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  1. 1. Mapwork
  2. 2. Specification <ul><li>Section A of Paper One will always contain an Ordnance Survey </li></ul><ul><li>map at either the 1:25 000 or 1:50 000 scale. In addition Section A </li></ul><ul><li>may also include any of the skills noted below.   </li></ul>The 1:25000 scale is used on Pathfinder maps, the 1:50000 map is Landranger maps. 1:25000 means 1 cm = 250m, on a 1:50000 map 1cm = 500m.
  3. 3. Specification - Basic Skills Labelling and annotation of diagrams, maps, graphs, sketches etc. Drawing sketches from photographs and in the field. Literacy: most communication is through the written word raising the importance of good literacy skills. Photographs: candidates should be able to use and interpret aerial/ oblique and satellite photographs of rural and/or urban landscapes.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Atlas maps: recognising and describing distributions and patterns of both human and physical features. </li></ul><ul><li>Sketch maps: draw, label, understand and interpret sketch maps. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordnance survey maps: 1:25 000 or 1:50 000 scale, recognise symbols, four and six figure grid references, straight line and winding distances; direction, draw and annotate cross-sections, height and degree of slope, simple contour patterns, patterns of vegetation and land use; patterns of communications; location, shape and pattern of settlement; different land use zones of settlements; infer human activity from map evidence; using maps in association with photographs. </li></ul>Specification - Cartographic Skills
  5. 5. Scale and Direction Compasses, 4 figures, 6 figures, uses, scale, graph papers with distance measuring Three letter compass directions are rarely used, except in the most precise cases. It still helps to know the two letter compass points.
  6. 6. 4 figure grid references generally used in questions where you have to describe what is in a general area, for example, describe the features that can be seen in grid square 1844. 6 figure grid references are used to identify a specific point, for example, what can be found at 187448? 6 figure grid references are also used when you are asked to draw the relief between 2 points
  7. 7. (Above) 1:25000   (Right) 1:50000 1:25000 and 1:50000 are the map sizes used in exams and are the maps are written by Ordanance Survey.
  8. 8. Paper Method of measuring distances If measuring distance in a straight line, use a ruler to measure between the two points. If measuring a distance following a curve, such as a road, use the paper method: <ul><ul><li>Place the paper on the map, positioning the corner on one end of the distance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slide the paper about the route so that the edges follow the line to be followed. If possible, mark on the boundaries of straight sections with a pencil before repeating from that point until you get to the end of the distance. Mark this point on the paper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the paper, then measure the distance marked on by the pencil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write down, get mark. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Relief <ul><li>Cross sections, contours, spot heights </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The symbol for a spot height on a map, which are used to mark the maximum height of a hill. </li></ul>Draw on markers for each contour height you can get horizontal spacings, then using an appropriate scale, draw heights and draw a line of best fit. Make sure that you take note of the actual heights of the contours; a hill does not go straight up and up and up. 
  10. 10. Pass Glacial Trough River Valley Shoulder Saddle The rivers flow from the bottom of the map to the top; the water flows and joins to become one body 
  11. 11. Landforms <ul><li>River patterns, landforms contours indicate, aerial photos </li></ul>Knoll- concentric contour lines Escarpment- hill with contour lines much closer together on one side; one side steeper than another
  12. 12. Landforms Cliff- contours are almost touching Saddle- like two knolls next to each other on a larger hill River Valley- contours form a V-pattern in the direction of the upland
  13. 13. Drainage <ul><li>Drainage refers to the movement of water in a given area. This includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers- the number of rivers, the direction shown by height of the land, shape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human influence- settlements built next to water, canals changing the direction of water and straightening of the river. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of bodies of water such as lakes, reservoirs and marshes. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Identifying factors for settlement <ul><ul><li>You can't build settlements on water or steep ground. The former is obvious, the latter, it's not very easy to build on ground that is angled due to issues in building. But while settlers used to settle close to water they should not have settled on a flood plain, as there is a danger of their home being flooded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers  used to consider proximity to freshwater, resources and transport like the small country roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In more modern times, they look more for the latter, the former two aren't useful any more due to water piping and better transport. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Identifying areas of a settlement CBD- centre of communications, high density Inner City- grid-like streets, buildings close together Newer Developments- less regular street patterns, less dense- more space per house Main roads leading in and out of the CBD