Nature and Green Spaces: Sources, Sites, and Systems of Resilience and Other Re-words

1,693 views

Published on

Keynote talk at the Horticulture Society of New York's Healing Nature Forum, March 2013.

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,693
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,132
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Do overs, another opportunity, second chance -- this is only “A” thru “F” Suggest alternate endings and outcomes, improved performance or satisfaction, a kind of optimism and hopefulness that a second chance means a better conclusion
  • My work is mostly about a kind of archeology of the human social-ecological experience, trying to excavate and peel back the layers of history that have covered over our ecological identity. I am interested in this because fundamentally I believe that our species faces very dark days indeed if we cannot remember our ecological identity and recover a relationship with the ecosystems upon which we depend.Given the challenges facing society and our planet,remembering and recovering our individual and collective ecological identity is of the utmost urgency.However hopeless this endeavor feels in daily life, it is when we are faced with calamity that our withering ecological identity suddenly flushes and blooms.
  • Picture on right of a soldier appreciating nature while on patrol– incongruent? Perhaps not. My personal experience…Influenced by these books and became interested in exploring these ideas further, which led to --
  • Creation and access to green spaces promotes individual human health, especially in therapeutic contexts among those suffering traumatic events. But what of the role of access to green space and the act of creating and caring for such places in promoting social health and well-being? Greening in the Red Zone asserts that creation and access to green spaces confers resilience and recovery in systems, from individual human systems to regional and landscape scale systems, which have been disrupted by violent conflict, crisis, or disaster. This edited volume provides evidence for this assertion through cases and examples. The contributors to this volume use a variety of research and policy frameworks to explore how creation and access to green spaces in extreme situations might contribute to resistance, recovery, and resilience of social-ecological systems.
  • So I start by unpacking the terminology and supporting literatures I rely on, beginning with Biophilia.
  • Pedigree of the conceptKellert worked with EO Wilson to expand biophilia as conceptFrumkin is the Director National Center for Environmental Health / Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Now seeing HUMAN SECURITY on that last slide might give you pause. Given the hardships and urgent safety issues faced by civilians, soldiers, and first-responders after a disaster or during war, it seems counter-intuitive that they would engage in the simple act of gardening, tree planting, or other greening activities. Yet, intriguing and compelling examples exist of people, stunned by a crisis, benefitting from the therapeutic qualities of nature contact to ease trauma and to aid the process of recovery. A large literature exists on the benefits of horticulture therapy more generally, as well as in more specific contexts such as among returning war veterans, in refugee contexts, and in prisons to name a few.
  • Beyond the therapeutic value of plants themselves, others have researched the value of green places, or restorative environments to ease trauma or discomfort. Studies have shown that the ability to see or actively experience plants and green spaces can reduce domestic violence, quicken healing times, reduce stress, improve physical health, and bring about cognitive and psychological benefits in individuals and populations as a whole.The study of restorative environments complements research on the conditions in which our functional resources and capabilities diminish, such as red zones.  
  • But the question still remains, in your minds and probably still in mine, what might gardening, tree planting, or other greening activities contribute to post-catastrophe individual or SES resilience? In much of the research and practice conducted under the rubric of horticultural therapy, the individual person in need of an intervention is considered a kind of patient who is prescribed horticultural interventions by a professional practitioner. Moving toward an ‘ecological’ approach, researchers in the field of systemic therapies have proposed alternative approaches to healing, conducted in creative ways in nature, that address the environment not merely as a setting but as a partner in the process.
  • Scientists acknowledge that larger, and I would add perhaps also smaller, systems facilitate human resilience, especially in post-catastrophe contexts, but agree that those systems are unlikely to be directly available during an unfolding disaster. Their description of these systems includes primarily manufactured ones, such as communication, transportation, manufacturing, and others, and not ecological ones. But what if we included in this list of systems that facilitate resilience, especially after a disaster, locally available biological and ecological systems, subsystems and components, from the smallest to the largest, from the most simple to the most complex? After all, at least according to Kurakin (2009), ‘the structures and dynamics of all living organizations, from proteins and cells to societies and ecologies, embody their evolutionary histories [and] memories.’ And what if, in terms of human resilience, we focused on the nearly scale-free property of life itself, of the compulsion to live, of living (Kurakin 2007)?
