Relevant+cost

6,108 views

Published on

0 Comments
9 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
6,108
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
42
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
208
Comments
0
Likes
9
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Relevant+cost

  1. 1. Decision Making and Relevant Information
  2. 2. JOIN KHALID AZIZ <ul><li>FRESH CLASSES OF ICMAP STAGE 1 FUNDAMENTALS OF FA & ECONOMICS. </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF COST ACCOUNTING. </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 3 FA & APPRAISAL. </li></ul>
  3. 3. JOIN KHALID AZIZ <ul><li>FRESH CLASSES OF PIPFA </li></ul><ul><li>FOUNDATION </li></ul><ul><li>INTERMEDIATE </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL </li></ul><ul><li>0322-3385752 </li></ul>
  4. 4. JOIN KHALID AZIZ <ul><li>ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. </li></ul><ul><li>FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTACT: </li></ul><ul><li>0322-3385752 </li></ul><ul><li>R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>This presentation explores the decision-making process. </li></ul><ul><li>It focuses on specific decisions such as accepting or rejecting a one-time-only special order, insourcing or outsourcing products or services, and replacing or keeping equipment. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Use the five-step decision process to make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate relevant costs and revenues from irrelevant costs and revenues in any decision situation </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between quantitative factors and qualitative factors in decisions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Identify two potential problems that should be avoided in relevant-cost analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the opportunity cost concept and explain why it is used in decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the key concept in choosing which among multiple products to produce when there are capacity constraints </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss the key factor managers must consider when adding or dropping customers and segments </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why the book value of equipment is irrelevant in equipment-replacement decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how conflicts can arise between the decision model used by a manager and the performance model used to evaluate the manager </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Objective 1 <ul><li>Use the five-step decision process to make decisions </li></ul>
  10. 10. Information and the Decision Process <ul><li>A decision model is a formal method for making a choice, often involving quantitative and qualitative analysis. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Five-Step Decision Process <ul><li>Gathering information </li></ul><ul><li>Making predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing an alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing the decision </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating performance </li></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Objective 2 <ul><li>Differentiate relevant costs and revenues from irrelevant costs and revenues in any decision situation </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Meaning of Relevance <ul><li>Relevant costs and relevant revenues are expected future costs and revenues that differ among alternative courses of action. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Meaning of Relevance <ul><li>Historical costs are irrelevant to a decision but are used as a basis for predicting future costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sunk costs are past costs which are unavoidable. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Meaning of Relevance <ul><li>Differential income (net relevant income) is the difference in total operating income when choosing between two alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Differential costs (net relevant costs) are the difference in total costs between two alternatives. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Learning Objective 3 <ul><li>Distinguish between quantitative factors and qualitative factors in decisions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Quantitative and Qualitative Relevant Information <ul><li>Quantitative factors are outcomes that are measured in numerical terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfinancial </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative factors are outcomes that cannot be measured in numerical terms. </li></ul>
  18. 18. One-Time-Only Special Order <ul><li>Gabriela & Co. manufactures fancy bath towels in Boone, North Carolina. </li></ul><ul><li>The plant has a production capacity of 44,000 towels each month. </li></ul><ul><li>Current monthly production is 30,000 towels. </li></ul><ul><li>The assumption is made that costs can be classified as either variable with respect to units of output or fixed. </li></ul>
  19. 19. One-Time-Only Special Order <ul><li> Variable Fixed Costs Costs Per Unit Per Unit Direct materials Rs6.50 Rs -0- Direct labor .50 1.50 Manufacturing costs 1.50 3.50 Total Rs8.50 Rs5.00 </li></ul>
  20. 20. One-Time-Only Special Order <ul><li>Total fixed direct manufacturing labor amounts to Rs45,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Total fixed overhead is Rs105,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing costs per unit are Rs7 (Rs5 of which is variable). </li></ul><ul><li>What is the full cost per towel? </li></ul>
  21. 21. One-Time-Only Special Order <ul><li>Variable (Rs8.50 + Rs5.00): Rs13.50 </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed: 7.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Rs20.50 </li></ul><ul><li>A hotel in Puerto Rico has offered to buy 5,000 towels from Gabriela & Co. at Rs11.50 per towel for a total of Rs57,500. </li></ul>
