Market Segmentation,
Targeting, and
Positioning
The STP ProcessThe STP Process
• Segmentation is the process of classifying customers
into groups which share some common ...
Target MarketTarget Market
• A market is a set of all actual and potential buyers
• A target market is a group of people t...
Advantages of SegmentationAdvantages of Segmentation
1. The process of breaking up a homogeneous market
into heterogeneous...
Requirements for Effective SegmentationRequirements for Effective Segmentation
• Size, purchasing power, profiles
of segme...
Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and
Positioning
Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and
Positioning
1. Identify Bases
for ...
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Levels of Market Segmentation
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Levels of Market Segmentation
Mass M...
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Bases for Segmenting Consumer
Markets
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Bases for Segmenting Consume...
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Bases for Segmenting Business Markets
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Bases for Segmenting Busines...
Segmenting Business
Markets
Segmenting Business
Markets
• Segmentation by customer size or geographic location
• Four segm...
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Bases for Segmenting International Markets
Step 1. Market Segmentation
Bases for Segmenting In...
Linking the ConceptsLinking the Concepts
• Using the segmentation bases you’ve just
heard about, segment the Irish clothin...
Step 2. Market Targeting
Evaluating Market Segments (developing
selection criteria)
Step 2. Market Targeting
Evaluating Ma...
Step 2. Market Targeting
Market Coverage Strategies
Step 2. Market Targeting
Market Coverage Strategies
Segment 1Segment 1...
Step 2. Market Targeting
Choosing a Market-Coverage Strategy
Step 2. Market Targeting
Choosing a Market-Coverage Strategy
...
Linking the ConceptsLinking the Concepts
• At the last ‘linking the concepts’, you segmented
the Irish clothing market.
>N...
Step 3. Positioning for Competitive
Advantage
Step 3. Positioning for Competitive
Advantage
• Product’s PositionProduct’s ...
Step 3. Positioning for Competitive
Advantage: Strategies
Step 3. Positioning for Competitive
Advantage: Strategies
Agains...
Steps to Choosing and Implementing
a Positioning Strategy
Steps to Choosing and Implementing
a Positioning Strategy
• Step...
Developing Competitive
Differentiation
Developing Competitive
Differentiation
ProductProduct ServiceService
ImageImage Peo...
Selecting the Right Competitive
Advantages
Selecting the Right Competitive
Advantages
Criteria
for
Determining
Which
Diffe...
Step 4 – Supporting the
positioning strategy
Step 4 – Supporting the
positioning strategy
• At this stage the company has ...
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04 marketingsegmentationtargetingandpositioning-110403205125-phpapp02

  1. 1. Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning
  2. 2. The STP ProcessThe STP Process • Segmentation is the process of classifying customers into groups which share some common characteristic • Targeting involves the process of evaluating each segments attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter • Positioning is arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive and desirable place relative to competing products in the mind of the consumer
  3. 3. Target MarketTarget Market • A market is a set of all actual and potential buyers • A target market is a group of people toward whom a firm markets its goods, services, or ideas with a strategy designed to satisfy their specific needs and preferences. • Any marketing strategy must include a detailed (specific) description of this.
  4. 4. Advantages of SegmentationAdvantages of Segmentation 1. The process of breaking up a homogeneous market into heterogeneous segments forces the marketer to analyse and consider both the needs of the market and the company’s ability to competently serve those needs – thereby making the company better informed about its customers 2. Competitor offerings and marketing positioning must also be analysed in this context so the company must consider what its competitive advantages and disadvantages are, helping it to clarify its own positioning strategy 3. Limited resources are used to best advantage, targeted at those segments that offer the best potential
  5. 5. Requirements for Effective SegmentationRequirements for Effective Segmentation • Size, purchasing power, profiles of segments can be measured. • Segments can be effectively reached and served. • Segments are large or profitable enough to serve. MeasurableMeasurable AccessibleAccessible SubstantialSubstantial DifferentialDifferential ActionableActionable • Segments must respond differently to different marketing mix elements & programs. • Effective programs can be designed to attract and serve the segments.
