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MORAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
 PIAGET/KOHLBERG / LOEVINGER



       Presented by:
           Khadija GOUALI
              Nadia BAT
                Ikram AIT DRA
                       Mustapha OMARAKLY
                          Brahim MEZGAR
THE OUTLINE

   Piaget’s theory of Moral development.

   Kohlberg’s stages of Moral reasoning.

   Moral Development in the classroom.

   Criticisms of Kohlberg's theory.

   Loevinger’s Social Development.
PIAGET’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT


   MORALITY: one's ability to distinguish between right and
    wrong, and to be able to act on this distinction.

   Piaget’s theory of cognitive development also include a theory
    about the development of moral reasoning.

   Moral development depends on cognitive development that
    is, one have to understand right from wrong if he/she is to be
    expected to act in right or wrong ways.
EXPERIMENT

   To    understand      children's
    moral reasoning, , Piaget
    spent a great deal of time
    watching       children     play
    marbles and ask them about
    the rules of the game.

   He pretended to be ignorant
    of the rules of the game and
    asked children to explain
    them to him.
FINDINGS
 Before age of 6, children play by their own
  idiosyncratic rules.
 Very young children are incapable of interacting in
  cooperative ways and therefore unable to engage
  in moral reasoning.
 By the age of 6, children acknowledged the
  existence of rules.
 children did not conscientiously use and follow rules
  until the age of 10 or 12 years, when they are
  capable of formal operations.
STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

Heteronomous morality
   In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage
    at which children think that rules are unchangeable
    and that breaking them leads automatically to
    punishment.
Autonomous morality
    In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage
    at which children understand that people make
    rules and that punishments are not automatic.
DISTINCTION

Heteronomous Morality              Autonomous Morality

 Based    on relations of            Based on relations of cooperation
                                       and mutual recognition of equality.
  constraint.
                                      Reflected in rational moral
 Reflected in attitudes of            attitudes:
  moral realism:                      rules are viewed as products of
 rules are seen as                    mutual agreement
  inflexible requirements              open to recognition
 external in origin and               made legitimate by personal
  authority                            acceptance and common
                                       consent
 not open to negotiation,
                                      “right” is a matter of acting in
 “right” is a matter of literal       accordance with the
  obedience to adults and              requirements of cooperation
  rules.                               and mutual respect.
 Badness is judged in          Badness is viewed as
  terms of the objective         relative to the actor’s
  form and consequences          intentions;
  of actions;                   fairness is defined as
 fairness is equated with       equal treatment or taking
  the content of adult           account of individual
  decisions                      needs
 arbitrary and severe          fairness of punishment is
  punishment are seen as         defined by
  fair.                          appropriateness of the
 Punishment is seen as          offense.
  automatic consequences        Punishment is seen as
  of the offense and justice     affected by human
  is seen as inherent.           intention.
Story A                         Story B

   A little boy who is called      Once there was a little
    John is in his room. He          boy whose name was
    is called to dinner. He          Henry. One day when his
    goes into the dining             mother was out he tried
    room. But behind the
    dining room door there           to reach some jam out of
    was a chair, and on the          the cupboard. He
    chair there were 12 cups.        climbed onto a chair and
    John couldn't have               stretched out his arm.
    known that there was all         But the jam was too high
    this behind the door. He         up and he couldn't reach
    goes in, the door knocks         it.... While he was trying
    against the tray, bang go        to get it, he knocked over
    the 12 cups, and they all        a cup. The cup fell down
    get broken.
                                     and broke
PIAGET’S METHOD: SAMPLE DIALOG BETWEEN
                           A RESEARCHER AND A CHILD


   The following dialog is revealing (from Piaget, 1932/1962, pp. 124-125):
   Q: Is one of the boys [who broke teacups] naughtier than the other?
   A: The first is because he knocked over twelve cups.
   Q: If you were the daddy, which one would you punish most?
   A: The one who broke twelve cups.
   Q: Why did he break them?
   A: The door shut too hard and knocked them. He didn’t do it on purpose.
   Q: And why did the other boy break a cup?
   A: He wanted to get the jam. He moved too far. The cup got broken.
   Q: Why did he want to get the jam?
   A: Because he was all alone. Because his mother wasn’t there.
   Q: Have you got a brother?
   A: No, a little sister.
   Q: Well, if it was you who had broken the twelve cups when you went into the
    room and your little sister who had broken one cup when she was trying to
    get the jam, which of you would be punished more severely?
   A: Me, because I broke more than one cup.
* Clearly this child understand that the boy who
broke twelve cups did not do this intentionally, yet
he still claims that this boy was more guilty
(deserved greater punishment) than the one who
broke just a single cup while doing something he
wasn’t supposed to be doing.

*Guilt is determined by the extent of violation of
 rules rather than by intention.
KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF
 MORAL DEVELOPMENT
KOHLBERG'S THEORY OF MORAL
DEVELOPMENT


   Kohlberg believed much of Piaget's theory but thought it should
    be extended into adolescence and adulthood.

