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Post Class Notes


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Post Class Notes

  1. 1. 600 c.e.-1450 Post Classical Era Overview of Chapters 12-20 Gazdzik’s AP World History
  2. 2.   Each period in history has major developments that are dominant at the time.   Periodization simply 1. What is means to name these Periodization? characteristics and later classify the historical evidence we learn to the generalization we made before studying the period.
  3. 3. Opening and Ending-Post Classical Era End   Invasions by the nomadic Mongols ended the Post Classical Period   Collapse of two political units   Middle East   Byzantine Empire
  4. 4. 1. What sets this time apart?   Emergence of new empires   Continuities and breaks and political systems within the period   Umayyad   (e.g., the effects of the Mongols   ‘Abbasid on international contacts and on   Byzantium specific societies)   Russia   Sudanic States   A key questions of interest in   Swahili Coast the AP Exam is movement of   Tang, Song, and Ming China, people, nomadic exchanges,   Delhi Sultanate and its impact on cultural   Mongol change.   Turkish   Aztec   Inca   How to study these groups?
  5. 5. 2. Rise of the Islamic world   The rise and role of Dar al-Islam as a unifying cultural and economic force in Eurasia and Africa   Islamic political structures, notably the caliphate Arts, sciences, and technologies
  6. 6. 3. Economic and Environmental Developments
  7. 7. Interregional networks and contacts   Development and shifts in interregional trade, technology, and cultural exchange   Trans-Sahara trade   Indian Ocean trade   Silk Roads   Economic innovations   (e.g., Tang, Song, and early Ming China, Swahili, economic systems in the Americas)   Missionary outreach of major religions   Contacts between major religions   e.g., Islam and Buddhism, Christianity and Islam   Impact of the Mongol empire
  8. 8. Trade and commerce-and Economic   even banking- were becoming a basic part of economic life. Environment   Made merchant classes larger Cont. and more influential in most societies.   Creation of Trade Routes Most Societies remained Examples: fundamentally agricultural   Med. Artisanry and craftsmanship were   Hanseatic League becoming increasing important.   Silk Roads   trans-Saharan caravan Give rise to a slow (but steady) routes trend: URBANIZATION, or the growth of cities.   Gold trade along the Niger river Important Cities: Venice, Cairo,   Indian-Persian economic Mombasa, Zanzibar, Samarkand, exchange Canton (Guangzhou), Melacca (Melaka), Timbuktu, and Calicut.   Indian Ocean   Pacific trade networks.
  9. 9. Environment/Disease   Massive epidemics (pandemics), in the form of great plagues, struck Eurasia.   The most famous was the wave of bubonic plague that swept China, the Middle East, and Europe (the “Black Death”) in the 1300s.
  10. 10. 4. Political systems and cultural patterns
  11. 11. Regionally   East Asia   Restructuring of Europe   Decentralization—medieval   China’s expansion society   Chinese influence on   Division of Christianity surrounding areas and its   Revival of cities limits (Japan, Vietnam,   Africa and Korea)   Sudanic empires   Change and continuities in   (Mali, Ghana, Songhay) Confucianism   Swahili coast   The Americas   South Asia and Southeast Asia   Delhi Sultanate   Apex and decline of the   Vietnam Maya   Arts, sciences, and   Rise of the Aztec technologies   Rise of the Inca
  12. 12.   The world was coming Global Power into increased contact with each other-Exception and is the Americas International   The most advanced and politically influential Relations civilizations during these years were China (especially during the Nomadic and migratory Tang, Song, Yuan, and populations (Especially the Ming periods) and the Vikings, Mongols, and Polynesians) Ottoman Empire continued to have a profound impact on large parts of the world.   Nations of medieval Europe, particularly in the west, gained in power and sophistication.
  13. 13.   Mongols radically Global Power altered the balance of power in Eurasia. and   Imposed not political International unity, but a measure of Relations economic and cultural connectedness not seen since the days of Major states and empires- such as ancient Rome or Han Mali, Ghana, Great Zimbabwe, China. the Delhi Sultanate, the Aztecs, and the Incas- flourished, but   Gunpowder would only for a comparatively short gradually start to change time. the equation of world power.
  14. 14. Political Developments Post Classical Period
  15. 15. Political Developments   Government forms were non-representative   Only a few placed limitations on kings   England, with its Magna Carta and Parliament, is an excellent example.   Most states were decentralized or where multi-cultural empires joined only by the fact that a single civilization had conquered them all.   Feudalism became a common form of political organization in areas that decentralized.   Medieval Europe   Japanese Shogunates.   Urban centers played a larger role in the political life of most cultures.
