Routing in Drupal 8
July 31, 2014
Nice to Meet You!
SECTION TITLE
Kalpana Goel
Developer
William Hurley
Manager, Technical
Development
Routes basically are the mappings between URL
paths and their corresponding page and access
callbacks.
What is a route?
What’s Changed
hook_menu defines the
routing in Drupal 7
SECTION TITLE
1:1 mapping of path to route
hook_menu is dead in 8.0.x
SECTION TITLE
There is no hook_menu in Drupal 8!
MODULENAME.routing.yml
One path may map to mul...
Why the Change?
D7 hook_menu
SECTION TITLE
● Routing (page and access callbacks)
● Menu links
● Local actions
● Local tasks
● Breadcrumbs
...
*.links.actin.ml *.links.contexual.yml
Basic Example
D7: hook_menu()
function user_menu() {
$items['user/logout'] = array(
'title' => 'Log out',
'access callback' => 'user_is_...
D8: Routing
user.routing.yml
user.logout:
path: '/user/logout'
defaults:
_controller: 'DrupaluserControllerUserController:...
D7: page callback
/**
* Menu callback; logs the current user out, and redirects to the home page.
*/
function user_logout(...
D8: Controller
namespace DrupaluserController;
class UserController extends ControllerBase {
public function logout() {
us...
Path Variables
D8: Path (required)
For dynamic properties, you can include them in curly braces.
For example -
‘/admin/structure/views/{j...
D8: dynamic path example
views_ui.form_display:
path: '/admin/structure/views/{js}/display/{view}/{display_id}/{type}'
def...
D8: Optional Attributes
user.cancel_confirm:
path: '/user/{user}/cancel/confirm/{timestamp}/{hashed_pass}'
defaults:
_titl...
D8: Page Title
user.view:
path: '/user/{user}'
defaults:
_entity_view: 'user.full'
_title_callback: 'DrupaluserControllerU...
D8: Page Types
_content : -display content on a page
_form : - display form on a page.
_controller : - use to generate raw...
Access Restrictions
D8: Available Checks
_permission - A permission string (e.g. - _permission: ‘access
content’)
_role : A specific user role...
D8: Access check
user.role_add:
path: '/admin/people/roles/add'
defaults:
_entity_form: user_role.default
_title: 'Add rol...
D8: Access check
Multiple access check -
node.add_page:
path: '/node/add'
defaults:
_title: 'Add content'
_content:
'Drupa...
Forms
D7: Form Router
$items['user/password'] = array(
'title' => 'Request new password',
'page callback' => 'drupal_get_form',
...
D8: Form Router
Forms are classes
There is no method in forms as forms are presented as one class
Use _form instead of _co...
D7: User Password Form
function user_pass() {
$form['name'] = array(
'#type' => 'textfield',
'#title' => t('Username or e-...
D8: Form Interface
namespace DrupalCoreForm;
* Provides an interface for a Form.
interface FormInterface {
* Returns a uni...
D8: User Password Form
class UserPasswordForm extends FormBase {
public function getFormId() { return ‘user_pass’; }
publi...
D7: Form Validation
function user_pass_validate($form, &$form_state) {
[...]
form_set_error('name', t('Sorry, %name is not...
D8: Form Validation
public function validateForm(array &$form, array &$form_state) {
[...]
$this->setFormError('name', $fo...
D8: Form Base
class* * Base class for implementing system configuration forms.
DrupalcoreformConfigFormBase
for example -
...
Other functionality
from hook_menu
local task
local task
local task
D7: menu local tasks
$items['user/password'] = array(
'title' => 'Request new password',
'page callback' => 'drupal_get_fo...
D8: menu local tasks
user.links.task.yml
user.page:
route_name: user.page
base_route: user.page
title: 'Log in'
weight: -1...
local action
D7: Local action
$items['admin/structure/types/add'] = array(
'title' => 'Add content type',
'page callback' => 'drupal_ge...
D8: Local action
node.links.action.yml
node.add_page:
route_name: node.add_page
title: 'Add content'
appears_on:
- system....
D8: Local action on multiple pages
block_content.links.action.yml
block_content_add_action:
route_name: block_content.add_...
D8: Contextual
links
D7: Contextual
links$items['admin/structure/block/manage/%/%/configure'] = array(
'title' => 'Configure block',
'type' => ...
D8: Contextual
links
block.links.contextual.yml
block_configure:
title: 'Configure block'
route_name: 'block.admin_edit'
g...
D8: breadcrumb
breadcrumb is path based in Drupal 8
https://www.drupal.org/node/2098323
Useful Tips
Options
Useful Tips
_admin_route -- whether to use the admin theme for this route
_maintenance_access -- whether route is ...
Useful links
SECTION TITLE
https://www.drupal.org/node/1800686 - change record
https://www.drupal.org/node/2118147 - D7 to...
THANK YOU!
Kalpana Goel
William Hurley
Routing in Drupal 8
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Routing in Drupal 8

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Drupal 8, page callbacks are completely rewritten by utilizing Symfony Routing component. This session will explain many parts of routing, how to convert from Drupal 7 menu system to Drupal 8 routing system and it will cover how to define local tasks, local actions, and contextual links in Drupal 8.

