salts irritate the mucous membranes, skin,and eyes.
  7. 7. Hazardous chemicals incosmetics, perfumes andsoaps
  8. 8. Major toxic chemicals•Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)/Sodium Laureth Sulfate(SLES)•Mineral Oil•Synthetic Fragrance•Phthalates•Imidazolidinyl Urea And DMDM Hydantoin•Triclosan•DEA (diethanolamine), MEA (monoethanolamine), TEA(triethanolamine)•FD & C (Food Drugs and cosmetics) Color Pigments•Propylene Glycol (PG), Ethylene glycol•Isopropyl Alcohol
  9. 9. Major toxic chemicals These can cause:•Premature aging•Autism in children (a mental abnormality)•Dermatitis•Reduces immunity•Asthma•Headache•GI disorders•Hormonal disturbances
  10. 10. Major toxic chemicals These can cause:•Premature aging•Autism in children (a mental abnormality)•Dermatitis•Reduces immunity•Asthma•Headache•GI disorders•Hormonal disturbances
  11. 11. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)/SodiumLaureth Sulfate (SLES) These are used as detergents and surfactants (an agent such as a detergent or a drug that reduces the surface tension of liquids so that the liquid spreads out, rather than collecting in droplets) and are found in soaps at car washes, cleaners for your garage floors and engine degreasers. Both SLS and SLES are utilized more extensively as one of the major ingredients in cosmetics, toothpaste, hair conditioners and about 90% of all shampoos. They cause allergies, GI disorders and also increase incidence of mouth ulcers
  12. 12. Mineral OilMineral oil is a frequent ingredient in commercial lotions, creams andbaby care products. It is clear, liquid oil that has no scent and will notgo bad.It is manufactured as a byproduct of the distillation of gasoline fromcrude oil.Mineral oil is the surplus liquid and is a very copious product—therefore very cheap.This is a petroleum by-product that covers the skin just like wrappingit in plastic wrap. It clogs the pores, hindering the skin’s ability toeliminate toxins, promoting skin disorders and decelerates skinfunction and cell development
  13. 13. Synthetic FragranceThe chief motive for using synthetic fragrances is theprice. Synthetic lemon “fragrance,” is approximately 50times cheaper than true lemon oil.These are just some of the synthetic fragrances that youmight find:Chronic Asthma, long term allergies, skin irritation,dermatitis, headaches
  14. 14. Synthetic Fragrance•Amyl acetate (banana fragrance)•Benzophenones 1 to 12 (rose fragrance)•Lilac fragrance (anisyl acetate)•Mango fragrance•Melon fragrance•Methyl acetate (apple fragrance)•Methyl salicylate (wintergreen or birch fragrance)•Plum fragrance•Peach fragrance•Phenethyl alcohol (rose fragrance)•Strawberry fragrance•Verataldehyde (vanilla fragrance)
  15. 15. PhthalatesKnown technically as dialkyl or alkyl aryl esters of 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.Here are a few personal care products that may containphthalates and which kind:•Powders- (DEP)•Fragrances- (DEHP, BBP, DBP, DEP)•Nail Polishes- (DBP)•Hair Preparations- (BBP, DMP, DBP, DEP)•Skin Creams- (DEP)•Deodorants- (DBP, DEP)•Aftershaves- (DEP)
  16. 16. Imidazolidinyl Urea And DMDM HydantoinThese two chemicals are just two of many preservatives thatrelease formaldehyde. They are called formaldehyde-donors. It is acolorless liquid or gas with a pungent, distinctive smell. It is utilizedin the manufacturing of synthetic resins that are used in adhesivesfor plywood, particle board, coatings for paper and textiles, inmolded plastics and for sound insulation. It is extensively used inthe textile and apparel industriesFormaldehyde is used in nail treatments and polish, moisturizers,eye make-up, lip make-up, shaving products, shampoos and even acouple of baby shampoos.
  17. 17. Imidazolidinyl Urea And DMDM HydantoinVairous names:•Paraformaldehyde•Benzylhemiformal•2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1, 3-diol•5-bromo-5-nitro-1, 3-dioxane•Diazolidinyl urea•Quaternium-15•DMDM Hydantoin•Sodium hydroxymethyl•Glycinate•Methenamine
  18. 18. TriclosanAntibacterial chemical - included in detergents dishwashing fluids, soaps, deodorants, cosmetics, lotions,creams and toothpaste.The EPA, USA registers it as a pesticideProlonged exposure to antibacterials causes emergenceof ‘superbugs’ that it cannot kill.