  • So what Is Urgent Biophilia?I define Urgent biophilia like this: when humans faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, seek out doses of contact and engagement with nature to further their efforts to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, they exemplify an urgent biophilia. This urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES perturbed by a catastrophe. The relationships those human-nature interactions have to other components within interdependent systems at many different scales, may be one critical source of resilience after a catastrophe. In other words, the affinity we humans have for the rest of nature and the urge to express that affinity through creation of restorative environments, which may also restore or increase ecological function, may confer resilience. So, when faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, we seek engagement with nature to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, we are demonstrating an urgent biophilia.urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES characterized by hazard, disaster, or vulnerability.Builds upon contemporary work on principles of biological attraction as well as earlier work on biophilia while synthesizing literatures on restorative environments, community-based ecological restoration, and both community and social-ecological disaster resilience
  • This mechanism is yin to the yang of urgent biophilia. Here, drawing upon Tuan’s notion of topophilia (literally ‘love of place’), I am emphasizing a social actor’s attachment to place and the symbolic meanings that underlie this attachment. In contrast to urgent biophilia, restorative topophilia is conceived and operationalized as more experiential and ‘constructed’ rather than innate, and suggests that topophilia serves as a powerful base for individual and collective action that repair and/or enhance valued attributes of place. These restorative greening actions are based not only on attachment—people fight for the places they care about as Rich says—but also on meanings, which define the kinds of places people are fighting for.
  • A memorialization mechanism begins right after a crisis, when spontaneous and collective memorialization of lost ones through gardening and tree planting happens. Then a community of practice emerges to act upon and apply these memories to social learning about greening practices. This, in turn, may lead to new kinds of learning, including about collective efficacy and ecosystem services production, through feedback between remembering, learning, and enhancing individual, social, and environmental well-being. Map of Living memorials project. 667 greening memorialization sites re 9-11. major spikes in September each year.
  • Image of Hurricane Katrina memorial– remains of unidentified and unclaimed persons. Important tree planting group took on the landscaping for this memorialization work.
  • Tree symbols everywhere – THREE SLIDES
  • Graphic depiction of concepts, themes, connectivity, and relevance from initial interview data of Parkway Partners Tree Trooper class (n34). Note the closeness of concepts of trees and tree with New Orleans, homes, and neighborhood, indicating strong symbolic significance in trees and ideas of place.The Leximancer system is a relatively new method for transforming lexical co-occurrence informationfrom natural language into semantic patterns in an unsupervised manner. It employs two stages ofco-occurrence information extraction—semantic and relational—using a different algorithm for eachstage. The algorithms used are statistical, but they employ nonlinear dynamics and machine learning.
  • Refers back to meanings described in Restorative Topophilia and memorialization mechanismmultiple symbolic meanings of trees in different contexts. three broad families of symbolic meanings of trees: (A) trees themselves as symbols (their presence, their absence, their status); (B) tree planting as a kind of symbol or symbolic action; and (C) both trees and tree planting explicitly combined in the discourse. 20 general categories of symbolic meanings of trees and tree planting, representing more than 70 specific and nuanced types of symbolic instances. further separated into positive meaning and negative meaning groups based on textual analysis of interview data. The presence of tree symbols, the social-ecological memories that define them and that inform the rituals that perpetuate them, and the resulting social-ecological relationships between people and trees or forests, as expressed through symbols and rituals, reveals a possible mechanism within the greening in the red zone system, and a source of resilience in this kind of SES undergoing rapid change.
  • Propose mechanisms and positioning (later repositioning)
  • Now I’d like to move a way the sort of theoretical stuff and just share with you some of the work I and my colleagues and students are doing… I might mention the one of the mechanisms we are looking at or for in a particular case, but mostly I just want to share with you the breadth and depth of the research underway looking at green spaces and nature and resilience, recovery, reintegration etc.