   Kohlberg was less interested in what the subject's decision was
    than in the underlying rationale. What is important is HOW they
    EXPLAINED their judgments.
         1) Like Piaget, Kohlberg developed stages of Moral
    development which follow some invariant sequences.
         2) Because each successive stage is built upon the
    foundation of an earlier one, each stage must be followed in a
    particular order.
         3) Again, according to Kohlberg, each stage represents a
    METHOD OF THINKING about a moral dilemma rather than a
    particular TYPE of moral decision.
THE HEINZ DILEMMA:




A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors
thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently
discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what
the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small
dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow
the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told
the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But
the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz
got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
_______________________________________
KOHLBERG’S 3 LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

                  Pre-Conventional Moral Development
                   Stage 1
                   Stage 2
                  Conventional Moral Development
                   Stage 3
                   Stage 4
                  Post-Conventional Moral Development
                   Stage 5
                   Stage 6
LEVEL 1: PRE-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY 0-9 YEARS
Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment
Especially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of
reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute.


   Obeys rules in order to avoid punishment
   Determines a sense of right and wrong by what is punished and what is not punished
   Obeys superior authority and allows that authority to make the rules, especially if that
    authority has the power to inflict pain
   Is responsive to rules that will affect his/her physical well-being
Stage 2 – Naively egotistical
At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge
actions based on how they serve individual needs.


   Is motivated by vengeance or “an eye for an eye” philosophy
   Is self-absorbed while assuming that he/she is generous
   Believes in equal sharing in that everyone gets the same, regardless of need
   Believes that the end justifies the means
   Will do a favor only to get a favor
   Expects to be rewarded for every non-selfish deed he/she does
I will do what I am supposed to do In order to avoid
  punishment.
LEVEL 2: CONVENTIONAL MORALITY 10-15 YEARS
Stage 3 - "good boy-good girl" orientation

This stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations
and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration
of how choices influence relationships.
     Attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others
   Feels that intensions are as important as deeds and expects others to accept
    intentions or promises in place of deeds
   Begins to put himself/herself in another’s shoes and think from another perspective


Stage 4 – Law and Social Order

At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole
when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following
the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority.

   Respects authority and obeys it without question
   Supports the rights of the majority without concern for those in the minority
   Is part of about 80% of the population that does not progress past stage 4
I will do what I am supposed to do as things work out
          better when everyone follows the rules.
LEVEL 3: POST-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY – 16+
Stage 5 - Legalistic Social Contract

At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of
other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the
society should agree upon these standards.

   Is motivated by the belief in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people
   Believes in consensus (everyone agrees), rather than in majority rule
   Respects the rights of the minority especially the rights of the individual
   Believes that change in the law is possible but only through the system

Stage 6 – Universal ethical Principles

Kohlberg's final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and
abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of
justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.

   Believes that there are high moral principles than those represented by social rules and customs
   Is willing to accept the consequences for disobedience of the social rule he/she has rejected
   Believes that the dignity of humanity is sacred and that all humans have value
I will do (or wont do) what I am supposed to do
because I think ( or don’t think) it is the right thing to
                          do.
    Kohlberg believed that individuals could only progress through
    these stages one stage at a time. That is, they could not "jump"
    stages. They could not, for example, move from an orientation of
    selfishness to the law and order stage without passing through the
    good boy/girl stage.
   They could only come to a comprehension of a moral rationale one
    stage above their own. Thus, according to Kohlberg, it was
    important to present them with moral dilemmas for discussion
    which would help them to see the reasonableness of a "higher
    stage" morality and encourage their development in that direction.
    The last comment refers to Kohlberg's moral discussion
    approach. He saw this as one of the ways in which moral
    development can be promoted through formal education. Note that
    Kohlberg believed, as did Piaget, that most moral development
    occurs through social interaction. The discussion approach is
    based on the insight that individuals develop as a result of
    cognitive conflicts at their current stage.
LET’S PRACTICE!                     SITUATION 1
       Sophia borrowed her father’s car. She and
  her friend Soumia were very late coming home
  that evening. They were further delayed at a stop
  light on a quiet street. After what seemed to be
  an unnecessary long wait, Soumia reminded
  Sophia that they were late. Sophia continued to
  wait, insisting that if everyone ignored stop lights
  when it was personally convenient to do so, no
  street would be safe.
 At what stage do you think Sophia's decision
  was? Why?


                                               25
LET’S PRACTICE!                   SITUATION 2
     Brahim was not prepared for a difficult
 exam, so he wrote some important formulas on
 a slip of paper which he put in his pocket before
 the test. Just before the test began, the teacher
 informed the class that any student caught
 cheating would automatically fail the test. Even
 though Brahim needed the information he
 wrote, he didn’t use it because the teacher stood
 too close to his desk during the entire exam.
 At what stage do you think Brahim's decision
 was? Why?
VALUE TO PRACTITIONERS
   Educators (and families) have grappled with the
    important distinction that theories deal with moral
    reasoning rather than actual moral behavior.

   Successful programs have incorporated values
    education at the global, local, and individual levels.

