Prince Fahad Bin Sultan National UniversityComputer Skills                 2011-2012                                      ...
Computer       Is a machine that changes information from oneform to another, all computers takes-in information(input) an...
The Components of ComputerSystem Are :  1. Hardware  2. Software  3. Users                             3
1 - Hardware        The physical parts of the computer system.  (Central Processing Unit CPU, Memory, storage  devices, In...
1- Hardware3. Storage Devices : (Secondary memory) it includes disk and tape   drives, serves as long-term repositories fo...
1- Hardware              CPU  Hard Disk         RAM                          6
1- Hardware       Motherboard                     Sound Card                                  7
1- Hardware (I/O)                                    Sound_blaster mouse              Keyboard                            ...
1- Hardware (I/O)   Input Devices       Keyboard       Mouse       Track ball       Touch bad       Touch Screen    ...
1- Hardware (I/O)   Output devices        Video Display unit (monitor) . Resolution: The number of dots or         pixel...
2- Software       The instructions that tell the Hardware how totransform the input data into necessary output.There are t...
2- Software   Software types based on the source:1. Commercial Software: for sale software2. Shareware Software: for sale ...
2- Software   Software Interface:1. Command Line Interface:           using a keyboard only to type the   commands as a li...
3 - UsersAre people who use the software on  the computer to do some tasks.                                     14
Data representation in the memory       Information         It can be applied to anything that can be communicated,whether...
Data representation in the memoryCollection of 8 bits, called a byte.• Bit 0,1• Byte 8 bits (one letter)• Kbyte 1024 Bytes...
Computer PerformanceClock Speed: It is the number of cycles that the              CPU(Processor) can do per one secondMHz ...
Cycle (Access Time)      The Time that the processor needs to retrievedata from memory.• Hard disk (secondary memory): the...
CPU ( Central Processing Unit )                     ALUConsists >>                            Register                    ...
CPU ( Central Processing Unit )  2 - CU: Control Unit:         It send commands (instructions) to all computer parts (ALU,...
Memories (Main Memory)1.  RAM (Random Access Memory) (Volatile) Memory that can be read          from or write to by a com...
Memories (Secondary Memory)1.   Flash memory (nonvolatile) Faster than RAM, it can be used also in Mobiles,           Digi...
Computer Types                                  (Based on the Size)1 - Mainframes:     - Large and very expensive (Size of...
Computer Types                       (Based on the Size)2 - Supercomputers * Most powerful computers. * The fastest (1.6 t...
Computer Types                               (Based on the Size)4 - PCs (Microcomputers):   The Personal Computer can be a...
Computer Types                     (Based on the Size)                                       Portable       Mainframe     ...
Computer Types                                            (Based on the processing method)1) Digital Computers: are used t...
Operating Systems (OS)   It is a collection of programs and instructions, which    it is main function is to manage the c...
Operating Systems (OS)                     Continued …Types of OS: 1. Multi-users (Network OS)    Allow many users to use ...
Programming Languages          A set of words, rules, syntax and semantic used by a programmerto input his instruction to ...
Programming Languages                                           Continued …1 – Low Level Languages ( LLL ):      Machine ...
Programming Languages                          Continued …2 – High Level Languages (HLL):      Its more developed and clos...
Multimedia   Is the use of different media in computer    programs:        Text        Graphics        Audio        V...
Data Communication & Networks   The Benefits of this technique are:       Sharing of files, documents and resources    ...
NETWORKS1- Local Area Network (LAN)   It’s a network designed to span short distances and relatively   small number of com...
NETWORKS     2- Wide Area Network (WAN)         It’s a network that connects two or more LANs over a large area         us...
NETWORKS   Networks Topologies:1. Star Network   •   All computers connected to central computer by a hub   •   If the cen...
NETWORKS  LAN           WAN                 38
NETWORKS   Data Communication hardware:1. Modem   •   MODulate / DEModulate   •   Telephone network   •   Designed for voi...
INTERNET   Is a WAN network that span the globe, it gives us thecapability to exchange information.  World Wide Web (WWW, ...
INTERNET    To connect to the Internet you need:1. PC (Personal Computer)2. Modem3. Telephone line4. Browser (internet sof...
Computer Ethics   Copyright       Pay for software and register to use it       Copyright principles            Softwa...
Computer Ethics   Licensing       Buying software entitle the user for license to        use it.       Licensing agreem...
Computer Ethics                             VirusesTypes of viruses     Worms                                     Time B...
Computer Ethics   Protecting from Viruses       Do not use floppies from unreliable sources       Use only registered s...