  22. 22. One-Time-Only Special Order <ul><li>No marketing costs will be incurred for this one-time-only special order. </li></ul><ul><li>Should Gabriela & Co. accept this order? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes! </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  23. 23. One-Time-Only Special Order <ul><li>The relevant costs of making the towels are Rs42,500. </li></ul><ul><li>Rs8.50 × 5,000 = Rs42,500 incremental costs </li></ul><ul><li>Rs57,500 – Rs42,500 = Rs15,000 incremental revenues </li></ul><ul><li>Rs11.50 – Rs8.50 = Rs3.00 contribution margin per towel </li></ul>
  24. 24. One-Time-Only Special Order <ul><li>Decision criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Accept the order if the revenue differential is greater than the cost differential. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Learning Objective 4 <ul><li>Identify two potential problems that should be avoided in relevant-cost analysis </li></ul>
  26. 26. JOIN KHALID AZIZ <ul><li>ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. </li></ul><ul><li>FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTACT: </li></ul><ul><li>0322-3385752 </li></ul><ul><li>R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Potential Problems in Relevant-Cost Analysis <ul><li>General assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Do not assume that all variable costs are relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not assume that all fixed costs are irrelevant. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Potential Problems in Relevant-Cost Analysis <ul><li>Unit-cost data can potentially mislead decision makers: </li></ul><ul><li>Irrelevant costs are included. </li></ul><ul><li>The same unit costs are used at different output levels. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Insourcing versus Outsourcing <ul><li>Outsourcing is the process of purchasing goods and services from outside vendors rather than producing goods or providing services within the organization, which is called insourcing . </li></ul>
  30. 30. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Decisions about whether to outsource or produce within the organization are often called make-or-buy decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important factors in the make-or-buy decision are quality, dependability of supplies, and costs. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Gabriela & Co. also manufactures bath accessories. </li></ul><ul><li>Management is considering producing a part it needs (#2) or using a part produced by Alec Enterprises. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Gabriela & Co. has the following costs for 150,000 units of Part #2: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct materials Rs 28,000 Direct labor 18,500 Mixed overhead 29,000 Variable overhead 15,000 Fixed overhead 30,000 Total Rs120,500 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Mixed overhead consists of material handling and setup costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriela & Co. produces the 150,000 units in 100 batches of 1,500 units each. </li></ul><ul><li>Total material handling and setup costs equal fixed costs of Rs9,000 plus variable costs of Rs200 per batch. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>What is the cost per unit for Part #2? </li></ul><ul><li>Rs120,500 ÷ 150,000 units = Rs0.8033/unit </li></ul><ul><li>Alec Enterprises offers to sell the same part for Rs0.55. </li></ul><ul><li>Should Gabriela & Co. manufacture the part or buy it from Alec Enterprises? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>The answer depends on the difference in expected future costs between the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriela & Co. anticipates that next year the 150,000 units of Part #2 expected to be sold will be manufactured in 150 batches of 1,000 units each. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Variable costs per batch are expected to decrease to Rs100. </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriela & Co. plans to continue to produce 150,000 next year at the same variable manufacturing costs per unit as this year. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed costs are expected to remain the same as this year. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>What is the variable manufacturing cost per unit? </li></ul><ul><li>Direct material Rs28,000 Direct labor 18,500 Variable overhead 15,000 Total Rs61,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Rs61,500 ÷ 150,000 = Rs0.41 per unit </li></ul>
  38. 38. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Expected relevant cost to make Part #2: </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing Rs61,500 Material handling and setups 15,000 * Total relevant cost to make Rs76,500 *150 × Rs100 = Rs15,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost to buy: (150,000 × Rs0.55) Rs82,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriela & Co. will save Rs6,000 by making the part. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Now assume that the Rs9,000 in fixed clerical salaries to support material handling and setup will not be incurred if Part #2 is purchased from Alec Enterprises. </li></ul><ul><li>Should Gabriela & Co. buy the part or make the part? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Make-or-Buy Decisions <ul><li>Relevant cost to make: </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Rs76,500 Fixed 9,000 Total Rs85,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost to buy: Rs82,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriela would save Rs3,000 by buying the part. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Learning Objective 5 <ul><li>Describe the opportunity cost concept and explain why it is used in decision making </li></ul>