1/Global Level-Districtwide Approach.
 Many schools have chosen to institutionalize a
  global, inclusive approach to character building with
  input from teachers, administrators, parents, and, at the
  higher grade levels, even students. This emphasizes the
  individual citizen as a member of the social institution
  and advocate particular levels of moral behavior.
2/ Local Level-Classroom Instruction.

   A teacher might choose to capitalize on students’ natural
    curiosity and might teach values and decision making through
    “What if…?” discussions.

   The classroom is an ideal laboratory in which students can test
    hypothetical situations and potential consequences. Teachers
    must recognize the cognitive abilities of those in their class and
    maximize these abilities through problem-solving activities.

    An effective moral educator is no easy task. Teachers must
    reexamine their teaching role; they must be willing to create
    cognitive conflict in their classrooms and to stimulate social
    perspective taking in students.
3/ Individual Level-Conflict Management.

    Families want schools to provide students with the
    necessary tools to mediate serious conflicts without
    violence, and teachers and administrators are
    evaluating or initiating conflict resolution programs
    in many schools (see Bodine, Crawford, &
    Schrumpf, 1994).
WHAT THE STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
              MEAN TO A TEACHER
   In the classroom having a basic understanding of a
    student is important.

   Decisions based on trust could be based on how “
    morally developed” a student is .

   Using this theory to improve a student and progress
    them morally could be useful.
HOW TO APPLY KOHLBERG'S THEORY IN THE
                  CLASSROOM
 can be applied to the classroom where
  rules, standards, and consequences are
  concerned.
 The theory tracks an individual's level of moral
  reasoning by assigning him to one of six
  stages, where the first stage is a basic submission
  to authority and the last is universal ethics for all.
 As an educator:

  - consider where your students' personal development lies in
     terms of Kohlberg's six stages.
    - Then work toward achieving optimal moral character along
     the lines of Kohlberg's level six.
INSTRUCTIONS

   1/

-   Give students the opportunity to help create a

    classroom code of conduct.

- By creating classroom policy, students can

advance from stage one submission to stage

three where they are accountable within the small

classroom community.
 2/


-   Allow for a written self evaluation as part of

any disciplinary consequence.

-   - This type of action relates to Kohlberg's

fourth stage of morality, in which individuals

do their part to maintain order by reflecting on

the impact of their words and actions.
3/

-Plan   group      projects   where   students   work

together toward the understanding of curriculum

instead of sitting back and listening to the teacher

talk at them.

- Kohlberg's fifth morality stage on upholding a

social contract.
4/

-Make time for role play, whether it be

related to the curriculum or used as a

problem solving tool.

-Kohlberg's sixth stage, in which the

needs of every person in society are worth

considering.
THE CRYING BABY
It is wartime, and you’re hiding in a
basement with your baby and a group of
other people.

Enemy soldiers are outside and will be
drawn to any sound. If you are found.
You will be killed immediately. Your baby
starts to cry loudly and cannot be
stopped. Smothering him to death is the
only way to silence him and save the
lives of everyone in the room. Could you
do so? Assume the baby is not yours,
the parents are unknown and there will
be no penalty for killing him. Could you
be the one who smother this baby if no
one else would?
Your baby        someone else’s baby

    Yes           Yes

    No             No
Criticisms of the moral development theory



          Kohlberg’s work involves only boys


   Some research on girls‘ moral reasoning finds patterns that are
    somewhat different from those proposed by Kohlberg. Whereas
    boys' moral reasoning revolves primarily around issues of
    justice, girls are more concerned about issues of caring and
    responsibility for others (Gilligan, 1982, 1985; Gilligan &
    Attanucci, 1988; Haspe & Baddeley, 1991).



   Kohlberg’s theory is heavily dependent on an individual’s
    response to an artificial dilemma. This brings question to the
    validity of the results obtained through this research.
 Young   children can often reason about
  moral situations in more sophisticated
  ways than a stage theory :
 Children as young as 3 or 4 years old
  use intentions to judge the behavior of
  others.
 Turiel(1998) demonstrated in his reasearch that
 children as young as 2 to 3 years old make
 distinctions   between    moral     and   social-
 conventional rules: young children make a
 distinction between moral rules, such as not lying
 and stealing, that are based on principles of
 justice, and social-conventional rules, such as
 not wearing pajamas to school, that are based
 on social consensus and etiquette.
 kohlberg’s  theory deals with moral reasoning rather
  than with actual behavior
 Behavior may be affected by many other factors other
  than reasoning such as the ability to interpret correctly
  what is happening in a social situation, the motivation
  to behave in a moral fashion, and the social skills
  necessary to actually carry out a moral plan of action.
 Many individuals at different stages behave in the
  same way, and individuals at the same stage often
  behave in different ways
EGO DEVELOPMENT THEORY
          (Loevinger)
JANE LOEVINGER CONCEPTUALIZED THE
THEORY OF EGO DEVELOPMENT IN WHICH
THE EGO WAS THEORIZED TO MATURE AND
EVOLVE THROUGH A PROCESS ACROSS
THE LIFESPAN AS A RESULT OF A DYNAMIC
INTERACTION BETWEEN THE INNER SELF
AND THE OUTER ENVIRONMENT'
• INCLUDING NINE SEQUENTIAL
STAGES, EACH OF WHICH REPRESENTS A
PROGRESSIVELY MORE COMPLEX WAY OF
PERCEIVING ONESELF IN RELATION TO THE
WORLD.. EACH NEW EGO STAGE OR
FRAME OF REFERENCE BUILDS ON THE
PREVIOUS ONE AND INTEGRATES IT,
1- pre-social² stage


during infancy.

    babies have a very id-like ego that is very focused
    on gratifying immediate needs.