  19. 19. DEA (diethanolamine), MEA (monoethanolamine), TEA (triethanolamine)DEA may react with other ingredients in the cosmetic recipe to forma particularly potent carcinogen called nitrosodiethanolamine(NDEA). NDEA is promptly absorbed via the skin and has beenconnected with stomach, esophagus, liver, and bladder cancers.Formation of N-Nitrosodiethanolamine from Diethanolamine in LakeWater and Sewage has been demonstrated
  20. 20. FD & C (Food Drugs and cosmetics) Color PigmentsMost of these chemicals are suspected carcinogens.Hair dye- After applying the product and then thoroughlywashing hands with soap and water, the hands stillretained from 26 mcg to nearly 80 mcg of lead per hand
  21. 21. Propylene Glycol (PG), Ethylene glycolEthylene glycol is also a component in photographicdeveloping solutions, hydraulic brake fluids and in inksused in stamp pads, ball point pens and print shops. Inother words, it is used in industry to break down proteinand cellular structure (what the skin is made of) yet isfound in most forms of make-up, hair products, lotions,after-shaves, deodorants, mouthwashes and toothpastes.American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists(ACGIH) recommends a maximum level of 127 milligramsof ethylene glycol per cubic meter of air (127 mg/m3) for a15-minute exposure.
  22. 22. Isopropyl AlcoholOne of the foremost defenders your body has against viruses,bacteria, fungus, and other perpetrators, is the natural acid mantleyour skin possesses. Isopropyl alcohol is a solvent and denaturant(substance that changes another substances natural qualities), andhas an uncanny ability to completely strip the natural acid mantle ofyour skin, leaving you more vulnerable to the aforementionedissues.
  23. 23. Isopropyl AlcoholIsopropyl alcohol is added to various hair color rinses, body creams,hand lotions, after shave lotions, fragrances and many othercosmetics. Isopropyl alcohol’s primary function is to increaseabsorption of other ingredients in such cosmetics as body, face, andhand lotions, yet only serves to rob your skin of its natural pH andacid mantle.In exposure studies with rats, inhalation had the capacity to paralyzethe respiratory system, cause broncho-constriction, hypotension,and in some cases, fatalities.
  24. 24. Chemicals which lead toinfertility in males andmiscarriage in pregnancy
  25. 25. Chemicals which lead toinfertility in males andmiscarriage in pregnancy
  26. 26. Chemicals which lead toinfertility in males andmiscarriage in pregnancy
  27. 27. Chemicals which lead toinfertility in males andmiscarriage in pregnancy
  28. 28. Chemicals which lead to - Developmental defects in newborns Altered puberty onsetBisphenol A (BPA) –plastics and resinsChlorinated hydrocarbons – dioxins, furans, PCBs
  29. 29. Chemicals which lead to - Developmental defects in newborns Altered puberty onsetOrganochlorine pesticides –DDT/DDE, linuronPesticides –herbicides,rodenticides,fumigantsCigarette smoking-passive and active
  30. 30. Food products causing infectionSalad dressingsCondiments such as mustard and mayonnaiseChopped garlic-in-oil, garlic-flavored oilButter (whipped, not whipped, salted, unsalted)MargarineCheesesFilled bakery products (crème vs. cream)Vegetable-stuffed breads, such as focaccio
  31. 31. Food contaminationFruits and vegetables to be washed properly due topesticide contamination
  32. 32. Food adultrationGovt of Gujarat’s initiativeAdulteration in milk, edible oils, ghee, iodized salt, sweets,sherbet, silver foil on sweets and colour mixing in spicescan be detected easily with the kit
  33. 33. Food adultrationRasoi Kasauti (Hindi)This book provides information and comes with a kit toidentify common adulterants that generally make their wayinto the food people routinely consume.Dr Brijmohan SharmaSociety of Pollution and Environmental ConservationScientists, Dehra Dun
  34. 34. BiomonitoringBiomonitoring of an individual person is the detection of toxic substances in body. It is difficult and expensive ( about Rs.150000) for 1 person.Collective biomonitoring and periodic lab tests for a group of individuals more that 50 is both feasible and cost effective.
  35. 35. Computer gamesHeightened aggression has been shown in individualswho have played video games.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Tendonitis, and other muscledisorders have been reported by gamers.Computer games have been shown to contribute to socialisolation.
  36. 36. Computer gamesGames have the ability to lower a person’s intelligencelevel.Games cause lack of development due to lack of socialinteraction with other people.Possible transference of aggression brought on by gamesto the real world (killing of dozens of people by healthy,civilized teenagers and not criminals)
  37. 37. TelevisionA 1982 report by the National Institute of Mental Healthconfirmed an earlier study done by the Surgeon Generaland concluded that "Violent programs on television lead toaggressive behaviour by children and teenagers whowatch those programs."Childrens TV shows contain about 20 violent acts eachhour.
  38. 38. TelevisionFrom the National Institute on Media and the Family: Bythe time an average child (one who watches two to fourhours of television daily) leaves elementary school, he orshe will have witnessed 8,000 murders and over 100,000other acts of violenceThe American Psychological Association passed aresolution in February 1985 warning the public of thepotential dangers of children watching violent televisionprograms.
  39. 39. TelevisionThe Research Showed children who watch a lot ofviolence on television are:More likely to become less sensitive to the pain andsuffering of others.More fearful of the world around them.More likely to behave in aggressive ways toward others.
  40. 40. TelevisionMore likely to act out the violence they see on TV inplaying.More likely to commit violent acts.Less bothered by violence in general.More likely to eventually commit crimes.
  41. 41. For more health information on the internet with details and website links:http://drkhalidmunir.googlepages.comE mail-
  42. 42. Thank you Dr M Khalid Munir Hyderabad, India