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Public speaking


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Public speaking

  1. 1. GETTING STARTED HOW SPEECH IS LEARNED If you were typical, at about the age of one you first spoke single words, then two-word combinations and later short phrases. By the time you were two, you had a vocabulary of from twenty five to two hundred words. When you reached four, you spoke in full sentences, and by the time you entered the first grade, you had a vocabulary of about eight thousand words and communicate with four thousand of them. At some point during this period your speech habits and you attitude about self were influenced by others: friends of your parents. Your own friends, babysitters, teachers, role models and the like. If you were fortunate, the results were good speech habits and good self-concept.
  2. 2. SIGNIFICANT OTHERS Significant others are those people we respect, whose opinions are particularly important to us. If significant others see us being intelligent, competent and caring, chances are we will see ourselves in the same way. Self concept is not static; it continuously changes.
  3. 3. SELF-CONCEPT Self-concept refers to the perception you have of yourself in regard to your physical appearance, intelligence, personality, strengths and weaknesses. This self-perception has also been influenced by the way you think others see you. You develop an image of your-self not only by how you view your own behavior, attitudes, values and beliefs but also because of the way others have reacted to you both verbally and non- verbally.
  4. 4. IMPROVING SELF-CONCEPT a) Be willing to change. b) Be willing to forgive yourself c) Set realistic goals d) Develop your uniqueness e) Stand up for what you believe f) View yourself in the proper perspective
  5. 5. THE IDEAL SELF The ideal self is the kind of person you would most like to be. This refers to the kind of qualities or characteristics you would like to possess, qualities that would make you a more substantive person. Keep in mind it is important to view ideal self honestly so who you would like to be is realistic and attainable. While you can certainly improve your personal appearance through exercise, dieting, appropriate dress and careful grooming, it is unrealistic to assume that you can make yourself into a Hollywood star. Certainly, improving your ability to communicate with others in a more open- minded, positive and empathic way will go a long way toward improving your self-image.
  6. 6. THE WAY OTHERS SEE YOU Equally as important as the way you see yourself and the person you’d like to be is your idea of how others see you. Much of your self-perception developed as you were growing up. These responses from others could lead you to form a rather negative concept of yourself, resulting in low self- esteem. On the other hand, had these significant others depicted you as the talented brother, the smartest child in the family, the gifted singer, or the ultimate high school quarterback, the result would have been a strengthening of your self-esteem. Keep in mind, too that the reaction of the others to us can be interpreted differently. Sometimes, the same reaction might enhance the self-esteem of one person, yet lower the self- esteem of another.
  7. 7. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY In each of these situations, it is quite likely that the outcome was the result of you behavior. You expected to do a poor job on your first speech so you prepared halfheartedly and didn’t bother practicing. You knew you would do poorly on the test, didn’t study adequately, and failed. On the other hand, because you thought you’d enjoy the dance you approached it with enthusiasm and confidence, which made you fun to talk to and dance with. And because you thought you’d meet new and interesting people in class your attitude caused others in class to respond to you positively and enthusiastically as well. Another kind of self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when we are influenced to believe or act in a certain way because of the opinions of significant others. The track star who breaks the state record because his coach “knew” he could do it, or the patient who recovers from an incurable illness because her doctor told her she would, are each example of how someone can be influenced by the expectations of an importance other..
  8. 8. THE COMMUNICATION ACT a) A simple speech situation can be summarized as follow: b) A speaker wishes to communicate an idea c) The speaker encodes the idea in a message d) The message is sent through a channel to an audience e) The audience receives and decodes the message f) The audience responds to the message
  9. 9. Speaker In the model above, the process of communication begins with a speaker who wishes to communicate an idea or some ideas. The image that the audience has of the speaker affects the message. Those in audience who perceive a speaker as being a person of competence, integrity, and goodwill are most likely to believe what the speaker says. Message The second element in the communication process is the message. In order to insure that the listener attends to the message and understands it, the speaker must encode it in language that is both interesting and clear. Emphasis, variety and descriptive language help make material interesting. Words that are specific and familiar help to make a message clear. Channel The channel is the means through which a message is transmitted. In the speaking situation the channel can involve all of the senses through which each member of the audience receives the information. Messages can be transmitted through hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting and touching channels. A speaker can choose words that appeal to the audience’s five senses, can include sensory aids in the message or can add nonverbal to the message to make it more meaningful. Audience Without an audience, communication does not tae place. A person stranded on an island can put a note in a bottle or stand on the shore screaming for help. However, unless someone reads the note or hears the screams, nothing will have been accomplished. This emphasizes the fact that all communication by a speaker must be audience centered. Unless a message is encoded with a specific audience in mind, it is liable to fail. Response In the final analysis, the success or failure of a communication is determined by audience response. The title of this book, speaking with a purpose, underlines the fact that in order to be successful when communicating, the speaker’s purpose to inform, to entertain, or to persuade- must be achieved. Therefore, the success or failure of a communication is measured by whether or not those in the audience are informed, entertained, or persuaded.
  10. 10. COMMUNICATION BREAKDOWNS a) You fail to hear your instructor announce a quiz for the next class period because you were daydreaming b) You miss much of what your new girlfriend’s father tells you because of his heavy Polish accent c) You can’t decipher a message on your answering machine because of telephone static d) You fail to understand a lecturer on computer literacy because of the technical terminology used by the speaker e) Your girlfriend starts crying when you ask her if she’s gained some weight.
  11. 11. LISTENING a) External Noise b) Internal Noise c) Bias Toward Speaker d) Emotional Reaction e) Daydreaming f) Faking Attention g) Fatigue h) Improper Note Taking
  12. 12. WAYS TO IMPROVE LISTENING a) Prepare To Listen b) Avoid Distractions c) Identify The Central Idea d) Identify The Main Points e) Think Along With The Speaker f) Take Effective Notes
  13. 13. NOTE-TAKING TIPS a) Write Down Only Important Ideas b) Write Legibly c) Keep Up d) Use Your Own Words e) Be Brief f) Don’t Erase g) Don’t Worry About Spelling h) Date Your Notes i) Expand Your Notes