    They tend to be very attached to the primary
    caregiver, often the mother, and while they
    differentiate her from the rest of the world, they tend
    experience a cognitive confusion and emotional
    fusion between the caregiver and the self.
2- The impulsive stage

Toddlers
 The ego continues to be focused on bodily feelings, basic
  impulses,and immediate needs.

   They experience the world in egocentric terms, in terms
    of how things are affecting me. If something or someone
    meets my needs, it is good; if something or someone
    frustrates my needs, it is bad. Thus, their thinking is very
    simplistic                and                 dichotomous.
3- The self-protective stage


early and middle childhood

   self potective ego is still using his/her greater awareness
    of cause and effect, of rules and consequences, to get
    what they want from others. Therefore, they tend to be
    exploitive, manipulative, and opportunistic.
3- The self-protective stage (continue)


early and middle childhood

   The self-protective ego is more cognitively sophisticated
    than the impulsive ego.

   Children are self-protective in the sense of externalizing
    blame--blaming others when anything goes wrong.
4-THE CONFORMIST STAGE

around five or six
 Conformistindividuals are very invested in
 belonging to and obtaining the approval of
 important reference groups, such as peer
 groups.

 Theytend to view and evaluate themselves and
 others in terms of externals—how one
 looks, the music that you listen to ....
4- THE CONFORMIST STAGE (CONTINUE)

 More   generally, they tend to view the world in
 simple, conventional, rule-bound and moralistic
 ways. What is right and wrong is clear to them—
 namely, what their group thinks is right or wrong.
 Their feelings also tend to be simple and rule-
 governed, in the sense that there are some
 situations in which one feels happy, and other
 situations in which one feels sad.
4-The conformist stage (continue)

   both feelings of happiness and feelings of shame tend to
    peak at this stage. Shame peaks because individuals are
    so concerned about approval from their group

   as long as their place in the group is not
    threatened, conformist egos are quite happy, even
    happier than egos at the later stages, where right and
    wrong can never again be so simple and clear.
5-THE SELF-AWARE STAGE

   The self-aware ego shows an increased but still limited
    awareness deeper issues and the inner lives of
    themselves and others.

   The being to wonder what do I think as opposed to what
    my parents and peers think about such issues as God
    and religion, morality, love and relationships.
5-THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE)



   They tend to not be at the point where they reach much
    resolution on these issues, but they are thinking about
    them.
5- THE SELF-AWARE STAGE                 (CONTINUE   )


    They are also more aware that they have unique feelings
    and motives, different from those that might be
    prescribed by the feeling rules they have learned from
    society.

   They recognize that just because one is part of the group
    does not mean that one always feels or thinks the same
    as the other group members
5- THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE)


   they are appreciating themselves and others as unique.

   Increasing awareness of one’s unique feelings and
    motives creates tension between the “real me” and the
    “expected me”, which can lead to increased conflicts with
    family and peers.
6- THE CONSCIENTIOUS STAGE
 The tendency towards self-evaluation and
 self-criticism continues.

 The conscientious ego values
 responsibility, achievement and the pursuit
 of high ideals and long-term goals.

 Moralityis based on personally-evaluated
 principles, and behavior is guided by self-
 evaluated standards
6-THE CONSCIENTIOUS STAGE
(CONTINUE)

with increasing awareness of the
 depth and uniqueness of others’
 feelings and motives as well comes
 increasing concern with mutuality
 and empathy in relationships.
7-The individualistic stage

 the   focus on relationships increases, and
    although achievement is still
    valued, relationships tend to be more valued
    even more.

   The individualistic ego shows a broad-
    minded tolerance of and respect for the
    autonomy of both the self and others.
7-The individualistic stage (continue)


 The heightened sense of individuality and
 self-understanding can lead to vivid and
 unique ways of expressing the self as well as
 to an awareness of inner conflicts and
 personal paradoxes. But this is an incipient
 awareness of conflicting wishes and
 thoughts and feelings
8-The autonomous stage


   there is increasing respect for one’s own and others’
    autonomy. The autonomous ego cherishes individuality
    and uniqueness and self-actualization; individuals’ unique
    paths are a source of joy.

