Clean Air Acts---1970, 1977, 1990--National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Regulates maximum allowable level in the outdoor air over a specific period of time.Determined by risk assessment. 100 different toxic pollutants. Primary- related to health and secondary environmental and property damage Estimated the clean has reduced 98% reduction in lead( gas banned), 93%VOC, 88% Suspended particulate matter, 44% sulfur dioxide, 26% carbon monoxide. 6.8 trillion in saving with 436 million spent. 20 years prevented 1.6 million premature deaths and 300 million cases of respiratory disease Can test air just like water for violations --collect air in canisters or tedlar bags.
Airpollution may be defined as the presence in the air (outdoor atmosphere) of one or more contaminants in such quantities and of such durations as may be or tend to be injurious to human, animal or plant life, or property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life or property or conduct of business.
Itis a substance or effect dwelling temporarily or permanently in the air , which adversely alters the environment by interfering with the health, the comfort, or the food chain, or by interfering with the property values of people. A pollutant can be solid (large or sub- molecular), liquid or gas .
It may originate from a natural or anthropogenic source (or both). It is estimated that anthropogenic sources have changed the composition of global air by less than 0.01%. However, it is widely accepted that even a small change can have a significant adverse effect on the climate, ecosystem and species on the planet. Examples of these are acid rain, ozone in the lower atmosphere, and photochemical smog.
Someprimary air pollutants may react with one another or with other chemicals in the air to form secondary air pollutants.
Air Quality Index (AQI) Levels of HealthValues Concern 0 to 50 Good 51 to 100 Moderate Unhealthy 101 to 150 for Sensitive Groups 151 to Unhealthy 200 201 to 300 Very Unhealthy 301 to 500 Hazardous
Premature death Aggravated asthma Respiratory-related emergency room visits and hospital admissions Acute respiratory symptoms Chronic bronchitis Decreased lung function (shortness of breath)
Decrease lung function. Irritate lungs. Long-term lower level exposures can destroy lung tissue, leading to emphysema. Children may also be especially sensitive to the effects of nitrogen oxides.
Seriously injure vegetation at certain concentrations. Effects include: • Bleaching or killing plant tissue. • Causing leaves to fall. • Reducing growth rate. Deterioratefabrics and fade dyes. Corrode metals (due to nitrate salts formed from nitrogen oxides). Reduce visibility (haze, smog)
Oxides of nitrogen, in the presence of sunlight, can also react with hydrocarbons, forming photochemical oxidants or smog. Also, NOx is a precursor to acidic precipitation, which may affect both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Bad odor, it can irritate the respiratory system. Exposure to high concentrations for short periods of time can constrict the bronchi and increase mucous flow, making breathing difficult.
Ozone acts as a powerful respiratory irritant at the levels frequently found in most of the nations urban areas during summer months.Ozone exposure may lead to: • Shortness of breath. • Chest pain when inhaling deeply. • Wheezing and coughing.
Clean Air Act National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Primary and secondary standards Emission Trading Policy
Reduce vehicle emissions: Drive less Keep cars well maintained and tires properly inflated Turn off the engine when your vehicle is not in motion Purchase low-emitting and fuel efficient vehicles Share a ride, take public transportation bike, or walk Cut your grass after 6 p.m. Refuel your car after 6 p.m. Combine errands into one trip
Conserve electricity: do not over-cool or over-heat buildings turn off lights and appliances when not in use Purchase electronics/appliances with energy star labels