DAYANGFIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGEDEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 4
First Language Development Strickland & Feeley – caretakers ofyoung children constantly negotiatemeaning as they communicate withchildren. Focusing on what children say, not howthey say it.
Theories of First LanguageDevelopmentConstructivist Theory (Jean Piaget)- Stages of Language DevelopmentSocial InteractionTheory (Lev Vygotsky)- Zone of Proximal Development- Language Structure and System
Constructivist Theory (JeanPiaget, 1969) Language development is an aspect ofgeneral cognitive development. Conceptualization precedes language. Language will follow experience.
Stages of LanguageDevelopment Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 years old)- Preverbal- Crying, Babbling (pa,pa…. ma,ma….) Preoperational Stage ( 2-7 years old)- Vocabulary and True Language- can name things, use two-word, simplesentences- cannot pronounce clearly, but is able to conveymeaning- repeats words
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years old)- Logical Reasoning & Socialized Speech- similar to adult speech- children pretty much mastered their nativelanguage Formal Operational Stage ( 11- 15 years old )- Abstract Reasoning & World of Symbols- speaks like adult- use language for communicative purposes- can guide others in using language for thedevelopment oflanguage level
Social Interaction Theory (LevVygotsky, 1986) Language development is determined by theinteraction of physical, linguistic and social factors. Interaction with the environment, especially withadults, plays critical role in language development. Babies use language to communicate their needs. Caretakers – suit their language level to children’slanguagelevel, do not point out errors, pay moreattention to meaning, provideenvironment forsocial interaction.
Zone of Proximal Development Connecting new knowledge with previousknowledge. Caretakers play major role as they provideguidance to children.
Language Structure & Systems Phonological Rules : sounds patterns oflanguage Semantic Rules : the meaning of wordsand sentences Syntactic Rules : how to combine words insentences Pragmatic conventions : how language isused
Theories of Second LanguageDevelopmentContext-Embedded Communication- Basic Interpersonal CommunicationSkills- Cognitive Academic LanguageProficiencyComprehensible Input
Context – EmbeddedCommunication (Cummins) Cummins – the amount of contextual supportpresent when someone is learning a secondlanguage determines his/her proficiency in twoimportant dimensions of language: Basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS)-used in daily social speaking situations (0-3years of practice) Cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP)-language skills used in school tasks (takingnotes, report writing – 5 to 7 years of practice)
Comprehensible Input (StephenKrashen) Understandable language experiences Characteristics of comprehensible input- language that is already known + new language(i+1)- contextual clues (objects in familiar situationd)- paralinguistic clues (gestures and facialexpressions)- linguistic modification(intonation, repetition, paraphrasing)- meaningful topics + prior knowledge on the topic
Teaching About Vocabulary Dev. Semantic Mapping- diagrams that helps children see how words arerelated toone another (Johnson and Pearson, 1984)
BedsBunkbedWaterbedHospitalbedRecliningbedSemantic Map for Beds
Word Play- synonyms and antonyms- homonyms (same look, same sound, diff. spellingand meaning)- parts of speech- onomatopoeia- palindromes (words and sentences that can beread forward ofbackward. Eg : mom, dad, bob)- similes and metaphors- riddles, puns (plays on words using sounds andmeanings)and conundrums (riddles based on an imaginedlikeness
Assessing and DifferentiatingInstruction Teaching Speakers of Nonmainstream English- teachers build on what students bring to school- adding the school exp. to what children alreadyknow- teachers support the language children bring toschool- provide them input using standard English- give opportunities to use new language in asafe, realcommunication context