   these independent paths are no longer seen in opposition
    to depending on each other; rather relationships are
    appreciated as an interdependent system of mutual
    support
8-The autonomous stage (continue)


   conflicts—both inner conflicts and conflicts between
    people—are appreciated as inevitable expressions of the
    fluid and multifaceted nature of people and of life in
    general

   the heightened and acute awareness of one’s own inner
    space is manifest in vivid ways of articulating feelings.
9- The integrated stage


   the ego shows wisdom, broad empathy towards oneself
    and others

   a capacity to reconcile a number of inner conflicts and
    make peace with those issues that will remain unsolvable
    and those experiences that will remain unattainable. The
    integrated ego finally has a full sense of identity
9-The integrated stage (continue)


   seeking to understand and actualize my own potentials
    and to achieve integration of all those multi-faceted
    aspects of myself that have become increasing vivid as
    I’ve moved through the preceding three stages. In
    Loevinger’s research this highest stage is reached by
    less than 1% of adults in the United States.

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Moral and social development

  • 1. MORAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PIAGET/KOHLBERG / LOEVINGER Presented by: Khadija GOUALI Nadia BAT Ikram AIT DRA Mustapha OMARAKLY Brahim MEZGAR
  • 2. THE OUTLINE  Piaget’s theory of Moral development.  Kohlberg’s stages of Moral reasoning.  Moral Development in the classroom.  Criticisms of Kohlberg's theory.  Loevinger’s Social Development.
  • 3. PIAGET’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT  MORALITY: one's ability to distinguish between right and wrong, and to be able to act on this distinction.  Piaget’s theory of cognitive development also include a theory about the development of moral reasoning.  Moral development depends on cognitive development that is, one have to understand right from wrong if he/she is to be expected to act in right or wrong ways.
  • 4. EXPERIMENT  To understand children's moral reasoning, , Piaget spent a great deal of time watching children play marbles and ask them about the rules of the game.  He pretended to be ignorant of the rules of the game and asked children to explain them to him.
  • 5. FINDINGS  Before age of 6, children play by their own idiosyncratic rules.  Very young children are incapable of interacting in cooperative ways and therefore unable to engage in moral reasoning.  By the age of 6, children acknowledged the existence of rules.  children did not conscientiously use and follow rules until the age of 10 or 12 years, when they are capable of formal operations.
  • 6. STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Heteronomous morality  In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment. Autonomous morality  In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children understand that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic.
  • 7. DISTINCTION Heteronomous Morality Autonomous Morality  Based on relations of  Based on relations of cooperation and mutual recognition of equality. constraint.  Reflected in rational moral  Reflected in attitudes of attitudes: moral realism:  rules are viewed as products of  rules are seen as mutual agreement inflexible requirements  open to recognition  external in origin and  made legitimate by personal authority acceptance and common consent  not open to negotiation,  “right” is a matter of acting in  “right” is a matter of literal accordance with the obedience to adults and requirements of cooperation rules. and mutual respect.
  • 8.  Badness is judged in  Badness is viewed as terms of the objective relative to the actor’s form and consequences intentions; of actions;  fairness is defined as  fairness is equated with equal treatment or taking the content of adult account of individual decisions needs  arbitrary and severe  fairness of punishment is punishment are seen as defined by fair. appropriateness of the  Punishment is seen as offense. automatic consequences  Punishment is seen as of the offense and justice affected by human is seen as inherent. intention.
  • 9. Story A Story B  A little boy who is called  Once there was a little John is in his room. He boy whose name was is called to dinner. He Henry. One day when his goes into the dining mother was out he tried room. But behind the dining room door there to reach some jam out of was a chair, and on the the cupboard. He chair there were 12 cups. climbed onto a chair and John couldn't have stretched out his arm. known that there was all But the jam was too high this behind the door. He up and he couldn't reach goes in, the door knocks it.... While he was trying against the tray, bang go to get it, he knocked over the 12 cups, and they all a cup. The cup fell down get broken. and broke
  • 10. PIAGET’S METHOD: SAMPLE DIALOG BETWEEN A RESEARCHER AND A CHILD  The following dialog is revealing (from Piaget, 1932/1962, pp. 124-125):  Q: Is one of the boys [who broke teacups] naughtier than the other?  A: The first is because he knocked over twelve cups.  Q: If you were the daddy, which one would you punish most?  A: The one who broke twelve cups.  Q: Why did he break them?  A: The door shut too hard and knocked them. He didn’t do it on purpose.  Q: And why did the other boy break a cup?  A: He wanted to get the jam. He moved too far. The cup got broken.  Q: Why did he want to get the jam?  A: Because he was all alone. Because his mother wasn’t there.  Q: Have you got a brother?  A: No, a little sister.  Q: Well, if it was you who had broken the twelve cups when you went into the room and your little sister who had broken one cup when she was trying to get the jam, which of you would be punished more severely?  A: Me, because I broke more than one cup.
  • 11. * Clearly this child understand that the boy who broke twelve cups did not do this intentionally, yet he still claims that this boy was more guilty (deserved greater punishment) than the one who broke just a single cup while doing something he wasn’t supposed to be doing. *Guilt is determined by the extent of violation of rules rather than by intention.