  42. 42. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Assume that if Gabriela buys the part from Alec Enterprises, it can use the facilities previously used to manufacture Part #2 to produce Part #3 for Krysta’s Company. </li></ul><ul><li>The expected additional future operating income is Rs18,000. </li></ul><ul><li>What should Gabriela & Co. do? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Gabriela & Co. has three options: </li></ul><ul><li>Make Part #2 and do not make Part #3 for Krysta. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy Part #2 and do not make Part #3 for Krysta. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy the part and use the facilities to produce Part #3 for Krysta. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Expected cost of obtaining 150,000 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Buy Part #2 Buy Part #2 and do not and make Make make Part #3 Part #3 Part #2 Rs82,500 Rs64,500* Rs76,500 </li></ul><ul><li>*Rs82,500 – Rs18,000 = Rs64,500 </li></ul>
  45. 45. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Opportunity cost is the contribution to income that is foregone (rejected) by not using a limited resource in its next-best alternative use. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Opportunity costs are not recorded in formal accounting records since they do not generate cash outlays. </li></ul><ul><li>These costs also are not ordinarily incorporated into formal reports. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>The opportunity cost of holding inventory is the income forgone from tying up money in inventory and not investing it elsewhere. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Carrying costs of inventory can be a significant opportunity cost and should be incorporated into decisions regarding lot purchase sizes for materials. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Assume that annual estimated Part #2 requirements for next year is 150,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost per purchase order is Rs40. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost per unit when each purchase is of 1,500 units = Rs0.55. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost per unit when each purchase is equal to or greater than 150,000 = Rs0.54. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Average investment in inventory is either: </li></ul><ul><li>(1,500 x .55) ÷ 2 = Rs412.50 or </li></ul><ul><li>(150,000 x Rs0.54) = Rs40,500 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual interest rate for investment in government bonds is 6%. </li></ul><ul><li>Rs412.50 × .06 = Rs24.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Rs40,500 × .06 = Rs2,430 </li></ul>
  51. 51. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Option A: Make 100 purchases of 1,500 units: </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase order costs: (100 × Rs40) Rs 4,000.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase costs: (150,000 × Rs0.55) 82,500.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual interest income that could be earned: 24.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant costs Rs86,524.75 </li></ul>
  52. 52. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>Option B: Make 1 purchase of 150,000 units: </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase order costs: (1 × Rs40) Rs 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase costs: (150,000 × Rs0.54) 81,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual interest income that could be earned: 2,430 </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant costs: Rs83,470 </li></ul>
  53. 53. Opportunity Costs, Outsourcing, and Constraints <ul><li>In this case purchasing all 150,000 units at the beginning of the year is preferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>The higher purchase and ordering costs exceeds the lower opportunity cost of holding smaller inventory. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Learning Objective 6 <ul><li>Describe the key concept in choosing which among multiple products to produce when there are capacity constraints </li></ul>
  55. 55. JOIN KHALID AZIZ <ul><li>ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. </li></ul><ul><li>FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTACT: </li></ul><ul><li>0322-3385752 </li></ul><ul><li>R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Product-Mix Decisions Under Capacity Constraints <ul><li>What product should be emphasized to maximize operating income in the face of capacity constraints? </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriela & Co. produces Product #2 and Product #3. </li></ul><ul><li>The company has 3,000 machine hours available to produce these products. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Product-Mix Decisions Under Capacity Constraints <ul><li>Decision criteria: Aim for the highest contribution margin per unit of the constraining factor. </li></ul><ul><li>When multiple constraints exist, optimization techniques such as linear programming can be used in making decisions. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Product-Mix Decisions Under Capacity Constraints <ul><li>Per unit Product #2 Product #3 Sales price Rs2.11 Rs14.50 Variable expenses 0.41 13.90 Contribution margin Rs1.70 Rs 0.60 </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution margin ratio 81% 4% </li></ul>
  59. 59. Product-Mix Decisions Under Capacity Constraints <ul><li>One unit of Prod. #2 requires 7 machine hours. </li></ul><ul><li>One unit of Prod. #3 requires 2 machine hours. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the contribution of each product per machine hour? </li></ul><ul><li>Product #2: Rs1.70 ÷ 7 = Rs0.24 </li></ul><ul><li>Product #3: Rs0.60 ÷ 2 = Rs0.30 </li></ul>
  60. 60. Product-Mix Decisions Under Capacity Constraints <ul><li>Which product should be emphasized? </li></ul><ul><li>The product with the highest contribution margin per unit of the constraining resource. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Learning Objective 7 <ul><li>Discuss the key factor managers must consider when adding or dropping customers and segments </li></ul>
