American Heroes


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American Heroes

  3. 3. What is Literary Theory?  Literary theory asks you to examine literature from a different viewpoint, usually quite different than your own.  To do this, you have to be open- minded and objective, willing to step outside of your comfort zone.  In other words, different literary theories ask you to put on different pairs of glasses through which to see what you read, and in general, the world around you.
  4. 4. Archetypal Literary Theory • An archetype is a recurring pattern of images, situations, or symbols found in the mythology, folklore, fantasies, reli gion, art, literature, and dreams of cultures around the world.  Carl Jung (pronounced „yoong‟), a psychologist and student of Sigmund Freud, first applied the term archetype to literature.
  5. 5. Archetypal Literary Theory  Recognizing archetypes in literature brings these patterns that we all unconsciously respond to in similar ways to a conscious level.  For example, the hero archetype is present in a vast array of mythologies and cultures from past to present time. We all know what a hero is, and we can all connect to that idea.
  6. 6. Brainstorming Session Please spot a “far partner” across the room from you and go sit by that person. You will need something to write with.
  7. 7. Character Archetypes (10 minutes) This chart asks you to come up with examples from movies, TV, literature, comics, etc . of various character archetypes. Be ready to share!
  8. 8. Hero Archetypes (10 minutes) 1. Hero as Warrior 2. Hero as Lover 3. Hero as Scapegoat 4. Transcendent Hero 5. Romantic/Gothic Hero 6. Proto-Feminist Hero 7. Apocalyptic Hero 8. Anti-Hero 9. Defiant Anti-Hero 10. The Unbalanced Hero 11. The Denied Hero 12. The Superheroic
  9. 9. ERNEST HEMINGWAY Icebergs, Heroes, and Nada
  10. 10. from Fight Club Narrator: If you could fight any celebrity, who would you fight? Tyler: Alive or dead? Narrator: Doesn't matter, who'd be tough? Tyler: Hemingway. You? Narrator: Shatner. I'd fight William Shatner.
  11. 11. POSTMODERNISM 1940s - TODAY Puritanism 1472 - 1750 Rationalism 1750 - 1800 Romanticism 1820 - 1860  Transcendentalism 1830 - 1860 Realism  Naturalism  Regionalism 1860 - 1920 Imagism 1912 - 1927 The Harlem Renaissance 1920 - 1935 The Lost Generation 1920 - 1930 MODERNISM 1900-1940s American Literary Movements
  12. 12. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)  Hemingway was born in Oak Park, Illinois.  He was a journalist (1917), then a volunteer ambulance driver and active duty soldier (1918) during WWI.  In 1921, he married the first of his four wives and left the U.S. to join the growing band of artists and writers who were gathering in Paris.
  13. 13. Ernest Hemingway
  14. 14. The Lost Generation  This name was given to a group of authors and artists who came of age during WWI.  The phrase was coined by writer Gertrude Stein. She told Ernest Hemingway, “That is what you are. That is what you all are. You are a lost generation.”  This group included The Great Gatsby author F. Scott Fitzgerald and T.S. Eliot, the author of “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock.
  15. 15. “Indian Camp” Characters: ◦ Nick Adams ◦ Uncle George ◦ Nick‟s father/the doctor ◦ Indian Man ◦ Indian Woman
  16. 16. Hemingway‟s Code Hero Hemingway defined the Code Hero as "a man who lives correctly, following the ideals of honor, courage and endurance in a world that is sometimes chaotic, often stressful, and always painful."
  17. 17. Code Hero Attributes 1. He is disciplined.  He chooses to live a very structured life amidst a chaotic world. 2. He acts without emotion. He is a doer, not a talker.  He doesn’t brag about his accomplishments. 3. He desires women and alcohol.  These indulges especially occur at night to counteract the fear of the dark.
  18. 18. Code Hero Attributes 4. He is often afraid of the dark.  The dark reminds him of death. 5. He faces death valiantly.  He faces death with dignity because that is the only guarantee a hero can hope for. 6. He does not believe in an afterlife.  He believes in Nada, the Spanish word for “nothing.”
  19. 19. Apprentice Heroes In Hemingway stories, code heroes are those characters who have recognized and accepted the reality of nada and who live in compliance with the code. Apprentice heroes are those characters who are either struggling with the
  20. 20. Literary Term: Style Style is the literary element that describes the ways that the author uses words.
  21. 21. Hemingway‟s Style Hemingway’s style consists of: 1. simplicity – His sentences and vocabulary are short and sparse, even though they deal with important issues. 2. reporting – He presents sensory details to the reader as facts, just as a newspaper reports the facts in a story. 3. understating – He employs the “iceberg principle” by revealing only 1/8 of the story and leaving readers to uncover what‟s underwater.
  22. 22. Hemingway vs. Fitzgerald Style Cage Match With a partner, take a look at the excerpts on “Being at a Party.” THINK-PAIR-SHARE: 1. Read each excerpt. 2. Whose artistic style do you like better? 3. Why? Try to put your thoughts into words.
  23. 23. “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” This story was published in 1933. Characters: ◦ old, deaf man who is drinking at the café ◦ young waiter who hates working late, waiting for the old, deaf man to leave
  24. 24. “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place”  Your task: 1. Read this short story independently. 2. While you read, annotate (mark and label) your story for the following items: a) The 6 Attributes of Hemingway‟s Code Hero b) The 4 Attributes of Hemingway‟s Writing Style 3. Turn in your packet of stories when you are finished with your name on it.
  25. 25. Quote Incorporation In academic writing, you will often use another person‟s writing as evidence/support in your own writing. This helps to prove your topic sentence to be true or right.