  • 12. KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • 13. KOHLBERG'S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT  Kohlberg believed much of Piaget's theory but thought it should be extended into adolescence and adulthood.  Kohlberg was less interested in what the subject's decision was than in the underlying rationale. What is important is HOW they EXPLAINED their judgments.  1) Like Piaget, Kohlberg developed stages of Moral development which follow some invariant sequences.  2) Because each successive stage is built upon the foundation of an earlier one, each stage must be followed in a particular order.  3) Again, according to Kohlberg, each stage represents a METHOD OF THINKING about a moral dilemma rather than a particular TYPE of moral decision.
  • 14. THE HEINZ DILEMMA: A woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to produce. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
  • 15. WHAT WOULD YOU DO? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ _______________________________________
  • 16. KOHLBERG’S 3 LEVELS OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Pre-Conventional Moral Development  Stage 1  Stage 2 Conventional Moral Development  Stage 3  Stage 4 Post-Conventional Moral Development  Stage 5  Stage 6
  • 17. LEVEL 1: PRE-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY 0-9 YEARS Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment Especially common in young children, but adults are capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute.  Obeys rules in order to avoid punishment  Determines a sense of right and wrong by what is punished and what is not punished  Obeys superior authority and allows that authority to make the rules, especially if that authority has the power to inflict pain  Is responsive to rules that will affect his/her physical well-being Stage 2 – Naively egotistical At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs.  Is motivated by vengeance or “an eye for an eye” philosophy  Is self-absorbed while assuming that he/she is generous  Believes in equal sharing in that everyone gets the same, regardless of need  Believes that the end justifies the means  Will do a favor only to get a favor  Expects to be rewarded for every non-selfish deed he/she does
  • 18. I will do what I am supposed to do In order to avoid punishment.
  • 19. LEVEL 2: CONVENTIONAL MORALITY 10-15 YEARS Stage 3 - "good boy-good girl" orientation This stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice," and consideration of how choices influence relationships.  Attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others  Feels that intensions are as important as deeds and expects others to accept intentions or promises in place of deeds  Begins to put himself/herself in another’s shoes and think from another perspective Stage 4 – Law and Social Order At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty, and respecting authority.  Respects authority and obeys it without question  Supports the rights of the majority without concern for those in the minority  Is part of about 80% of the population that does not progress past stage 4
  • 20. I will do what I am supposed to do as things work out better when everyone follows the rules.
  • 21. LEVEL 3: POST-CONVENTIONAL MORALITY – 16+ Stage 5 - Legalistic Social Contract At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards.  Is motivated by the belief in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people  Believes in consensus (everyone agrees), rather than in majority rule  Respects the rights of the minority especially the rights of the individual  Believes that change in the law is possible but only through the system Stage 6 – Universal ethical Principles Kohlberg's final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.  Believes that there are high moral principles than those represented by social rules and customs  Is willing to accept the consequences for disobedience of the social rule he/she has rejected  Believes that the dignity of humanity is sacred and that all humans have value
  • 22. I will do (or wont do) what I am supposed to do because I think ( or don’t think) it is the right thing to do.
  • 23.
  • 24. Kohlberg believed that individuals could only progress through these stages one stage at a time. That is, they could not "jump" stages. They could not, for example, move from an orientation of selfishness to the law and order stage without passing through the good boy/girl stage.  They could only come to a comprehension of a moral rationale one stage above their own. Thus, according to Kohlberg, it was important to present them with moral dilemmas for discussion which would help them to see the reasonableness of a "higher stage" morality and encourage their development in that direction.  The last comment refers to Kohlberg's moral discussion approach. He saw this as one of the ways in which moral development can be promoted through formal education. Note that Kohlberg believed, as did Piaget, that most moral development occurs through social interaction. The discussion approach is based on the insight that individuals develop as a result of cognitive conflicts at their current stage.
  • 25. LET’S PRACTICE! SITUATION 1 Sophia borrowed her father’s car. She and her friend Soumia were very late coming home that evening. They were further delayed at a stop light on a quiet street. After what seemed to be an unnecessary long wait, Soumia reminded Sophia that they were late. Sophia continued to wait, insisting that if everyone ignored stop lights when it was personally convenient to do so, no street would be safe.  At what stage do you think Sophia's decision was? Why? 25
  • 26. LET’S PRACTICE! SITUATION 2 Brahim was not prepared for a difficult exam, so he wrote some important formulas on a slip of paper which he put in his pocket before the test. Just before the test began, the teacher informed the class that any student caught cheating would automatically fail the test. Even though Brahim needed the information he wrote, he didn’t use it because the teacher stood too close to his desk during the entire exam. At what stage do you think Brahim's decision was? Why?
