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GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Linking Pasts with
Historical Gazetteers
Karl Grossner, PhD
World Histor...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Linking Pasts refers to…
 Linking historical data developed by, used in...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
www.geohumanities.org
GeoHumanities
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
A spatial turn
http://spatial.scholarslab.org/spatial-turn/
by Jo Guldi ...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GeoHumanities
What do humanists want?
What do humanists need?
What might...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Geo-parsing, geo-tagging
http://recogito.pelagios.org/help/tutoria
If re...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Why a world-historical
gazetteer?
• Time matters. Places typically have ...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Where is Poland?
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
What’s a gazetteer?
a geographic information system
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Gazetteers…
have been defined variously as
geographical indexes or dicti...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
http://www.geonames.org/4644585/
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
More modern digital
gazetteers
• Google Maps, etc
• Navigating modern ro...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
More modern digital
gazetteers
• Google Maps, etc
• Navigating modern ro...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Descriptive Gazetteers
Ancient, Medieval, Modern Cases
cf. Mostern & Sou...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Strabo
Geographica
(20 BC – 23 AD)
pictured, title page from
1620 editio...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of
_Europe_according_to_Stra...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Representation on a modern map of Iberia according to Strabo
https://com...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Chinese local
gazetteers/histories
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Chinese local
gazetteers/histories
• Song Dynasty (960-1279), 地方志 (“difa...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Chinese local
gazetteers/histories
• The land (topography, hydrology, to...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Great Britain: Itineraries to
Gazetteers
 The Itinerary of John Leland ...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Gazetteer of the World, or
Dictionary of Geographic Knowledge (1859)
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Lippincott’s Gazetteer of the World (1856)
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Historical Gazetteers
Everything (?) old is new again
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
http://pleiades.stoa.org/
“a community-built gazetteer
and graph of anci...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
• Title
• Description
• URI
• Representative point
• Location(s)
• Names...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Bol’s desiderata
A world-historical gazetteer
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Bol’s world-historical gazetteer
• It must accommodate multiple indicato...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Meeting Bol’s requirements +
 Extensibility
 Multivocality
 Integrati...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
A plethora
Long-standing
 Pleiades
“a community-built gazetteer and
gra...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
a virtuous circle
Linked Open Data in humanities research
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
People
Cultural
Objects Places
sources
data
products
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
People
Cultural
Objects P l a c e s
Name ID Lat Long
Nashville P1234 36....
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
G a z e t t e e r ( N a m e A u t h o r i t y )
People
Cultural
Objects ...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
http://www.geonames.org/4644585/
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
G a z e t t e e r ( N a m e A u t h o r i t y )
People
Cultural
Objects ...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Linked Pasts vision
search, browse, visualize
Ap p s + AP Is
Periods
Peo...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Linked Data
"a recommended best practice for exposing,
sharing, and conn...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Ruth Mostern (WHC Director)
Principal Investigator
Karl Grossner
Technic...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Enhanced gazetteers
For places, agents, cultural objects
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
a Linked Pasts vision
search, browse, visualize
Ap p s + AP Is
Cultural
...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Pelagios
search, browse, visualize
Ap p s + AP Is
Cultural
Objects
Peopl...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Peripleo
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
World-Historical
Gazetteer
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
World-Historical Gazetteer
Ap p s + AP Is
WHG
Global “Spine”
Gazetteer
C...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
World-Historical Gazetteer
• Focus on centuries after 1500
• Broader ran...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Data for the “spine”
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
W-H Gazetteer Spine Record
Name
Locations
ID
URI
Relations (within, part...
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
W-H Gazetteer Union Index
ID
URI
Place
1
1
ConflationOf1..*
Title1
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
Questions? Comments?
http://whgazetteer.org
http://linkedplaces.org
e: g...
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Linking Pasts with Historical Gazetteers

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A growing number of historical research projects are linking place datasets and using them to annotate data about historical persons, periods, and events.

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Linking Pasts with Historical Gazetteers

  1. 1. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Linking Pasts with Historical Gazetteers Karl Grossner, PhD World History Center, University of Pittsburgh
  2. 2. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Linking Pasts refers to…  Linking historical data developed by, used in, and published by research projects in many disciplines  An annual symposium hosted by the Pelagios project (Linked Pasts III is 4-6 Dec. @ Stanford)  A working group of Pelagios Commons (Linked Pasts WG) http://commons.pelagios.org
  3. 3. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 www.geohumanities.org GeoHumanities
  4. 4. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 A spatial turn http://spatial.scholarslab.org/spatial-turn/ by Jo Guldi (SMU; https://www.joguldi.com/)
  5. 5. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 GeoHumanities What do humanists want? What do humanists need? What might humanists get?” Peter K. Bol (2011) In Dear, M. et al (Eds.) GeoHumanities: Art, history, text at the edge of place. a. Maps and some spatial analysis b. A world-historical gazetteer c. ?? “ www.geohumanities.org
  6. 6. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Geo-parsing, geo-tagging http://recogito.pelagios.org/help/tutoria If research questions are spatial, sources (texts, maps, tabular data) must be geo-parsed: extract place references (names, usually) or geo-tagged geo-coded: identify a suitable location
  7. 7. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Why a world-historical gazetteer? • Time matters. Places typically have multiple names, which change over time • Places themselves come and go • Many areas of the world are underserved • Modern gazetteers are problematic • lack useful temporal information • don’t offer useful reconciliation services
  8. 8. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Where is Poland?
