History of the NCAA The NCAA was founded in 1906 to protect young people from the dangerous and exploitive athletics practices of the time. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921 the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939.
NCAA MembershipThe NCAA is made up of three membership classifications thatare known as Divisions I, II and III. Each division creates its ownrules governing personnel, amateurism, recruiting, eligibility,benefits, financial aid, and playing and practice seasons –consistent with the overall governing principles of theAssociation. Every program must affiliate its core program withone of the three divisions. Valparaiso University is a division 1school.
The NCAA’s RolePart of the NCAA’s core mission is to providestudent-athletes with a competitive environmentthat is safe and ensures fair play. While eachschool is responsible for the welfare of its student-athletes, the NCAA provides leadership byestablishing safety guidelines, playing rules,equipment standards, drug testing procedures andresearch into the cause of injuries to assistdecision making. By taking proactive steps tostudent-athletes’ health and safety, we can helpthem enjoy a vibrant and fulfilling career.
Mandatory Medical ExamsThe NCAA requires all student-athletes beginning their initialseason of eligibility and students who are trying out for a teamto undergo a medical examination before engaging in anyphysical activity with the team. Each subsequent year, anupdated medical history is administered.The screening includes a comprehensive personal and familymedical history, and physical examination. These findingswould provide physicians with information from which theywould decide if additional diagnostic testing is warranted.Some NCAA institutions also offer an electrocardiogram (ECG)or echocardiogram (echo) as part of an athlete’s heart screen.
NCAA Health and SafetyThe NCAA focuses on the following health andsafety areas:• Concussion• Drug Testing• Heart Disorders• Sickle Cell• Sports Injuries
ConcussionsThe NCAA has taken a leading role inensuring that athletes are properlyprotected from and treated forconcussions. The injury, even in mildforms, is recognized as a type of traumaticbrain injury that requires medicalattention and monitoring.• Concussions can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body that can change the way your brain normally works.• Symptoms are unique for each athlete, with estimates suggesting that 1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occur in sports and recreation- related activities every year.• Many are difficult to detect, and athletes may underreport their injuries. But by knowing the facts about concussion and taking proper steps to treatment, we can help all athletes enjoy healthy careers.
Concussion Facts• Signs and symptoms of concussion include headache, nausea, fatigue, confusion or memory problems, sleep disturbances, or mood changes. Symptoms are typically noticed right after the injury, but some might not be recognized until days or weeks later.• Lack of proper diagnosis and management of concussion may result in serious long-term consequences, or risk of coma or death.• Brain injuries cause more deaths than any other sports injury. In football, brain injuries account for 65% to 95% of all fatalities. Football injuries associated with the brain occur at the rate of one in every 5.5 games. In any given season, 10% of all college players sustain brain injuries.• Up to 86% of athletes that suffer a concussion will experience Post- Traumatic Migraine or some other type of headache pain. In fact, recent evidence indicates that presence and severity of headache symptoms may be a very significant indicator of severity of head injury and help guide return to play decisions.
Drug TestingThe NCAA shares the responsibility of promoting a drug-freeathletic environment with its member institutions to protect thehealth of student-athletes and preserve fair competition. Eachschool conducts education to inform student-athletes aboutbanned substances and the products that may contain them.The NCAA invests $4.5 million each year to conduct year-roundtesting in Divisions I and II and at every level of championshipcompetition. The majority of NCAA member schools alsooperate their own drug-testing programs to support cleancompetition and promote student-athlete health and safety.Through proper instruction and screening, we can ensure allathletes have a safe and fair opportunity to compete.
The NCAA bans the following classes of drugs: Stimulants Anabolic Agents Alcohol and Beta Blockers (banned for rifle only) Diuretics and Other Masking Agents Street Drugs Peptide Hormones and Analogues Anti-estrogens Beta-2 Agonists Note: Any substance chemically related to these classes is also banned.