  • 27.
  • 28. VALUE TO PRACTITIONERS  Educators (and families) have grappled with the important distinction that theories deal with moral reasoning rather than actual moral behavior.  Successful programs have incorporated values education at the global, local, and individual levels. 1/Global Level-Districtwide Approach.  Many schools have chosen to institutionalize a global, inclusive approach to character building with input from teachers, administrators, parents, and, at the higher grade levels, even students. This emphasizes the individual citizen as a member of the social institution and advocate particular levels of moral behavior.
  • 29. 2/ Local Level-Classroom Instruction.  A teacher might choose to capitalize on students’ natural curiosity and might teach values and decision making through “What if…?” discussions.  The classroom is an ideal laboratory in which students can test hypothetical situations and potential consequences. Teachers must recognize the cognitive abilities of those in their class and maximize these abilities through problem-solving activities.  An effective moral educator is no easy task. Teachers must reexamine their teaching role; they must be willing to create cognitive conflict in their classrooms and to stimulate social perspective taking in students.
  • 30. 3/ Individual Level-Conflict Management.  Families want schools to provide students with the necessary tools to mediate serious conflicts without violence, and teachers and administrators are evaluating or initiating conflict resolution programs in many schools (see Bodine, Crawford, & Schrumpf, 1994).
  • 31. WHAT THE STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT MEAN TO A TEACHER  In the classroom having a basic understanding of a student is important.  Decisions based on trust could be based on how “ morally developed” a student is .  Using this theory to improve a student and progress them morally could be useful.
  • 32. HOW TO APPLY KOHLBERG'S THEORY IN THE CLASSROOM  can be applied to the classroom where rules, standards, and consequences are concerned.  The theory tracks an individual's level of moral reasoning by assigning him to one of six stages, where the first stage is a basic submission to authority and the last is universal ethics for all.  As an educator: - consider where your students' personal development lies in terms of Kohlberg's six stages. - Then work toward achieving optimal moral character along the lines of Kohlberg's level six.
  • 33. INSTRUCTIONS  1/ - Give students the opportunity to help create a classroom code of conduct. - By creating classroom policy, students can advance from stage one submission to stage three where they are accountable within the small classroom community.
  • 34.  2/ - Allow for a written self evaluation as part of any disciplinary consequence. - - This type of action relates to Kohlberg's fourth stage of morality, in which individuals do their part to maintain order by reflecting on the impact of their words and actions.
  • 35. 3/ -Plan group projects where students work together toward the understanding of curriculum instead of sitting back and listening to the teacher talk at them. - Kohlberg's fifth morality stage on upholding a social contract.
  • 36. 4/ -Make time for role play, whether it be related to the curriculum or used as a problem solving tool. -Kohlberg's sixth stage, in which the needs of every person in society are worth considering.
  • 37.
  • 38. THE CRYING BABY It is wartime, and you’re hiding in a basement with your baby and a group of other people. Enemy soldiers are outside and will be drawn to any sound. If you are found. You will be killed immediately. Your baby starts to cry loudly and cannot be stopped. Smothering him to death is the only way to silence him and save the lives of everyone in the room. Could you do so? Assume the baby is not yours, the parents are unknown and there will be no penalty for killing him. Could you be the one who smother this baby if no one else would? Your baby someone else’s baby  Yes Yes  No No
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Criticisms of the moral development theory  Kohlberg’s work involves only boys  Some research on girls‘ moral reasoning finds patterns that are somewhat different from those proposed by Kohlberg. Whereas boys' moral reasoning revolves primarily around issues of justice, girls are more concerned about issues of caring and responsibility for others (Gilligan, 1982, 1985; Gilligan & Attanucci, 1988; Haspe & Baddeley, 1991).  Kohlberg’s theory is heavily dependent on an individual’s response to an artificial dilemma. This brings question to the validity of the results obtained through this research.
  • 42.  Young children can often reason about moral situations in more sophisticated ways than a stage theory :  Children as young as 3 or 4 years old use intentions to judge the behavior of others.
  • 43.  Turiel(1998) demonstrated in his reasearch that children as young as 2 to 3 years old make distinctions between moral and social- conventional rules: young children make a distinction between moral rules, such as not lying and stealing, that are based on principles of justice, and social-conventional rules, such as not wearing pajamas to school, that are based on social consensus and etiquette.
  • 44.  kohlberg’s theory deals with moral reasoning rather than with actual behavior  Behavior may be affected by many other factors other than reasoning such as the ability to interpret correctly what is happening in a social situation, the motivation to behave in a moral fashion, and the social skills necessary to actually carry out a moral plan of action.  Many individuals at different stages behave in the same way, and individuals at the same stage often behave in different ways
  • 45. EGO DEVELOPMENT THEORY (Loevinger)
  • 46. JANE LOEVINGER CONCEPTUALIZED THE THEORY OF EGO DEVELOPMENT IN WHICH THE EGO WAS THEORIZED TO MATURE AND EVOLVE THROUGH A PROCESS ACROSS THE LIFESPAN AS A RESULT OF A DYNAMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN THE INNER SELF AND THE OUTER ENVIRONMENT'
