Blood Supply of Head & Neck


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Blood Supply of Head & Neck

  1. 1. Blood Supplyof Head & Neck Khaleel Alyahya, PhD, MEd
  2. 2. ObjectivesAt the end of the lecture, the student should be able to: Define the arterial system. List major arteries and their distribution in the head & neck. Define the venous system. List major veins and their distribution in the head & neck.
  3. 3. Arterial System
  4. 4. General principles of arterial supply Arteries carry blood away from the heart. All arteries, carry oxygenated blood  except the pulmonary and umbilical arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs (postnatal) and to the placenta (prenatal) respectively The flow of blood depends on the pumping action of the heart. There are no valves in the arteries. The branches of arteries supplying adjacent areas normally  anastomose with one another freely providing backup routes for blood to flow if one link is blocked.
  5. 5. Aorta (FYI) It is the largest artery in the body. Originates from the left ventricle. It is divided into 4 parts. It carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.
  6. 6. Arch of Aorta (FYI)Branches of Arch of Aorta1. Left Subclavian artery.2. Left Common Carotid artery.3. Brachiocephalic trunk.
  7. 7. Common Carotid Artery Common Carotid Arteries supply Head &Neck. Left common carotid arises from aorticarch. Right common carotid arises fromBrachiocephalic trunk. Each artery runs upward, embedded intothe carotid sheath through the neck, fromthe sternoclavicular joint to the upper borderof the thyroid cartilage. Each common carotid gives two branches:  Internal carotid  External carotid
  8. 8. Common Carotid ArteryRelations Antrolaterally Skin, fascia Sterocledomastoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Superior belly of omohyoid Posteriorly Transverse process of the lower 4 cervical vertebrae Prevertebral muscles Sympathetic trunk Vertebral vessels
  9. 9. Common Carotid ArteryRelations Medially Larynx pharynx, Trachea esophagus Lobe of thyroid gland Laterally Internal jugular vein Vagus nerve
  10. 10. External Carotid Artery It divides behind neck of the mandibleinto two 2 terminal branches:  Superficial temporal  Maxillary artery It supplies:  Scalp: Superficial temporal artery  Face: Facial artery  Maxilla: Maxillary artery  Tongue: Lingual artery  Glands: Superior thyroid artery
  11. 11. External Carotid Artery Branches  Superior thyroid  Ascending pharyngeal  Lingual  Facial  Occipital  Posterior auricular  Superficial temporal  Maxillary
  12. 12. Internal Carotid Artery Has no branches in the neck andenters the cranial cavity. Supplies structures inside skull. Arises from the common carotid atthe level of the superior border of thethyroid cartilage It is embedded in the carotid sheathwith internal jugular vein and vagusnerve . It Supplies:  Brain  Nose Scalp  Eye
  13. 13. Subclavian Artery Left subclavian arises from aorticArch. Right subclavian arises frombrachiocephalic trunk. Subclavian arteries give contributionto CNS through one of its mainbranches;  Vertebral artery.  Supply CNS
  14. 14. Venous System
  15. 15. General principles of Venous Drainage Veins are blood vessels that bring blood back to the heart. All veins carry deoxygenated blood  with the exception of the pulmonary veins and umbilical veins There are two types of veins:  Superficial veins: close to the surface of the body  NO corresponding arteries  Deep veins: found deeper in the body  With corresponding arteries
  16. 16. Veins of Head & Neck Two divisions:  Superficial Veins  External Jugular veins  Anterior jugular veins  Deep Veins  Internal Jugulars veins
  17. 17. Superficial Veins of Head & Neck External Jugular veins:  Lies superficial to the sternomastoid muscle It passes down the neck and it is the only tributary of the subclavian vein.  It drains blood from:  Outside of the skull  Deep parts of the face
  18. 18. Superficial Veins of Head & Neck Anterior jugular veins:  It begins in the upper part of the neck by the union of the submental veins.  It descends close to the median line of the neck, medial to the sternomastoid muscle.  At the lower part of the neck, it passes laterally beneath that muscle to drain into the external jugular vein.  Just above the sternum the two anterior jugular veins communicate by a transverse vein to form the jugular arch.
  19. 19. Superficial Veins of Head & NeckInternal Jugulars vein:  Drains blood from the head, brain, face & neck.  It descends in the neck along with the internal and common carotid arteries and vagus nerve, within the carotid sheath.  Joins the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.  Tributaries: Superior thyroid  Lingual  Facial  Occipital veins  Dural venous sinuses
  20. 20. Superior Vena Cava Formed by the union of the right and left brachiocephalic veins. Brachiocephalic veins are formed by the union of internal jugular and subclavian veins. Drains venous blood from: Head, neck, thoracic wall & upper limbsIt Passes downward and enter theright atrium.
  21. 21. QUEST!ON?