Drugs and Procedures Subject to Restrictions: • Blood Doping. • Local Anesthetics (under some conditions). • Manipulation of Urine Samples. • Beta-2 Agonists permitted only by prescription and inhalation. • Caffeine if concentrations in urine exceed 15 micrograms/ml.
Examples of NCAA Banned Substances in Each Drug ClassNOTE: There is no complete list of banned drug examples!!Stimulants:• amphetamine (Adderall); caffeine (guarana); cocaine; ephedrine; fenfluramine (Fen); methamphetamine; methylphenidate (Ritalin); phentermine (Phen); synephrine (bitter orange); etc.• exceptions: phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine are not banned.Anabolic Agents – (sometimes listed as a chemical formula, suchas 3,6,17-androstenetrione)• boldenone; clenbuterol; DHEA; nandrolone; stanozolol; testosterone; methasterone; androstenedione; norandrostenedione; methandienone; etiocholanolone; trenbolone; etc.
Examples of NCAA Banned Substances in Each Drug ClassAlcohol and Beta Blockers (banned for rifle only):• alcohol; atenolol; metoprolol; nadolol; pindolol; propranolol; timolol; etc.Diuretics (water pills) and Other Masking Agents:• bumetanide; chlorothiazide; furosemide; hydrochlorothiazide; probenecid; spironolactone (canrenone); triameterene; trichlormethiazide; etc.Street Drugs:• heroin; marijuana; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) – no other substances are classified as NCAA street drugs.Peptide Hormones and Analogues:• growth hormone(hGH); human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); erythropoietin (EPO); etc.
Examples of NCAA Banned Substances in Each Drug ClassAnti-Estrogens :• anastrozole; tamoxifen; formestane; 3,17-dioxo-etiochol-1,4,6- triene(ATD), etc.Beta-2 Agonists:• bambuterol; formoterol; salbutamol; salmeterol; etc.Any substance that is chemically related to the class of banneddrugs is also banned! (unless otherwise noted)
Heart DisordersStudent-athletes are viewed as some of the healthiestmembers of society, so sudden cardiac deaths are alwaysshocking. Various causes of these incidents can occur inone of every 40,000 student-athletes per year. And thoughmany athletes with heart conditions can live a normal lifeand not experience health-related problems, suddenfatality from a heart condition is the leading medical causeof death in NCAA athletes, responsible for 75 percent of allsudden deaths that occur during exercise, training orcompetition. But by providing training to coaches andteam medical staff, and reporting signs and symptoms, wecan provide all athletes with a healthy and exciting sportscareer.
Signs of Heart Disorders• Fainting (syncope) or seizure during or after exercise.• Fainting (syncope) or seizure resulting from emotional excitement, emotional distress or being startled (e.g., diving into a pool).• Chest pain during exercise.• Unexplained fainting or seizures.• Unusual shortness of breath during exercise.• Unusual fatigue/tiredness during exercise.• A racing heartbeat.• Dizziness/lightheadedness during or after exercise.
Sickle Cell TraitThough it has recently raised alarm in the athleticcommunity, exercising with sickle cell trait is generally safeand with proper awareness and education poses nobarriers to outstanding athletic performance. Mostathletes complete their careers without any complications.But it can affect some athletes during periods of intenseexercise, when the inherited condition causes red bloodcells to warp into stiff and sticky sickle shapes that blockblood vessels and deprive vital organs and muscles ofoxygen. But through testing and proper examinations by aphysician prior to competition, we can help athletes savora healthy career.
Sports Injuries Participation in competitive sports brings with it unavoidable risks of injury.The NCAA takes appropriate steps to modify safetyguidelines, playing rules and standards to minimizethose risks and provide student athletes with the bestopportunity to enjoy a healthy career. The injurysurveillance program collects, analyzes, interprets anddisseminates data on injuries in each sport, providinga wealth of information through which we can provideathletes with a safe competitive environment.