  • 47. • INCLUDING NINE SEQUENTIAL STAGES, EACH OF WHICH REPRESENTS A PROGRESSIVELY MORE COMPLEX WAY OF PERCEIVING ONESELF IN RELATION TO THE WORLD.. EACH NEW EGO STAGE OR FRAME OF REFERENCE BUILDS ON THE PREVIOUS ONE AND INTEGRATES IT,
  • 48. 1- pre-social² stage during infancy.  babies have a very id-like ego that is very focused on gratifying immediate needs.  They tend to be very attached to the primary caregiver, often the mother, and while they differentiate her from the rest of the world, they tend experience a cognitive confusion and emotional fusion between the caregiver and the self.
  • 49. 2- The impulsive stage Toddlers  The ego continues to be focused on bodily feelings, basic impulses,and immediate needs.  They experience the world in egocentric terms, in terms of how things are affecting me. If something or someone meets my needs, it is good; if something or someone frustrates my needs, it is bad. Thus, their thinking is very simplistic and dichotomous.
  • 50. 3- The self-protective stage early and middle childhood  self potective ego is still using his/her greater awareness of cause and effect, of rules and consequences, to get what they want from others. Therefore, they tend to be exploitive, manipulative, and opportunistic.
  • 51. 3- The self-protective stage (continue) early and middle childhood  The self-protective ego is more cognitively sophisticated than the impulsive ego.  Children are self-protective in the sense of externalizing blame--blaming others when anything goes wrong.
  • 52. 4-THE CONFORMIST STAGE around five or six  Conformistindividuals are very invested in belonging to and obtaining the approval of important reference groups, such as peer groups.  Theytend to view and evaluate themselves and others in terms of externals—how one looks, the music that you listen to ....
  • 53. 4- THE CONFORMIST STAGE (CONTINUE)  More generally, they tend to view the world in simple, conventional, rule-bound and moralistic ways. What is right and wrong is clear to them— namely, what their group thinks is right or wrong. Their feelings also tend to be simple and rule- governed, in the sense that there are some situations in which one feels happy, and other situations in which one feels sad.
  • 54. 4-The conformist stage (continue)  both feelings of happiness and feelings of shame tend to peak at this stage. Shame peaks because individuals are so concerned about approval from their group  as long as their place in the group is not threatened, conformist egos are quite happy, even happier than egos at the later stages, where right and wrong can never again be so simple and clear.
  • 55. 5-THE SELF-AWARE STAGE  The self-aware ego shows an increased but still limited awareness deeper issues and the inner lives of themselves and others.  The being to wonder what do I think as opposed to what my parents and peers think about such issues as God and religion, morality, love and relationships.
  • 56. 5-THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE)  They tend to not be at the point where they reach much resolution on these issues, but they are thinking about them.
  • 57. 5- THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE )  They are also more aware that they have unique feelings and motives, different from those that might be prescribed by the feeling rules they have learned from society.  They recognize that just because one is part of the group does not mean that one always feels or thinks the same as the other group members
  • 58. 5- THE SELF-AWARE STAGE (CONTINUE)  they are appreciating themselves and others as unique.  Increasing awareness of one’s unique feelings and motives creates tension between the “real me” and the “expected me”, which can lead to increased conflicts with family and peers.
  • 59. 6- THE CONSCIENTIOUS STAGE  The tendency towards self-evaluation and self-criticism continues.  The conscientious ego values responsibility, achievement and the pursuit of high ideals and long-term goals.  Moralityis based on personally-evaluated principles, and behavior is guided by self- evaluated standards
  • 60. 6-THE CONSCIENTIOUS STAGE (CONTINUE) with increasing awareness of the depth and uniqueness of others’ feelings and motives as well comes increasing concern with mutuality and empathy in relationships.
  • 61. 7-The individualistic stage  the focus on relationships increases, and although achievement is still valued, relationships tend to be more valued even more.  The individualistic ego shows a broad- minded tolerance of and respect for the autonomy of both the self and others.
  • 62. 7-The individualistic stage (continue)  The heightened sense of individuality and self-understanding can lead to vivid and unique ways of expressing the self as well as to an awareness of inner conflicts and personal paradoxes. But this is an incipient awareness of conflicting wishes and thoughts and feelings
  • 63. 8-The autonomous stage  there is increasing respect for one’s own and others’ autonomy. The autonomous ego cherishes individuality and uniqueness and self-actualization; individuals’ unique paths are a source of joy.  these independent paths are no longer seen in opposition to depending on each other; rather relationships are appreciated as an interdependent system of mutual support
  • 64. 8-The autonomous stage (continue)  conflicts—both inner conflicts and conflicts between people—are appreciated as inevitable expressions of the fluid and multifaceted nature of people and of life in general  the heightened and acute awareness of one’s own inner space is manifest in vivid ways of articulating feelings.
  • 65. 9- The integrated stage  the ego shows wisdom, broad empathy towards oneself and others  a capacity to reconcile a number of inner conflicts and make peace with those issues that will remain unsolvable and those experiences that will remain unattainable. The integrated ego finally has a full sense of identity
  • 66. 9-The integrated stage (continue)  seeking to understand and actualize my own potentials and to achieve integration of all those multi-faceted aspects of myself that have become increasing vivid as I’ve moved through the preceding three stages. In Loevinger’s research this highest stage is reached by less than 1% of adults in the United States.