  6. 6. Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning Steps in Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning 1. Identify Bases for Segmenting the Market 2. Develop Profiles of Resulting Segments 3. Develop Selection Criteria 4. Select Target Segment(s) 5. Develop Positioning for Each Target Segment 6. Develop Marketing Mix for Each Target Segment Market Positioning Market Targeting Market Segmentation
  7. 7. Step 1. Market Segmentation Levels of Market Segmentation Step 1. Market Segmentation Levels of Market Segmentation Mass Marketing Same product to all consumers (no segmentation) Mass Marketing Same product to all consumers (no segmentation) Segment Marketing Different products to one or more segments (some segmentation) Segment Marketing Different products to one or more segments (some segmentation) Micromarketing Products to suit the tastes of individuals and locations (complete segmentation) Micromarketing Products to suit the tastes of individuals and locations (complete segmentation) Niche Marketing Different products to subgroups within segments (more segmentation) Niche Marketing Different products to subgroups within segments (more segmentation) Local Marketing Tailoring brands/ promotions to local customer groups Individual Marketing Tailoring products/ programs to individual customers
  8. 8. Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Consumer Markets Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Consumer Markets Geographic Demographic Age, gender, family size and life cycle, or income Psychographic Social class, lifestyle, or personality Behavioural Occasions, benefits sought, user status, usage rate, loyalty Nations, states, regions or cities
  9. 9. Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Business Markets Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting Business Markets Bases for Segmenting Business Markets Bases for Segmenting Business Markets DemographicsPersonal Characteristics Situational Factors Operating Characteristics Purchasing Approaches
  10. 10. Segmenting Business Markets Segmenting Business Markets • Segmentation by customer size or geographic location • Four segments of business customers – Programmed buyers – Relationship buyers – Transaction buyers – Bargain hunters
  11. 11. Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting International Markets Step 1. Market Segmentation Bases for Segmenting International Markets Political/ Legal Political/ Legal CulturalCultural IntermarketIntermarket EconomicEconomicGeographicGeographic Industrial MarketsIndustrial Markets
  12. 12. Linking the ConceptsLinking the Concepts • Using the segmentation bases you’ve just heard about, segment the Irish clothing market. >Describe each of the major segments and subsegments.
  13. 13. Step 2. Market Targeting Evaluating Market Segments (developing selection criteria) Step 2. Market Targeting Evaluating Market Segments (developing selection criteria) • Segment Size and GrowthSegment Size and Growth – Analyze sales, growth rates and expected profitability for various segments. • Segment Structural AttractivenessSegment Structural Attractiveness – Consider effects of: Competitors, Availability of Substitute Products and, the Power of Buyers & Suppliers. • Company Objectives and ResourcesCompany Objectives and Resources – Company skills & resources relative to the segment(s). – Look for Competitive Advantages.
  14. 14. Step 2. Market Targeting Market Coverage Strategies Step 2. Market Targeting Market Coverage Strategies Segment 1Segment 1 Segment 2Segment 2 Segment 3Segment 3 Segment 1Segment 1 Segment 2Segment 2 Segment 3Segment 3 Company Marketing Mix Company Marketing Mix Company Marketing Mix Company Marketing Mix Company Marketing Mix 1 Company Marketing Mix 1 Company Marketing Mix 2 Company Marketing Mix 2 Company Marketing Mix 3 Company Marketing Mix 3 MarketMarket A. Undifferentiated Marketing B. Differentiated Marketing C. Concentrated Marketing
  15. 15. Step 2. Market Targeting Choosing a Market-Coverage Strategy Step 2. Market Targeting Choosing a Market-Coverage Strategy Company Resources Product Variability Product’s Life-Cycle Stage Market Variability Competitors’ Marketing Strategies
  16. 16. Linking the ConceptsLinking the Concepts • At the last ‘linking the concepts’, you segmented the Irish clothing market. >Now, pick two companies that serve this market and describe their segmentation and targeting strategies. >Can you come up with one that targets many different segments versus another that focuses on only one or a few segments? • How does each company you choose differentiate its marketing offer and image? • How has each done a good job of establishing this differentiation in the minds of targeted consumers?
  17. 17. Step 3. Positioning for Competitive Advantage Step 3. Positioning for Competitive Advantage • Product’s PositionProduct’s Position - the way the product is defined by consumers on important attributes - the place the product occupies in consumers’ minds relative to competing products. • Marketers must: –Plan positions to give their products the greatest advantage in selected target markets, –Design marketing mixes to create these planned positions.
  18. 18. Step 3. Positioning for Competitive Advantage: Strategies Step 3. Positioning for Competitive Advantage: Strategies Against a Competitor Against a Competitor Usage Occasions Usage Occasions Away from Competitors Away from Competitors Product Attributes Product Attributes Product Class Product Class Benefits Offered Benefits Offered User ClassUser Class BB AA EE DD CCH H G G F F
  19. 19. Steps to Choosing and Implementing a Positioning Strategy Steps to Choosing and Implementing a Positioning Strategy • Step 1. Identifying Possible Competitive Advantages: Competitive Differentiation. • Step 2. Selecting the Right Competitive Advantage: Unique Selling Proposition (USP). • Step 3. Communicating and Delivering the Chosen Position. • Step 4. Support the positioning strategy with a unique marketing mix
  20. 20. Developing Competitive Differentiation Developing Competitive Differentiation ProductProduct ServiceService ImageImage PeoplePeople Areas for Competitive Differentiation Areas for Competitive Differentiation
  21. 21. Selecting the Right Competitive Advantages Selecting the Right Competitive Advantages Criteria for Determining Which Differences to Promote Criteria for Determining Which Differences to Promote AffordableAffordable SuperiorSuperior ProfitableProfitable PreemptivePreemptive DistinctiveDistinctive ImportantImportant CommunicableCommunicable
  22. 22. Step 4 – Supporting the positioning strategy Step 4 – Supporting the positioning strategy • At this stage the company has decided on its positioning strategy and must now design a marketing mix to support this strategy. The next part of the course looks at ‘Developing the Marketing Mix’

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