  16. 16. 5. Demographic and environmental change Impact of migrations on Afro-Eurasia and the Americas (e.g., Aztecs, Mongols, Turks, Vikings, and Arabs) Consequences of plague pandemics in the fourteenth century Growth and role of cities (e.g., the expansion of urban commercial centers in Song China and administrative centers in Africa and the Americas)
  17. 17. Gender Issues
  18. 18. Patterns of Gender Change   Conditions of women deteriorate   Ironic since religions change by recognizing equality of souls   i.e., foot-binding in China, suttee in India, seclusion & complete veiling of women in Middle East – although isolated
  19. 19.   1 possible cause: use prosperity to make women ornamental, don’t need women’s work as much   Earlier patriarchy – men controlled women to make sure they have sons as heirs   Involvement in religion may have marginalized them in other aspects of society
  20. 20. Gender Continued   Occupy a secondary role in most societies   Political rights were minimal or nonexistence.   Sharply defined occupational roles.   Domestic sphere: child-bearers and homemakers   In Civilization:   Right to divorce abusive husbands   Right to dowry   Right to inherit and own property.   Informal Roles:   Managed households and family finances, supervised the education of children, and influenced their husbands.
  21. 21. Gender Continued African States Class Divisions and Gender   Women enjoyed a great   In most societies, upper class women, lived easier lives but deal of respect, and found themselves more constrained by religious and family trees were cultural restrictions on their matriliniear (traced behavior. Lower class women, whose lives were through the mother), much harder, were often less bound by those restrictions rather than patrilinear. because the rules of “proper” behavior applied to them.   Societies that feared magic or witchery tended to blame women (especially elderly ones) disproportionately for such things.
  22. 22. Cultural Developments
  23. 23.   Distinct artistic and cultural traditions were developing in each major region of the world.   The civilizations that possessed the greatest degree of scientific knowledge and cultural sophistication were China, the Middle East, Japan, and Muslim Spain.   Europe underwent great cultural development, especially during the Renaissance.   Travelers and Explorers linked societies and gathered increased knowledge of the world
  24. 24. Printing!   The invention of block printing in China began to alter cultural life not only in Asia but elsewhere as this new innovation spread.   Even more dramatically, the invention of the movable-type printing press in Europe, during the 1430’s, led to an information explosion, the rapid spread of knowledge and ideas, and a revolution in intellectual life.
  25. 25. Diverse interpretations   What are the issues involved in using cultural areas rather than states as units of analysis?   What are the sources of change: nomadic migrations versus urban growth?   Was there a world economic network in this period?   Were there common patterns in the new opportunities available to and constraints placed on elite women in this period?   To what extent was Dar al-Islam a unified cultural/political entity?
  26. 26. Major Comparisons and Analyses   Compare the role and function of cities in major societies   Analyze gender systems and changes, such as the effects of Islam   Analyze the interactions between Jews, Christians, and Muslims   Compare developments in political and social institutions in both eastern and western Europe   Compare Japanese and European feudalism   Compare European and sub-Saharan African contacts with the Islamic world   Analyze the Chinese civil service exam system and the rise of meritocracy
  27. 27.   How important is the nation- state (as opposed to larger Questions and cultural units) as an object of study during this historical period? Comparisons   How did political and social to Consider developments in western Europe resembles and/or differ from that in Eastern Europe? Consider the differences and   Comparisons and contrasts likenesses of various world trading between European and systems Japanese feudalism Intellectual and cultural developments   Comparisons and contrasts in different societies, and the ways in between on of the major which societies influence each other European states (or Western (for example, the Middle Eastern Europe as a whole) and one of influence on medieval Europe, or the major African States,. India’s influence on Southeast Asian religion, art, and architecture).   How did Europe’s encounter with sub-Saharan Africa differ from and or resemble the Islamic world’s encounter with it?
  28. 28.   Comparison and contrast between Islam, Questions and Christianity, not just in terms of doctrine, but Comparisons also in both faith’s impact on social and political organization, to Consider gender relations, and views of how The differences and likenesses between nonbelievers should be the Mongol Empire and earlier conquest treated. states, such as Rome or Han China.   The role of nomadic The successes and failures of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox movement as cause of Church, and the Islamic caliphates in historical change their attempts to cerate a large, during these years multinational civilization united by compared with the role religion. played by the growth of cities during the same time frame.