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  • This is a general overview of how routing works. So request comes in via your mobile devices or browser and you get a response in the format of JSON or HTML, an image, a redirect or a 404 return.
    Drupal routing works with Symfony HTTP Kernel, but you don’t need to know the details how it works.

    In Symfony there is an object which converts request into response which is called HTTP kernel. router matches the incoming URl to a specific route and returns information about the route including controller that should be executed. Symfony kernel executes the controller, which returns a response object.
  • hook_menu did too much in Drupal 7 and it was very complicated to understand what it was doing or it was very difficult to do any advanced task with it.
  • This example is from user module from Drupal 7. As you can see it has path - user/logout, title as change log out, access callback, page callback, weight, menu-name, and this callback happens to be in separate file - user.pages.inc
  • So this part takes over the routing aspect from drupal 7. This is routing yml for Drupal 8. modulename.routing.yml
    There is a machine name - user.logout of the route(modulname.something), path is - user/logout, it is same as what used to be in the key array items. There is two other section - defaults and requirements. The new thing is the controller part here which is following PSR-4 standard here but I am not covering here but this is the controller we are using here = DrupaluserControllerUserController instead of old page callback.
    Controller has a class name - DrupaluserControllerUserController and logout is method name.
    For the requirement, it is same as access callback in hook_menu in Drupal 7, here we have if user is logged in as requirement instead of access argument.
  • This is a page callback in Drupal 7. All it does is logs out the user, closes the session and takes user to the homepage.
  • This is Drupal 8 version, In d8 everything is in objects and classes. so here we have a namespace. In Drupal 8, we are using psr -4 (to know where files are). we have a method here which is for logout. All it does is logs out the current user and redirect user to homepage. So the general concept is that instead of having a function in a one file you have it in in method in a class.
  • Path is required in Drupal 8.

  • If you are using node IDs in the URL, the ID can be automatically be converted to a node object by ParamConvertor system so it loads an entity from an existing entity ID.

    In this example above, its using id as one of the parameter, you can see order doesn’t matter here. so we have a entity type view here and in the method, it loads the complete views object.
  • In some cases, you can provide default value under defaults. By default drupal passes some parameter.

    if you go to user/somenumber/cancel/confirm page then something will be displayed and if you dont provide default value for timestamp and hashed_pass then it will return 404 page.
  • So we do have title_callback here, if you go to user/specific user page then you want to display user name as the title so we are using title_callback here. same syntax as controller.
  • 5 available defaults in Drupal 8. it is required in drupal 8

    Controller is for non-HTML, JSON or only for partial HTML but no theming or block will be output.

    entity_view - value is entity_type.view_mode. for example node.teaser will return render array of the node in teaser mode.
    entity_form - for example _entity_form: node.default will display the default node form.
    entity_list : - for example view_mode returns the list of view modes.
  • requirements - determines what conditions must be met in order to grant access to the route.

    role - since this can be different for sites so its recommended to use permission based on access restriction.

    _format:json - so it only matches requests when the accept header is json
    _module

  • In Drupal 8, routing is very powerful. So now you need to check access on the page like does the user has certain role or permission so symfony provides requirements. So here is _permission and also there is role so you can specify if user has permission to access the content based on role and permission.

    There is also _entity_access permission. So if user go to node.edit so if user has permission to edit the node

  • In Drupal 8, you can also have multiple access checks. In the above route, there are two access check. options “any” means if either of the requirements is true then user will be able to access the page. If there is _access_mode: All then both requirements need to meet in order to access the page. This is very powerful than Drupal 7. Default is “ALL”

