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Thin film is a generic name devoted to a two-dimensional structure that serves the following purposes: (1) passivation of a surface, (2) modification layer on a surface, and/or (3) active layer for a designed application. In order to apply a thin film on any engineering devices and applications, a well understanding of the characteristics of surface and interface of a thin film is essential. In general, these topics are supported by fundamental knowledge of vacuum and plasma sciences, surface structure, absorption and desorption, particle-surface interaction, and thin film formation. By integrating this knowledge, one could solve issues related to thin film.