  • In nearly all cases we focus on a comprehensive understanding of the action, the actors and the activity space – G3, the green complex as you see here. The interactions and overlaps are very interesting areas of study but I will save that for another lecture some other time.
  • Other than Post-Katrina new Orleans and post-9/11 NYC, we are working in Joplin, MO after their horrific tornado.We are seeing multiple mechanisms at work- tree symbolism and ritual of many kinds, the memorialization mechanism, the positive dependency complex (UB/RT)
  • Around 550 Residents and Other Participants Plant Almost 3,400 TreesUrban Satoyama (integrated social-ecological landscapes with higher biodiversity and ecosystem service production than many pristine natural areas that exclude humans)
  • I hope you have both enjoyed what I shared with you, and have been challenged by it. I hope it inspires you, in that what you do, what we are here to learn more about today, is fundamental to the survival of people and the planet
  • Nature and Green Spaces: Sources, Sites, and Systems of Resilience and Other Re-words

    1. 1. Nature and Green Spaces:Sources, Sites, and Systems of Resilience & other Re-Words Keith G. Tidball, Cornell University
    2. 2. Re-words = second chancesreabsorb reaccede reaccelerate reaccent reaccept reaccession reacclimatizereaccredit reaccuse reacquaint reacquire react reactivate readapt readdressreadjust readmission readopt readorn reaffirm reaffix reafforest reaggregaterealign reallocate reanalyze reanimate reannex reanoint reappear reapplyreappoint reapportion reappraise reappropriate reapprove reargue rearrangerearticulate reascend reassemble reassert reassess reassign reassure reattachreattempt reattribute reauthorize reavail reavow reawake rebalance rebirthreblend rebloom reboard rebook reboot rebound rebred rebuff rebuild rebukerebury rebut rebutton rebuy recalculate recalibrate recall recant recap recastreceive recertify recharge recheck reciprocate recirculate reclaim reclassify recleanrecline recode recognize recolonize recolor recombine recommence recommissionrecommit recompile recompose recompute reconceive reconcile recondensereconfigure reconnect reconsecrate reconsider reconsolidate reconstitutereconstruct recontour reconvey reconvince recook recopy recork recoup recoverrecreate recross recrown recultivate recycle redecorate rededicate redeemredefine redeploy redevelop redigest redirect redistill reeducate reelect reembodyreemerge reemphasize reenact reenergize reengineered reenlist reenroll reenterreestablish revaluate reexamine reexperience reexplore reexpose reface refastenrefill refinance refinish refit reflect reflex refocus reforest reform …
    3. 3. Remembering a RelationshipGiven the challenges facingsociety and our planet……remembering andrecovering our individual andcollective ecological identityis of the utmost urgency…However hopeless thisendeavor feels in daily life, it iswhen we are faced withcalamity that our witheringecological identity suddenlyflushes and blooms…
    4. 4. Human-Nature Interactions in Crisis Contexts…
    5. 5. Greening in the Red ZoneGreening in the Red Zone --• creation and access to green spaces confers resilience and recovery in systems disrupted by violent conflict or disaster.• provides evidence for this assertion through cases and examples.• a variety of research and policy frameworks to explore how creation and access to green spaces in extreme situations might contribute to resistance, recovery, and resilience of social-ecological systems.
    6. 6. Road Map for TodayConcepts & Constructs• Biophilia / Urgent biophilia• Restorative Topophilia• Memorialization mechanisms• Social-ecological symbols and rituals• Discourses of defianceCasesConclusions
    7. 7. Concepts and QuestionsWhat processes or mechanisms might explain the phenomena of Greening in the Red Zone– why do people turn to Nature and Green Spaces as Sources, Sites, and Systems of Resilience and other Re-Words?
    8. 8. Biophilia? … we are human in good part because of the particular way we affiliate with other organisms (p. 129).Biophilia, if it exists, and I believe it exists, isthe innately emotional affiliation of humanbeings to other living organisms (p.31).