    A very interesting thing here - _node_operation_route:TRUE - You can configure in node module that all node related routes show the admin theme so this is a flag which flags the route here.
  • In Drupal 8, we are using form api such as user login page. In the previous example we saw _controller, _content and so on. in Drupal 8 forms are classes. use _form . there is no method so one form is presented as one class. here in this example, we have a user login form
  • In Drupal 8, we are using form api such as user login page. In the previous example we saw _controller, _content and so on. in Drupal 8 forms are classes. use _form . there is no method so one form is presented as one class. here in this example, we have a user login form
  • In Drupal 8, here is user login form, it has a getFormId function, buildform function, and submit function, validateAuthentication, validateName and validateFiinal function. build form lets you build the form structure. submit method is executed when form is submitted.
    validateName function is for -- Sets an error if supplied username has been blocked.
    validateAuthentication function is for checking supplied username/password against local users table.
    validateFinal function is for checking if user was not authenticated, or if too many logins were attempted,

    Code was too long to paste here so just wanted to show you an example of form in Drupal 8.
  • In Drupal 8, here is user login form, it has a getFormId function, buildform function, and submit function, validateAuthentication, validateName and validateFiinal function. build form lets you build the form structure. submit method is executed when form is submitted.
    validateName function is for -- Sets an error if supplied username has been blocked.
    validateAuthentication function is for checking supplied username/password against local users table.
    validateFinal function is for checking if user was not authenticated, or if too many logins were attempted,

    Code was too long to paste here so just wanted to show you an example of form in Drupal 8.
  • In Drupal 8, here is user login form, it has a getFormId function, buildform function, and submit function,
    validateFinal function is for checking if user was not authenticated, or if too many logins were attempted,
  • Just want to show you submitForm method in detail here for user login form. so after user submits login form then you want to redirect user to somewhere and in this case user is directed to user.view route so you are redirecting user to user/123 page so you are not using path here anymore but you are giving routename here,
  • Just want to show you submitForm method in detail here for user login form. so after user submits login form then you want to redirect user to somewhere and in this case user is directed to user.view route so you are redirecting user to user/123 page so you are not using path here anymore but you are giving routename here,

  • There are some helper classes for form .

    ConfigFormBase - Provides an generic base class for a confirmation form.

    FormBase - generic base class - includes string translation, link generator,
    ConfirmFormBase -

  • in Drupal 8 you have menu local tasks in its own file so here we have user.links.task.yml file.

  • in Drupal 8 you have menu local tasks in its own file so here we have user.links.task.yml file.

  • in Drupal 8 you have menu local tasks in its own file so here we have user.links.task.yml file.

  • in Drupal 8 you have menu local tasks in its own file so here we have user.links.task.yml file. here we don’t path anymore but we have route_name, base_route, title, and weight.

    base_route so tabs appear on same page.

  • in Drupal 8 you have menu local tasks in its own file so here we have user.links.task.yml file. here we don’t path anymore but we have route_name, base_route, title, and weight.

    base_route so tabs appear on same page.

  • in Drupal 8 we have local action which is add content here in this image. so you can easily create some content.
  • in Drupal 8, you can define local action in node.links.action.yml. you have machine name, route name, title. important thing to notice is “appears on” where this local action should appear.
  • in Drupal 8, you can define local action in node.links.action.yml. you have machine name, route name, title. important thing to notice is “appears on” where this local action should appear.
  • in Drupal 8, if you hover over any block then you get this “configure block” icon so in drupal 8 you can configure block where should it appear and you can do that in contextual yml file.
  • in Drupal 8, you can configure block where should it appear and you can do that in contextual yml file for example - block.links.contextual.yml. again machine name, title, group, and route name. everything which is related to block contextual link should appear under block group
  • in Drupal 8, you can configure block where should it appear and you can do that in contextual yml file for example - block.links.contextual.yml. again machine name, title, group, and route name. everything which is related to block contextual link should appear under block group


    Check BlockViewBuilder - group block is defined there in the render array
  • in Drupal 8, you can configure block where should it appear and you can do that in contextual yml file for example - user.links.contextual.yml. again machine name, title, group, weight, and route name so its like i want to display delete role on user.role_delete route.
  • hook_menu did too much in Drupal 7 and it was very complicated to understand what it was doing or to do anything very advanced tasks.
  • hook_menu did too much in Drupal 7 and it was very complicated to understand what it was doing or to do anything very advanced tasks.
  • Routing in Drupal 8

