TOTALITARIANISM(ˌ)ō-ˌ t ta-lə-ˌter-ē-ə-ˌni-zəm Definition of TOTALITARIANISM1. centralized control by an autocratic authority2. the political concept that the citizen should be totally subject to an absolute state authority
Made famous by Term employed by Benito Mussolini, the Italian fascist leader. (1883-1945) Also made famous by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)Benito Adolf Hitler & Benito Adolf HitlerMussolini
Characteristics ofTotalitarianism An official and all-embracing ideology An official belief systems promulgated by ruling elite Specifying a final goal or end for all humankind that legitimizes the absolute authority of the regime It is apparent in Hitler’s Germany and ideology of creation of “master race” In Stalin’s Soviet Union, the creation of communist society
Characteristics ofTotalitarianism A one-party system Existence of one-party rule legitimized by appeal to the official ideology. Germany’s National Socialist German used it to rule as it’s the only party capable of creating the master race. In reality, it became under the rule of one man, Hitler or Stalin.
Figure 3.2 Figure 3.1 : Adolf Hitler marching withFigure 3.1 National Socialist Party Figure 3.2 : Children below the age of 12 influenced by National Socialist’s Ideology
Characteristics ofTotalitarianism The imposition of terror Uses of threats, coercion and violence against the opposition of regime is very common. Accomplished by creation of secret police and corresponding network of informers. Terror insures their reign.
Figure 4.2 Figure 4.1 : A jew being prosecuted just for being jew. Figure 4.2 : Another thousands of jew beingFigure 4.1 prosecuted just for being just another jew.
Characteristics ofTotalitarianism Mass mobilization of the population Pervasive system of propaganda. Everybody is expected to accept the official ideology that legitimizes one-party rule Through control of schools, cultural groups, labor unions and other means.
Figure 5.2 : For the Motherland, DeutschlandFigure 5.1 : Propaganda of portraying US as liberators
Characteristics ofTotalitarianism Lack of genuine pluralism Groups and organizations do exist, but they are not independent of state and party control. Labor unions, expected to encourage worker to sacrifice for good of society.
DIFFERENCES BETWEENTOTALITARIANISM AND AUTHORITARIANISM
Totalitarianism AuthoritarianismCharisma High (leaders appear to be Low very powerful)Role Leaders as function Leaders as individual (thereconception (leaders function as true are laws, but everything still leaders and abide strictly to depends on the leaders) the law)Ends of Public (total control Private (decisions made bypower towards the public) the leaders are secret)Corruption Low (more rules, less High (do not posses TOTAL corruption) control towards the citizens. Thus, there are still freedom of doing things. Leaders are free of doing their own decisions. Corruption occurs.
Official ideology Yes NoLimited pluralism No (no freedom at all) Yes (limited freedom given for as long as the citizens obey the leaders)Legitimacy Yes No