  62. 62. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li>Companies must often make decisions about adding or discontinuing a product line, branch, or business segment. </li></ul><ul><li>Companies must also make decisions about adding or dropping customers. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li>Blowing Rock Furniture supplies specialized furniture to two local retailers – Stevens and Cohen. </li></ul><ul><li>Blowing Rock Furniture has a monthly capacity of 3,000 machine hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed costs are allocated on the basis of revenues. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li> Stevens Cohen Revenues Rs200,000 Rs100,000 Variable costs 70,000 60,000 Fixed costs 100,000 50,000 Total operating costs Rs170,000 Rs110,000 Operating income Rs 30,000 Rs (10,000) Machine-hours required 2,000 1,000 </li></ul>
  65. 65. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li> Total Revenues Rs300,000 Variable costs 130,000 Fixed costs 150,000 Total operating costs Rs280,000 Operating income Rs 20,000 Machine-hours required 3,000 </li></ul>
  66. 66. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li>Should Blowing Rock Furniture drop the Cohen business, assuming that dropping Cohen would decrease its total fixed costs by 10%? </li></ul><ul><li>New fixed costs would be: Rs150,000 – Rs15,000 = Rs135,000 </li></ul>
  67. 67. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li> Stevens Alone Revenues Rs200,000 Variable costs 70,000 Fixed costs 135,000 Total operating costs Rs205,000 Operating income Rs (5,000) Machine-hours required 3,000 </li></ul>
  68. 68. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li>Cohen’s business is providing a contribution margin of Rs40,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Rs40,000 decrease in contribution margin – Rs15,000 decrease in fixed costs = Rs25,000 decrease in operating income. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li>Assume that if Blowing Rock Furniture drops Cohen’s business it can lease the excess capacity to the Perez Corporation for Rs50,000. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed costs would not decrease. </li></ul><ul><li>Should Blowing Rock Furniture lease to Perez? </li></ul>
  70. 70. Profitability, Activity-Based Costing, and Relevant Costs <ul><li>Rs50,000 would be Blowing Rock Furniture’s opportunity cost of continuing serving Cohen. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rs50,000 offsets the Rs40,000 contribution of Cohen’s business. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Learning Objective 8 <ul><li>Explain why the book value of equipment is irrelevant in equipment-replacement decisions </li></ul>
  72. 72. Equipment-Replacement Decisions <ul><li>Assume that Gabriela & Co. is considering replacing a cutting machine with a newer model. </li></ul><ul><li>The new machine is more efficient than the old machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues will be unaffected. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Equipment-Replacement Decisions <ul><li> Existing Replacement Machine Machine Original cost Rs80,000 Rs105,000 Useful life 4 years 4 years Accumulated depreciation Rs50,000 Book value Rs30,000 Disposal price Rs14,000 Annual costs Rs46,000 Rs 10,000 </li></ul>
  74. 74. Equipment-Replacement Decisions <ul><li>Ignoring the time value of money and income taxes, should Gabriela replace the existing machine? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes! </li></ul><ul><li>The cost savings per year are Rs36,000. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost savings over a 4-year period will be Rs36,000 × 4 = Rs144,000. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Equipment-Replacement Decisions <ul><li>Investment = Rs105,000 – Rs14,000 = Rs91,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Rs144,000 – Rs91,000 = Rs53,000 advantage of the replacement machine. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Irrelevance of Past Costs <ul><li>The book value of existing equipment is irrelevant since it is neither a future cost nor does it differ among any alternatives (sunk costs never differ). </li></ul>
  77. 77. Irrelevance of Past Costs <ul><li>The disposal price of old equipment and the purchase cost of new equipment are relevant costs and revenues because... </li></ul><ul><li>they are future costs or revenues that differ between alternatives to be decided upon. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Learning Objective 9 <ul><li>Explain how conflicts can arise between the decision model used by a manager and the performance model used to evaluate the manager </li></ul>
  79. 79. Decisions and Performance Evaluation <ul><li>What is the journal entry to sell the existing machine? </li></ul><ul><li>Cash 14,000 Accumulated Depreciation 50,000 Loss on disposal 16,000 Machine 80,000 </li></ul>
  80. 80. Decisions and Performance Evaluation <ul><li>In the real world would the manager replace the machine? </li></ul><ul><li>An important factor in replacement decisions is the manager’s perceptions of whether the decision model is consistent with how the manager’s performance is judged. </li></ul>
  81. 81. Decisions and Performance Evaluation <ul><li>Managers often behave consistent with their short-run interests and favor the alternative that yields best performance measures in the short run. </li></ul><ul><li>When conflicting decisions are generated, managers tend to favor the performance evaluation model. </li></ul>
  82. 82. Decisions and Performance Evaluation <ul><li>Top management faces a challenge – that is, making sure that the performance-evaluation model of subordinate managers is consistent with the decision model. </li></ul>
  83. 83. JOIN KHALID AZIZ <ul><li>ECONOMICS OF ICMAP, ICAP, MA-ECONOMICS, B.COM. </li></ul><ul><li>FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 1,3,4 ICAP MODULE B, B.COM, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>COST ACCOUNTING OF ICMAP STAGE 2,3 ICAP MODULE D, BBA, MBA & PIPFA. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTACT: </li></ul><ul><li>0322-3385752 </li></ul><ul><li>R-1173,ALNOOR SOCIETY, BLOCK 19,F.B.AREA, KARACHI, PAKISTAN. </li></ul>

×