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IT level 1

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IT level 1

  1. 1. Prince Fahad Bin Sultan National UniversityComputer Skills 2011-2012 1
  2. 2. Computer Is a machine that changes information from oneform to another, all computers takes-in information(input) and gives-out information (output). Input (Data) Processing Output (information)What is Information Technology (IT) ? A set of tools that are used to: receive , process, store, retrieve , print and transmit information in an electronic form through computers. these forms can be : text, sound, picture or video. 2
  3. 3. The Components of ComputerSystem Are : 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Users 3
  4. 4. 1 - Hardware The physical parts of the computer system. (Central Processing Unit CPU, Memory, storage devices, Input/output). The hardware cannot do any thing without software1. CPU : the computer brain, it process information, performing arithmetic calculations and make basic decision by comparing information values. Its speed measured in Hertz2. Memory : (Main memory) is used to store programs and data that need to be instantly accessible to the CPU. (E.g. RAM, ROM) 4
  5. 5. 1- Hardware3. Storage Devices : (Secondary memory) it includes disk and tape drives, serves as long-term repositories for data. (It serves as Input and output devices) (E.g. CD, Floppy A , Hard-desk, Flash memory)4. Peripherals : Any hardware that is connected to a computer . (e.g. Printer, Scanner, Modems … ) 5
  6. 6. 1- Hardware CPU Hard Disk RAM 6
  7. 7. 1- Hardware Motherboard Sound Card 7
  8. 8. 1- Hardware (I/O) Sound_blaster mouse Keyboard Microphone Printer scannerTrack Ball Joystick Camera Printer & scanner 8
  9. 9. 1- Hardware (I/O) Input Devices  Keyboard  Mouse  Track ball  Touch bad  Touch Screen  Light Pen  Scanner (FlatBed, SheetFed, HandHeld)  Joystick  Microphone  Disk Drives (DVD, CD-ROM, Floppy Disks)  Digital and Video Camera 9
  10. 10. 1- Hardware (I/O) Output devices  Video Display unit (monitor) . Resolution: The number of dots or pixels that can be displayed on the screen. High resolution means better quality and clearer display  VGA = 640 * 480  SVGA = 600 * 800  XVGA = 768 * 1024  Panel Display Flat  Printers (Daisy wheel, Dot Matrix, Inkjet, Laser Printer, Plotters) .  Speakers  Speech Synthesizers  Removable Media  Projectors 10
  11. 11. 2- Software The instructions that tell the Hardware how totransform the input data into necessary output.There are two General types of computer software: 1- System Software: which coordinates the Hardwareoperations and does behind the scene work, the computer userseldom sees. (Windows, dos, Mac, Unix, programming languages). 2- Application Software: which serves as productivity toolsto help computer users to solve problems. (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, games, calculator ,…) 11
  12. 12. 2- Software Software types based on the source:1. Commercial Software: for sale software2. Shareware Software: for sale software but with a tryout period3. Freeware Software: free software without source code4. Public Domain Software: free software with the source code 12
  13. 13. 2- Software Software Interface:1. Command Line Interface: using a keyboard only to type the commands as a line of text.2. Graphical User Interface (GUI): using mouse or keyboard to select the commands as a buttons, pictures, menus … “much simpler” 13
  14. 14. 3 - UsersAre people who use the software on the computer to do some tasks. 14
  15. 15. Data representation in the memory Information It can be applied to anything that can be communicated,whether it has a value or not. (Words, Numbers, Pictures, Symbols,Sounds, Moving Pictures).Bit (Binary digiT) is the smallest unit of the information. A Bit can have one oftwo values. (Yes & No, Zero & One, On & OFF, High & Low).ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 15
  16. 16. Data representation in the memoryCollection of 8 bits, called a byte.• Bit 0,1• Byte 8 bits (one letter)• Kbyte 1024 Bytes• Mega Byte Million Bytes• Giga Byte Billion Byte• Tera Byte Thousand Billion Byte 16
  17. 17. Computer PerformanceClock Speed: It is the number of cycles that the CPU(Processor) can do per one secondMHz :It is a unit to measure the speed of CPU.e.g. 33 MHz 33 million cycles in one second. 17
  18. 18. Cycle (Access Time) The Time that the processor needs to retrievedata from memory.• Hard disk (secondary memory): the access time canbe measured in Millisecond (thousandths of second)(1/1000 of second).• RAM and ROM (Primary memory): the access timecan be measured in Nanosecond (Billionths of second)(1/1000000000 of second). 18
  19. 19. CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) ALUConsists >> Register CU 1 - ALU: Arithmetic Logic Unit. - It performs the arithmetic (+, -, / ,*, .. ) and logic (And, Or, Not, >, <, <=, …) operations. - It consists of: 1) ICs (integrated Circuits) 2) Registers: to store intermediate results. 19