    1. 1. Routing in Drupal 8 July 31, 2014
    2. 2. Nice to Meet You! SECTION TITLE Kalpana Goel Developer William Hurley Manager, Technical Development
    3. 3. Routes basically are the mappings between URL paths and their corresponding page and access callbacks. What is a route?
    4. 4. What’s Changed
    5. 5. hook_menu defines the routing in Drupal 7 SECTION TITLE 1:1 mapping of path to route
    6. 6. hook_menu is dead in 8.0.x SECTION TITLE There is no hook_menu in Drupal 8! MODULENAME.routing.yml One path may map to multiple routes
    7. 7. Why the Change?
    8. 8. D7 hook_menu SECTION TITLE ● Routing (page and access callbacks) ● Menu links ● Local actions ● Local tasks ● Breadcrumbs ● Contextual links ● Title ● Weight
    9. 9. *.links.actin.ml *.links.contexual.yml
    10. 10. Basic Example
    11. 11. D7: hook_menu() function user_menu() { $items['user/logout'] = array( 'title' => 'Log out', 'access callback' => 'user_is_logged_in', 'page callback' => 'user_logout', 'weight' => 10, 'menu_name' => 'user-menu', 'file' => 'user.pages.inc', ); return $items; }
    12. 12. D8: Routing user.routing.yml user.logout: path: '/user/logout' defaults: _controller: 'DrupaluserControllerUserController::logout' requirements: _user_is_logged_in: 'TRUE'
    13. 13. D7: page callback /** * Menu callback; logs the current user out, and redirects to the home page. */ function user_logout() { global $user; watchdog('user', 'Session closed for %name.', array('%name' => $user->name)); module_invoke_all('user_logout', $user); // Destroy the current session, and reset $user to the anonymous user. session_destroy(); drupal_goto(); }
    14. 14. D8: Controller namespace DrupaluserController; class UserController extends ControllerBase { public function logout() { user_logout(); return $this->redirect('<front>'); }
    15. 15. Path Variables
    16. 16. D8: Path (required) For dynamic properties, you can include them in curly braces. For example - ‘/admin/structure/views/{js}/display/{view}/{display_id}/{type}' The {display_id} element in the URL is called a slug and is available as $display_id in the controller method.
    17. 17. D8: dynamic path example views_ui.form_display: path: '/admin/structure/views/{js}/display/{view}/{display_id}/{type}' defaults: _content: 'Drupalviews_uiFormAjaxDisplay::getForm' class Display extends ViewsFormBase { public function getForm(ViewStorageInterface $view, $display_id, $js, $type = NULL) { $this->setType($type); return parent::getForm($view, $display_id, $js); }
    18. 18. D8: Optional Attributes user.cancel_confirm: path: '/user/{user}/cancel/confirm/{timestamp}/{hashed_pass}' defaults: _title: 'Confirm account cancellation' _content: 'DrupaluserControllerUserController::confirmCancel' timestamp: 0 hashed_pass: ''
    19. 19. D8: Page Title user.view: path: '/user/{user}' defaults: _entity_view: 'user.full' _title_callback: 'DrupaluserControllerUserController::userTitle' requirements: _entity_access: 'user.view'
    20. 20. D8: Page Types _content : -display content on a page _form : - display form on a page. _controller : - use to generate raw data like json output _entity_view : - for example - node.teaser _entity_form : - display a form for a entity _entity_list : - display list of entity like node
    21. 21. Access Restrictions
    22. 22. D8: Available Checks _permission - A permission string (e.g. - _permission: ‘access content’) _role : A specific user role (e.g.- administrator) _entity_access: In case where an entity is part of route, can check a certain access level before granting access (e.g. node.view) _custom_access: You can also do custom access checking on route. Same as title callback (define as method on class)Read more - https://www.drupal.org/node/2122195
    23. 23. D8: Access check user.role_add: path: '/admin/people/roles/add' defaults: _entity_form: user_role.default _title: 'Add role' requirements: _permission: 'administer permissions' Some permissions based on roles , permissions _permission: ‘administer nodes’ _role: ‘administrator’ Based upon access to Entities _entity_access: $entity_type.$operation check to see if everyone has access _access: TRUE
    24. 24. D8: Access check Multiple access check - node.add_page: path: '/node/add' defaults: _title: 'Add content' _content: 'DrupalnodeControllerNodeController::addPage' options: _access_mode: 'ANY' _node_operation_route: TRUE requirements: _permission: 'administer content types' _node_add_access: 'node'
    25. 25. Forms
    26. 26. D7: Form Router $items['user/password'] = array( 'title' => 'Request new password', 'page callback' => 'drupal_get_form', 'page arguments' => array('user_pass'), 'access callback' => TRUE, 'type' => MENU_LOCAL_TASK, 'file' => 'user.pages.inc', );
