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The effects of electro- and electrochemical (as well as stress-) migration on metal interconnects are reviewed and explained in this course. Theoretical background related to these phenomena will be described. The evaluation of measurement techniques of these migrations are also being explained in this subject. Examples related to issues for wafer and packaging levels are provided. Factors affecting electro- and electrochemical (as well as stress-) migration will be presented and statistical models predicting the reliability of these phenomena are briefly explained.