  26. 26. Quote Incorporation Formula Use the sandwich method! Sentence 1: Introduce the quote with sufficient context.  Who is speaking? To whom?  What is the situation in which Mr. X is speaking? Sentence 2: Insert the quote word for word, then use an internal citation. Sentence 3: Explain how the quote helps support your topic sentence.
  27. 27. Paragraph Prompt Which element of Hemingway‟s code hero is most apparent in “A Clean Well-Lighted Place”?
  28. 28. My Topic Sentence Ernest Hemingway uses his short story, “A Clean Well-Lighted Place” to illustrate his code hero‟s fear of the dark.
  29. 29. Your Turn 1. Write your topic sentence. 2. Find a direct quote from the story that provides support for your topic sentence. Underline it, so you can easily find it.
  30. 30. My Quote Sandwich Ernest Hemingway uses his short story, “A Clean Well-Lighted Place” to illustrate his code hero‟s fear of the dark. The old waiter wants to keep the café open late into the night. He explains, “Each night I am reluctant to close up because there may be some one who needs the café” (Hemingway 290). This statement proves that the older waiter understands the need for some men to have a well-
  31. 31. Your Turn 3. After the topic sentence, write a sentence that effective introduces your quote with sufficient context. 4. Copy down the quote with an internal citation. 5. After the direct quote, write a sentence that explains how the quote proves your topic
  32. 32. Quote Incorporation Proficiency Scale 4 Along with 3, in response to the given topic, the student uses precise internal documentation for his/her direct quote. 3 In response to the given topic, independently, the student is able to seamlessly incorporate a direct quote that effectively supports/explains his/her topic sentence. 2 In response to the given topic, the student is able to incorporate a direct quote but without a smooth introduction and/or a proper connection to the topic sentence. 1 In response to the given topic, with help, the student is unable to incorporate a direct quote. 0 Even with help, no understanding of quote incorporation is demonstrated.
  33. 33. Hemingway vs. Twain Style Cage Match Now, let‟s take a look at the excerpts on “Being on a Body of Water.” THINK-PAIR-SHARE: 1. Read each excerpt. 2. Whose artistic style do you like better? 3. Why? Try to put your thoughts into words.
  34. 34. The Iceberg Principle “I always try to write on the principle of the iceberg. There is seven-eighths of it under water for every part that shows. Anything you know you can
  35. 35. “This Is Just To Say” by William Carlos Williams I have eaten the plums that were in the icebox and which you were probably saving for breakfast Forgive me they were delicious
  36. 36. “Hills Like White Elephants” The story takes place at a train station in the Ebro River valley of Spain. The two main characters are a man (only referred to as “the American” and his female companion (referred to as “Jig.”)
  37. 37. Allusion: White Elephant  An allusion is a brief reference to another piece of literature, historical event, etc. The author assumes that the reader will get the reference.  A white elephant is an idiom for a valuable but burdensome possession of which its owner cannot dispose and whose cost (particularly cost of upkeep) is out of proportion to its usefulness or worth.
  38. 38. The Iceberg Principle What does Hemingway keep underwater in this story?
  39. 39. Symbolism of the Setting
  41. 41. The fathers may soar And the children may know their names
  42. 42. Literary Term: Epigraph An epigraph is a suitable quotation at the beginning of the book, chapter, etc. Epigraphs are like little appetizers to the great entrée of a story. They illuminate important aspects of the story, and they get us headed in
  43. 43. Unit Goal Students will be able to identify multiple themes in a text and summarize their development throughout the progression of the book.
  44. 44. Literary Term: Folktale A folktale is a tale or legend traditional among a people (or folk), one that becomes part of the oral tradition of those people.
  45. 45. “The People Could Fly” Song of Solomon is based on this African-American folktale about slaves who can fly back to Africa when they choose. Morrison fictionalizes this folktale through the character of Solomon, the title character. Let‟s read the folktale together.
  46. 46. Literary Term: Magical Realism Magical Realism is a genre of writing that asks the reader to accept extraordinary events as normal.
  47. 47. Literary Term: Setting The setting of a work of literature is the time and place. This novel is set in an unnamed city in Michigan (Detroit?) from 1931-1963. Detroit, Michigan (1950)
  48. 48. Literary Term: Protagonist A protagonist is the central character in a work of literature. The plot revolves around him/her. Our protagonist is Milkman Dead, the great-grandson of the title character, Solomon.
  49. 49. Ch. 1 of Song of Solomon  Ch. 1 throws you deliberately into the thick of Milkman‟s world without a lot of deep explanation from the narrator.  Let‟s read p. 3-9 of Ch. 1 together.  DO NOW: Draw a picture of the scene outside the hospital. Be sure to include all of the important (nameless?) characters and events.
  50. 50. Homework for Monday 1. Finish reading Ch. 1 of Song of Solomon. 2. Answer the questions for points.
  51. 51. Literary Term: Point-of-View  Point-of-view deals with whom narrates a story. 1. Omniscient – the narrator is not a character in the story and almost never refers to himself or herself directly 2. First-person – the narrator is a character in the story who talks to the readers using the pronoun „I‟ 3. Third-person limited – the narrator zooms in on one character but talks about that character in third-person
  52. 52. Point-of-View Third-Person Limited Omniscient The narrator gets into the minds of all of the characters— he/she is “all knowing”—but is mostly interested in one character: Milkman.
  53. 53. Literary Term: Theme Theme #1: Flight is a means of escape but also abandonment.
  54. 54. Literary Term: Theme  Theme #2: Names are important.  Morrison is very particular about her characters‟ names.  Many of them are biblical allusions or Greek mythology allusions.  Many of her characters share personality traits with the characters they share their names.