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Landmines

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Landmines

  1. 1. Landmines www.un.org www.mineaction.org
  2. 2. History of Landmines <ul><li>Used extensively in WWII, technology employed in US Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Goal to maim—wounded use more resources </li></ul><ul><li>Cost between $1-$3 each to make and set </li></ul><ul><li>Cost between $300-$1000 to clear </li></ul>
  3. 3. Landmine Distribution <ul><li>Over 80 countries; unknown number, est. at least 110 million </li></ul>
  4. 4. Landmine Proliferation <ul><li>Annually 100,000 landmines cleared, but 2 million new landmines laid </li></ul><ul><li>At current pace estimated 1,100 years to clear all landmines if no new ones are laid </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries have halted production and trade of mines </li></ul><ul><li>Countries continuing: Burma, China, India, Nepal, N. Korea, S. Korea, Iran, Pakistan, Singapore, Vietnam, Cuba, Russia, and United States </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ottowa Landmine Ban <ul><li>Signed in 1997 by over 100 nations </li></ul>
  6. 6. Landmine Cost <ul><li>20,000 casualties of landmines per year, half are children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blindness, burns, loss of limb, shrapnel wounds, blood loss </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Persist long after conflict ends </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent refugees from returning home </li></ul><ul><li>Hamper reconstruction, delivery of aid and environmental restoration </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mozambique <ul><li>Civil war from 1975 - 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 3 million landmines remaining, only 51% of land officially cleared </li></ul><ul><li>20+ casualties a month; 60% die due to lack of treatment </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mozambique <ul><li>Mined features include power lines, roads, bridges, railroads, and airports, schools, factories </li></ul><ul><li>Farmland: Mines rendered Mozambique’s arable land unusable - exacerbating poverty and malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Mines also injure/kill endangered wildlife </li></ul>
  9. 9. Bosnia and Herzegovina <ul><li>Civil war between ethnic groups 1992-1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Over 12,000 micro-locations still need to be cleared </li></ul><ul><li>Mines are low density and random </li></ul><ul><li>Still being set in non-mined areas to discourage resettlement </li></ul>
  10. 10. Clearing Landmines <ul><li>Prodding </li></ul><ul><li>Metal detection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scraps, shrapnel etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1 of 1,000 pings was actual mine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern mines have plastic shells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy training time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can only smell old mines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can trigger mines </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. New Technology <ul><li>Mozambique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sniffer rats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bosnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Honeybees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explosives smell like food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be trained in about a week </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not set off mines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>US Naval Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear quadropole resonance, like MRI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% detection, quick clearing </li></ul></ul>

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