  20. 20. CPU ( Central Processing Unit ) 2 - CU: Control Unit: It send commands (instructions) to all computer parts (ALU, Memory, I/O) to manage computer tasks.33 - Buses:TThere are three kinds of Buses at the CPU: ALU  Address Buses. Register  Data Buses. CU  Control Buses. 20
  21. 21. Memories (Main Memory)1. RAM (Random Access Memory) (Volatile) Memory that can be read from or write to by a computer or other devices. Informationstored in RAM is lost when you turn off the computer.2. Cache memory (Volatile) Faster than RAM, It’s used to store the data and instructions that need to be retrieved many times. (The most recently used data)3. ROM ( Read Only Memory ) (nonvolatile) It is used to read instructions only (not to write). It contains the start-up instructions, which was etched-in when the chip was manufactured.4. Registers (Volatile) It is an electronic unit can be used to store very tiny amount of information (Intermediate information). It is located at ALU and CU normally. 21
  22. 22. Memories (Secondary Memory)1. Flash memory (nonvolatile) Faster than RAM, it can be used also in Mobiles, Digital camera and printer.2. Magnetic Tape (nonvolatile) Like cassette.3. Hard Disk (nonvolatile) : it’s the most important storage media in the computer4. Floppy Disks (nonvolatile) : 1.4 MB5. CD-ROM (nonvolatile) : 700 MB6. Digital Versatile Disk (nonvolatile): 17 or 4.7 GB 22
  23. 23. Computer Types (Based on the Size)1 - Mainframes: - Large and very expensive (Size of refrigerator, cost a round a million US $) - Used by large organizations for big computing jobs. (Banks, Airlines) - They are connected to a large number of terminals that could be dumb (can not operate on their own) Terminal: a combination keyboard and screen that transfers information to and from the computer. Intelligent Terminals: They have processing power themselves that can be used by the user.Characteristics: • It gives more mathematical computing power than PCs. • It lets the users share expensive computing equipments. • Save memory space. 23
  24. 24. Computer Types (Based on the Size)2 - Supercomputers * Most powerful computers. * The fastest (1.6 trillion operation per second) * It is called sometime High Performance Computer. * Used in large scientific and research laboratories, space operations3 - Minicomputers * Multi-user machine. * Smaller and less expensive than mainframes, but larger and more expensive than PCs. * Minicomputers are history. (Not produced today) 24
  25. 25. Computer Types (Based on the Size)4 - PCs (Microcomputers): The Personal Computer can be any general-purpose, single-user computer. It consists of: ( System Unit, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse)5 - Portable computers: * Laptop computers. * Notebook computers. 25
  26. 26. Computer Types (Based on the Size) Portable Mainframe Supercomputer 26
  27. 27. Computer Types (Based on the processing method)1) Digital Computers: are used to process all discrete data. (Digits, Letters) 2) Analog Computers: are used to process the connected data. (Temperature, Speed, atmospheric pressure) 3) Hybrid computers: for all data (discrete and connected data), the internal processing is digital. Computer characteristics:* High speed in performing Operations. (thousand million operation per second)* It gives very accurate results.* It used to store very big amount of information.* Multiple uses. 27
  28. 28. Operating Systems (OS) It is a collection of programs and instructions, which it is main function is to manage the computer resources and to organize using it. (Resources: I/O, Programs, and Secondary storage devices like magnetic tapes.) Functions  Make sure of I/O operations.  Manage the stored information in the memory.  Protect computer users from each other.  Provide the connection with other computers.  Keep the computer system in secure 28
  29. 29. Operating Systems (OS) Continued …Types of OS: 1. Multi-users (Network OS) Allow many users to use the computer at the same time. it uses the timesharing property 2. Multi-tasks: The ability to perform many tasks at the same time. 3. Open-system: The ability to use the OS over different devices. 4. Multiprocessor: 29
  30. 30. Programming Languages A set of words, rules, syntax and semantic used by a programmerto input his instruction to the computer to solve some problems or to dospecific task. Computers can understand these languages.Compiler or Interpreter: is a translator that translates the programminglanguages to the machine language that the computer can understand. ACompiler translates whole program at once but the Interpreter translatesone instruction at a time Programming languages have to levels : 1- Low-Level Languages * Machine language * Assembly Language 2- High-Level-Language 30
  31. 31. Programming Languages Continued …1 – Low Level Languages ( LLL ):  Machine Language: Is the only language that the computer can understand without translation.  It consists of (0, 1).  Very fast (in execution).  Each computer has its own machine language.  Very difficult ( because the programmer should know his computer very-well )  Assembly Language: Relatively, its more developed and easer than machine language.  It considers as intermediary language between machine  language and High-level languages.  It allows you to use letters and digits instead of (0, 1). 31