    9. 9. Proliferation Wilson- Biophilia Frumkin-Kellert- HumanDesign Health Tidball- SES Resilience & Human Security
    10. 10. Hort TherapyThere are many examples of people, stunned by a crisis, benefitting from the therapeutic qualities of nature contact to ease trauma and to aid the process of recovery. (Miavitz 1998; Hewson 2001)• benefits of horticulture therapy (Markee and Janick 1979; PeoplePlantCouncil 1993; Relf and Dorn 1995; Relf 2005) – among returning war veterans (Brdanovic 2009) – in refugee contexts – and in prisons
    11. 11. Restorative Environments• Frumkin (2001) and Hartig (2007) traced human-nature relationships contributing to human health to the ancient Greeks, to the New England transcendentalists, and through the American landscape designers Andrew Jackson Downing (1869) and Frederick Law Olmsted (1865) (Nash 1982; McLuhan 1994; Murphy, Gifford et al. 1998; Mazel 2000).• To see or actively experience plants and green spaces can: reduce domestic violence, quicken healing times, reduce stress, improve physical health, and bring about cognitive and psychological benefits in individuals and populations as a whole (Ulrich 1984; Kaplan and Kaplan 1989; Hartig, Mang et al. 1991; Sullivan and Kuo 1996; Taylor, Wiley et al. 1998; Wells 2000; Hartig, Mang et al. 1991).• The study of restorative environments complements research on the conditions in which our functional resources and capabilities diminish, such as red zones.
    12. 12. Systemic TherapiesWhat might gardening, tree planting, or other greening activities contribute to post- catastrophe individual or SES resilience?Moving toward an ‘ecological’ approach, the field of systemic therapies contributes alternative approaches to healing.Address the environment not merely as a setting but as a partner in the process (Berger and McLeod 2006).
    13. 13. Systems Within Systems Facilitate Human Resilience• Communication • Hydrological Cycle• Transportation • Carbon Cycle• Manufacturing • Nitrogen Cycle
    14. 14. What IS Urgent Biophilia?• Attraction humans have for the rest of nature (and the rest of nature for us?)• Process of remembering that attraction• Urge to express it through creation of restorative environments• restore or increase ecological function• confer resilience across multiple scales Based on Biological Attraction Principle (Agnati et al. 2009)Analogous to Newton’s Law of GravitationBiological activities, processes, or patterns are all deemed to be mutually attractiveBiological attractive force is intrinsic to living organisms and manifests itselfthrough the propensity of any living organism to act
    15. 15. Road Map for TodayConcepts & Constructs Biophilia / Urgent biophilia• Memorialization Mechanisms• Social-ecological symbols and rituals• Discourses of defianceCasesConclusions
    16. 16. Restorative Topophilia• Topophilia = love of place (Tuan, 1974,1975,1977)• Emphasizes attachment to place and the symbolic meanings that underlie this attachment• Base for individual and collective action that repair and/or enhance valued attributes of place• Not only attachment, but also on meanings (Stedman, 2003,2008)• Urgent biophilia & restorative topophilia together comprise “positive dependency”• Positive dependency is resource dependence that enhances resilience, rather than eroding it Tidball, KG & RC Stedman. Positive Dependency and Virtuous Cycles: From Resource Dependence to Resilience in Urban Social-Ecological Systems. Ecological Economics 86(0) 292-299..
    17. 17. Memorialization Mechanism• spontaneous and collective memorialization of lost ones through gardening and tree planting• community of practice emerges to act upon and apply these memories to social learning about greening practices• confers SES resilience, through contributing to psychological–social resistance and resilience and to ecosystem goods and services production
    18. 18. Memorialization Mechanism• spontaneous and collective memorialization of lost ones through gardening and tree planting• community of practice emerges to act upon and apply these memories to social learning about greening practices• confers SES resilience, through contributing to psychological–social resistance and resilience and to ecosystem goods and services production
    19. 19. Social-ecological symbols & Ritualshttp://candychang.com/sexy-trees-of-the-marigny-2011-calendar/ Tidball, KG (2013). Trees and Rebirth: Social-Ecological Symbols, Rituals and Resilience in Post-Katrina New Orleans. In: Tidball and Krasny, Eds., Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening. Springer publishing.