    27. 27. D8: Form Router Forms are classes There is no method in forms as forms are presented as one class Use _form instead of _content or _controller user.pass: path: '/user/password' defaults: _form: 'DrupaluserFormUserPasswordForm' _title: 'Request new password' requirements: _access: 'TRUE' options: _maintenance_access: TRUE
    28. 28. D7: User Password Form function user_pass() { $form['name'] = array( '#type' => 'textfield', '#title' => t('Username or e-mail address'), '#size' => 60, '#maxlength' => max(USERNAME_MAX_LENGTH, EMAIL_MAX_LENGTH), '#required' => TRUE, '#default_value' => isset($_GET['name']) ? $_GET['name'] : '', ); [...] } function user_pass_validate($form, &$form_state) function user_pass_submit($form, &$form_state)
    29. 29. D8: Form Interface namespace DrupalCoreForm; * Provides an interface for a Form. interface FormInterface { * Returns a unique string identifying the form public function getFormId(); *Form constructor. public function buildForm(array $form, array &$form_state); * Form validation handler. public function validateForm(array &$form, array &$form_state); * Form submission handler. public function submitForm(array &$form, array &$form_state); }
    30. 30. D8: User Password Form class UserPasswordForm extends FormBase { public function getFormId() { return ‘user_pass’; } public function buildForm(array $form, array &$form_state) { $form['name'] = array( '#type' => 'textfield', '#title' => $this->t('Username or email address'), '#size' => 60, '#maxlength' => max(USERNAME_MAX_LENGTH, EMAIL_MAX_LENGTH), '#required' => TRUE, ); public function submitForm(array &$form, array &$form_state) {....} public function validateForm(array &$form, array &$form_state) {...}
    31. 31. D7: Form Validation function user_pass_validate($form, &$form_state) { [...] form_set_error('name', t('Sorry, %name is not recognized as a user name or an e-mail address.', array('%name' => $name))); }
    32. 32. D8: Form Validation public function validateForm(array &$form, array &$form_state) { [...] $this->setFormError('name', $form_state, $this->t('Sorry, %name is not recognized as a username or an email address.', array('%name' => $name))); }
    33. 33. D8: Form Base class* * Base class for implementing system configuration forms. DrupalcoreformConfigFormBase for example - class MenuSettingsForm extends ConfigFormBase ** generic base class - thisincludes string translation, link generator DrupalCoreFormFormBase for example - class UserLoginForm extends FormBase ** base class for a confirmation form. DrupalCoreFormConfirmFormBase for example - class LoggingForm extends ConfigFormBase
    34. 34. Other functionality from hook_menu
    35. 35. local task
    36. 36. local task
    37. 37. local task
    38. 38. D7: menu local tasks $items['user/password'] = array( 'title' => 'Request new password', 'page callback' => 'drupal_get_form', 'page arguments' => array('user_pass'), 'access callback' => TRUE, 'type' => MENU_LOCAL_TASK, 'file' => 'user.pages.inc', );
    39. 39. D8: menu local tasks user.links.task.yml user.page: route_name: user.page base_route: user.page title: 'Log in' weight: -10 user.pass: route_name: user.pass base_route: user.page title: 'Request new password'
    40. 40. local action
    41. 41. D7: Local action $items['admin/structure/types/add'] = array( 'title' => 'Add content type', 'page callback' => 'drupal_get_form', 'page arguments' => array('node_type_form'), 'access arguments' => array('administer content types'), 'type' => MENU_LOCAL_ACTION, 'file' => 'content_types.inc', );
    42. 42. D8: Local action node.links.action.yml node.add_page: route_name: node.add_page title: 'Add content' appears_on: - system.admin_content
    43. 43. D8: Local action on multiple pages block_content.links.action.yml block_content_add_action: route_name: block_content.add_page title: 'Add custom block' appears_on: - block.admin_display - block.admin_display_theme - block_content.list
    44. 44. D8: Contextual links
    45. 45. D7: Contextual links$items['admin/structure/block/manage/%/%/configure'] = array( 'title' => 'Configure block', 'type' => MENU_DEFAULT_LOCAL_TASK, 'context' => MENU_CONTEXT_INLINE, );
    46. 46. D8: Contextual links block.links.contextual.yml block_configure: title: 'Configure block' route_name: 'block.admin_edit' group: 'block'
    47. 47. D8: breadcrumb breadcrumb is path based in Drupal 8 https://www.drupal.org/node/2098323
    48. 48. Useful Tips
    49. 49. Options Useful Tips _admin_route -- whether to use the admin theme for this route _maintenance_access -- whether route is publicly available when the site is in maintenance mode _access_mode -- whether requirements are ANY or ALL
    50. 50. Useful links SECTION TITLE https://www.drupal.org/node/1800686 - change record https://www.drupal.org/node/2118147 - D7 to D8 upgrade tutorial https://www.drupal.org/developing/api/8/routing - Routing system in D8
    51. 51. THANK YOU! Kalpana Goel William Hurley

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