  9. 9. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 What’s a gazetteer? a geographic information system
  10. 10. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  11. 11. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Gazetteers… have been defined variously as geographical indexes or dictionaries (OED) specialized indexes of place names, minimally (Name, Type, Location) have been in existence since Strabo’s Geographica (b. ~63 BCE; d. ~24 CE) 1999 - 2004: First global digital gazetteer developed as part of Alexandria Digital Library @ UC Santa Barbara By 2017, a profusion of digital gazetteers and a rapidly growing number of digital historical gazetteers
  12. 12. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 http://www.geonames.org/4644585/
  13. 13. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  14. 14. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  15. 15. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 More modern digital gazetteers • Google Maps, etc • Navigating modern roads, • Locating points of interest • MapZen Places • Modern places • New competitor to GeoNames, better curated • Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) • Few coordinates, locations in hierarchy
  16. 16. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 More modern digital gazetteers • Google Maps, etc • Navigating modern roads, • Locating points of interest • MapZen Places • Modern places • New competitor to GeoNames, better curated • Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) • Few coordinates, locations in hierarchy
  17. 17. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Descriptive Gazetteers Ancient, Medieval, Modern Cases cf. Mostern & Southall (2016) Gazetteers Past. In Placing Names: Enriching and Integrating Gazetteers
  18. 18. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  19. 19. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  20. 20. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Strabo Geographica (20 BC – 23 AD) pictured, title page from 1620 edition geography: description of the land chorography: description of “political
  21. 21. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  22. 22. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 http://www.perseus.tufts.edu
  23. 23. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of _Europe_according_to_Strabo.jpg https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:C %2BB-Geography-Map1-StrabosMap.PNG
  24. 24. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Representation on a modern map of Iberia according to Strabo https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iberia-Strabon- es.png
  25. 25. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Chinese local gazetteers/histories
  26. 26. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Chinese local gazetteers/histories • Song Dynasty (960-1279), 地方志 (“difangzhi”) local histories studied by • Will, Pierre-Étienne (1992) • Hargett, James (1996) • Bol, Peter (2001) • Mostern, Ruth M. (2011) • Will: “…as early as the Sui and Tang” (6-10 c.); proto-gazetteers in 4c • (“tujing”), “maps with explanation”
  27. 27. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Chinese local gazetteers/histories • The land (topography, hydrology, toponomy, products, monuments • Its inhabitants (population, customs, prominent families and individuals, literary works) • Its government (structure, personnel, finances, biography) • Local contemporary and historical accounts of “the situation” • These became objects of historical study in 18c.
  28. 28. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Great Britain: Itineraries to Gazetteers  The Itinerary of John Leland in or about the Years 1535 – 1543  Britannia William Camden (1551-1623)  A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain Daniel Defoe (1660-1731)  Villare Cantianum (1659)  Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-1872)  Gazetteer of the World (1856)
  29. 29. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Gazetteer of the World, or Dictionary of Geographic Knowledge (1859)
  30. 30. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Lippincott’s Gazetteer of the World (1856)
  31. 31. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Historical Gazetteers Everything (?) old is new again
  32. 32. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/
  33. 33. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  34. 34. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  35. 35. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  36. 36. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 http://pleiades.stoa.org/ “a community-built gazetteer and graph of ancient places”
  37. 37. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  38. 38. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 • Title • Description • URI • Representative point • Location(s) • Names • Makes connection with • Has connection with • Place type • References • Evidence • See Further • See Also
  39. 39. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Bol’s desiderata A world-historical gazetteer
  40. 40. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Bol’s world-historical gazetteer • It must accommodate multiple indicators of temporality, including (i) start and end “valid” dates; (ii) date of source in which it is mentioned • It must be multilingual, for both place names and feature types • It should incorporate gazetteer data from multiple historical projects (local and national)... also volunteered information • It must be “...open-ended and cumulative;” i.e. extensible; able to grow in a completely flexible manner • It must be built with a viable strategy for long-term sustainability
  41. 41. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Meeting Bol’s requirements +  Extensibility  Multivocality  Integration  Sustainability • Represent indeterminate, uncertain temporal and spatial values • Model space and time (place and period) together Grossner, Janowicz & Keßler. (2016). Place, Period, and Setting for Linked Data Gazetteers. In Berman, M.L., Mostern, R. and Southall, H. (Eds.) Placing Names: Enriching and Integrating Gazetteers.