    20. 20. Social-ecological symbols & Rituals IIN = 34 Mining for
    21. 21. Social-ecological symbols & Rituals III
    22. 22. Discourses of DefianceWhat I realized…doing this is that you don’t plant trees wherethere’s no hope for a better future… if there’s no hope for afuture you’re not going to put a tree there. What would be thepoint? …so if we’re not going to be around to see it, then why,why would we plant it? – Tree planting resident of New Orleans
    23. 23. what Might initiate greening? Tidball, KG. 2012. Urgent Biophilia: Human-Nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience. Accepted at: Ecology and Society. Tidball, KG & RC Stedman. Positive Dependency and Virtuous Cycles: From Resource Dependence to Resilience in Urban Social- Ecological Systems. Submitted to: Ecological Economics . Tidball, KG, ME Krasny, E Svendsen, L Campbell, & K Helphand. 2010. Stewardship, Learning, and Memory in Disaster Resilience. “Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems: the Role of Learning and Education,” Special Issue of Environmental Education Research, 16(5): 341-357. Tidball, KG (2013). Trees and Rebirth: Social-Ecological Symbols, Rituals and Resilience in Post-Katrina New Orleans. In: Tidball and Krasny, Eds., Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience, and Community Greening. Springer publishing. Tidball, KG, Svendsen, E, Campbell, L, Falxa-raymond, N. (in preparation). Landscapes of Resilience and Discourses of Defiance: Greening as Recovery in Joplin and New York City. *Positive Dependency complex
    24. 24. Road Map for TodayConcepts & Constructs Biophilia / Urgent biophilia Restorative Topophilia Memorialization Mechanisms Social-ecological symbols and rituals Discourses of DefianceCasesConclusions
    25. 25. G3– The Green Complex Greening (G1) Green(ed) Greeners space (G2) (G3)
    26. 26. Cases- Joplin, MOLandscapes of Resilience
    27. 27. Cases- Detroit, MI
    28. 28. Cases- Tohoku Japan
    29. 29. Cases- Returning Warriors
    30. 30. Cases in Greening in the Red Zone LOCATION RED ZONE TYPE Afghanistan Ongoing wars in the Middle East Berlin, Germany Post-Cold War divisions Charleston, South Carolina 1989 Hurricane Hugo Cameroon and Chad Mid 2000’s civil unrest in Central Africa Cyprus Demarcation between Greek and Turkish Cyprus Europe 1940’s WW II Nazi internment camps Guatemala Ongoing post-conflict insecurity Iraq Ongoing wars in the Middle East Johannesburg, South Africa Early 2000’s Soweto, Post-Apartheid violence Kenya Early 2000’s Resource scarcity conflict Liberia 1989- 2003 civil war Madagascar Costal vulnerability New Orleans, USA 2005 Hurricane Katrina New York City, USA 2001 September 11th terrorist attacks Rotterdam, Netherlands Ongoing urban insecurity Port-au-Prince, Haiti 2010 earthquake Russia Post-Soviet Cold War urban insecurity Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-1996 conflict South Korea Demilitarized Zone South Korea 2002 Typhoon and coastal vulnerability Stockholm, Sweden Urban insecurity in times of war Tokyo and Hiroshima, Japan WW II bombings United States WW II involvement United States Violence and prison populations
    31. 31. Conclusions“A human being is a part of the whole called by usuniverse, a part limited in time and space. Heexperiences himself, his thoughts and feeling assomething separated from the rest, a kind of opticaldelusion of his consciousness. This delusion is akind of prison for us, restricting us to our personaldesires and to affection for a few persons nearestto us. Our task must be to free ourselves from thisprison by widening our circle of compassion toembrace all living creatures and the whole ofnature in its beauty.” ― Albert Einstein
    32. 32. For more information… www.civicecology.org
    33. 33. Thank you!greeningintheredzone.blogspot.com

    ×