  32. 32. Programming Languages Continued …2 – High Level Languages (HLL): Its more developed and close to the human languages.  Easy to use and to write programs.  Easy to discover the errors and to fix it.  It saves the time and the efforts.  Easy to deal with computers.  Portable: the program that designed for special computer can be executed in other computers, which are differ in its version. Examples: Fortran, Cobol, Basic, Pascal, C. 32
  33. 33. Multimedia Is the use of different media in computer programs:  Text  Graphics  Audio  Video  Animation Its used in  Presentation  Education  Learning  games 33
  34. 34. Data Communication & Networks The Benefits of this technique are:  Sharing of files, documents and resources  Sharing Software  Sharing Equipments  Sending messages to all people on the network  Providing Services efficiently (E-government) 34
  35. 35. NETWORKS1- Local Area Network (LAN) It’s a network designed to span short distances and relatively small number of computers, usually a LAN connects the machines in only one building or in a single room. • Client Server Architecture The server saves all common files and documentations so that other computers (client) can use them • Peer-to-Peer network No servers, all computers have same level they share data directly with others.2- Wide Area Network (WAN) It’s a network that connects two or more LANs over a large area using satellite communications. ( e.g. Bank ATM, Internet) 35
  36. 36. NETWORKS 2- Wide Area Network (WAN) It’s a network that connects two or more LANs over a large area using satellite communications. ( e.g. Bank ATM, Internet) WAN Devices :1. HUB: to connect a lot of commuters together2. Switcher: like a hub but it transmits data directly to it’s destination3. Router: connects two LANs together, for large distance4. Gateway: to connect two different OS LANs, for short distance5. Bridge: to connect two LANs with the same OS, for short distance6. Repeater : Repeat signals that travels via long distance7. Multipliers: high speed path for messages 36
  37. 37. NETWORKS Networks Topologies:1. Star Network • All computers connected to central computer by a hub • If the central computer is broken the network stop working2. Ring Network • All Computers connected on a ring shape • No central computer • More expensive that Star network • Used for Peer-To-Peer network3. Bus Network • Needs less wires than start or ring network • Used for Peer-To-Peer and client –server network 37
  38. 38. NETWORKS LAN WAN 38
  39. 39. NETWORKS Data Communication hardware:1. Modem • MODulate / DEModulate • Telephone network • Designed for voice (Analog format) • Used by computer to convert analog format to digital format2. Network card • To connect the computers with others3. Wire Media • Twisted pairs (e.g Phone wire, need a modem) • Coaxial cables (e.g T.V. wire, need a Network card) • Fiber optics (very fast and more expensive)4. Wireless Media • Radio waves – Microwaves -- Satellite 39
  40. 40. INTERNET Is a WAN network that span the globe, it gives us thecapability to exchange information. World Wide Web (WWW, or Web): Is software thatmakes sharing information across a network easy. Uniform Resources Locator ( URL ): Specifiesdocuments and other information on the WWW forbrowser (Internet Explorer, Netscape) to obtain and display. 40
  41. 41. INTERNET To connect to the Internet you need:1. PC (Personal Computer)2. Modem3. Telephone line4. Browser (internet software)5. Account with Internet service provider (ISP) Internet Services1. Search Engines (to help you to find information)2. E-mail (to send and receive messages over the Internet) 41
  42. 42. Computer Ethics Copyright  Pay for software and register to use it  Copyright principles  Software should be copied only for backup.  Sharing/lending not allowed  Copy software through network should be under terms of license agreement.  Software piracy is a crime. 42
  43. 43. Computer Ethics Licensing  Buying software entitle the user for license to use it.  Licensing agreement is a combinations of rules.  Two kinds of license  Single User : install software only on one computer  Site License: can be install into multiple computers, which save money. 43
  44. 44. Computer Ethics VirusesTypes of viruses  Worms  Time Bombs  Do not make any damages  It makes the damage at a  Spread quickly through network specific time  Keep system busy  Trojan Horse  Can be carried onto a computer by other files to perform its illegal objectives.  Backdoor 44
  45. 45. Computer Ethics Protecting from Viruses  Do not use floppies from unreliable sources  Use only registered software  Never open an E-mail attachment unless it is from reliable source.  Keep regular back-ups. 45

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