  42. 42. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 A plethora Long-standing  Pleiades “a community-built gazetteer and graph of ancient places”  Great Britain Historical GIS “information about Britain's localities as they have changed over time  A Vision of Britain Through Time “maps, statistical trends and historical descriptions; 1801 - present  Trismegistos (places, people, texts) ”…papyrological and epigraphical resources; principally Egypt and the Nile valley (800 BC-AD 800)”  Map of Early Modern London "a standard for placenames ca. 1550- 1650." Emerging  al-Ṯurayyā: ”a geospatial model of the early Islamic world"  Kima: “open digital historical Hebrew gazetteer  Pelagios Commons al Sur “the early period of the Conquest of South America (16-17 c.)  Early Modern Europe  The Dutch colonial world  Syriaca.org  Slave Societies Digital Archive “Africans in the Atlantic World; 16th to the 20th centuries” Vanderbilt University
  43. 43. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 a virtuous circle Linked Open Data in humanities research
  44. 44. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 People Cultural Objects Places sources data products
  45. 45. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 People Cultural Objects P l a c e s Name ID Lat Long Nashville P1234 36.1 6 86.78 Memphis P1235 35.1 4 90.04 … Name ID BirthYear BirthLoc Duane Allman A9876 1947 P1234 Memphis Slim A9877 1915 P1235
  46. 46. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 G a z e t t e e r ( N a m e A u t h o r i t y ) People Cultural Objects P l a c e s Name ID Lat Long Nashville P1234 36.1 6 86.78 Memphis P1235 35.1 4 90.04 … Name ID BirthYear BirthLoc Duane Allman A9876 1947 P1234 Memphis Slim A9877 1915 P1235 Name ID Lat Long Type Nashville, IN GN63457 39.2 86.25 USA Town Nashville, TN GN39586 36.16 86.78 USA City Memphis GN49203 29.84 -31.25 Egypt Ruin Memphis, TN GN5829 35.14 90.04 USA City
  47. 47. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 http://www.geonames.org/4644585/
  48. 48. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 G a z e t t e e r ( N a m e A u t h o r i t y ) People Cultural Objects P l a c e s Name ID Lat Long ExactMatch Nashville P1234 36.1 6 86.78 gn:4644585 Memphis P1235 35.1 4 90.04 gn:58293 … Name ID BirthYear BirthLoc Duane Allman A9876 1947 P1234 Memphis Slim A9877 1915 P1235 Name ID Lat Long Type Nashville, IN 63457 39.2 86.25 USA Town Nashville, TN 4644585 36.16 86.78 USA City Memphis 49203 29.84 -31.25 Egypt Ruin Memphis, TN 58293 35.14 90.04 USA City I n t e r c o n n e c t i o n F o r m a t ( R D F , ? ? ) LOD Cloud
  49. 49. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Linked Pasts vision search, browse, visualize Ap p s + AP Is Periods People Places Events Cultural Objects “union index”
  50. 50. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Linked Data "a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF."  links data, not documents  URL + protocol (e.g. http://) use them to name resources  Resource Description Framework (XML-like format of Subj-Pred-Obj triples) Semantic Web URI RDF -- Tim Berners- Lee
  51. 51. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  52. 52. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Ruth Mostern (WHC Director) Principal Investigator Karl Grossner Technical Director Ryan Horne WHC post-doctoral fellow Patrick Manning (WHC Founder) Project consultant NEH-funded project at the University of Pittsburgh’s World History Center (2017-2019)
  53. 53. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Enhanced gazetteers For places, agents, cultural objects
  54. 54. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 a Linked Pasts vision search, browse, visualize Ap p s + AP Is Cultural Objects People Places Periods Events “union index”
  55. 55. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Pelagios search, browse, visualize Ap p s + AP Is Cultural Objects People Places “union index”
  56. 56. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Peripleo
  57. 57. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 World-Historical Gazetteer
  58. 58. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 World-Historical Gazetteer Ap p s + AP Is WHG Global “Spine” Gazetteer Cultural Objects People Places Events “union index” search, browse, visualize
  59. 59. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 World-Historical Gazetteer • Focus on centuries after 1500 • Broader range of place types in “spine,” including • Peoples (ethnonyms) and associated languages • Cultural and physical geographic regions • Historical routes and itineraries • Mountain ranges, watersheds • Ocean currents • Bibliographic links • “Topical signatures” for places derived from texts WHG Global “Spine” Gazetteer
  60. 60. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Data for the “spine”
  61. 61. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 W-H Gazetteer Spine Record Name Locations ID URI Relations (within, part-of) Snippets (abstract) Links (close-, exact-match) Place 1 1 1..* 0..* When0..* 0..* 0..* 0..* Source1 PlaceType1..*
  62. 62. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 W-H Gazetteer Union Index ID URI Place 1 1 ConflationOf1..* Title1
  63. 63. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  64. 64. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017
  65. 65. GIS Day @ Vanderbilt University November 15, 2017 Questions? Comments? http://whgazetteer.org http://linkedplaces.org e: grossner@pitt.edu t: @kgeographer

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