Teaching reading.

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Teaching reading.

  1. 1. Environmental sound
  2. 2.  Predictions: Advantages and disadvantages of living in the countriside. Instructions: describe advantages and disaddvantages according to you kwnoledge about the theme. Living in the countryside Advantages Disadvantages
  3. 3. According to the text, identify the statement if it is and advantage (A) ordisavtanges (D).1. When I think of nature, I conjure up an image of a landscape unadulterated by human presence.2. The image doesnt include people in either their make-shift encampment or permanent residence the same way we might picture a bird in its nest.3. We are currently facing enormous environmental problems.4. Native Americans were forcefully removed from the landscape and put onto reservations.5. Since the 1980s, the primary cause of the changing landscape in the United States has been suburban sprawl6. Selection in this environment has been for increasing profits and economic growth as opposed to a strict biological interpretation of fitness.7. Americans fled the cities for the suburbs.8. Globally, sprawl has contributed to global warming due to increased emissions from cars, which are the primary mode of transportation outside of urban areas, and increases in energy consumption for the heating and cooling of spacious suburban houses9. A more contemporary version of nature makes humans an integral part of it.
  4. 4. An Ecology of HousesGuest blog post by Kevin Burke.1 When I think of nature, I conjure up an image of a landscape unadulterated by human presence. In my mind, I am standingin an open grassland with a pristine forest in the not-too-distant background and I hear birds chirping and mosquitoesbuzzing in my ear. Others may picture thick tropical foliage where bright flowers pop out against a background of varyinggreens, set to a soundtrack of running water that snakes through seemingly uncharted territory. The exact image probablyvaries from person to person, but I think its a safe bet that humans are conspicuously absent from these landscapes, or, atmost, they are visualized as a few hunter-gathers roaming a forest in search of food. The image doesnt include people in eithertheir make-shift encampment or permanent residence the same way we might picture a bird in its nest. Nature, it is thought, isnot our houses, nor does it exist in our backyards or along the banks of a polluted or drying-up river.2 Despite the fact that we are currently facing enormous environmental problems, we have inherited an image of natureinvented by 19th century American romantics, who were writing not long after Native Americans were forcefully removed fromthe landscape and put onto reservations. This is one way in which nature has been constructed - in our imagination.However, nature is (and always has been everywhere humans have ever lived) at least partially constructed by human activityin a very real sense, and this process has (and has had) implications for human evolution by altering the processofnatural selection.3 This process, which is called ecological niche construction, views an organism as embedded in an environment that theorganism itself is capable of altering. These modifications then change selection pressures on that organism, and they changeselection pressures on other evolving organisms too. Since the 1980s, the primary cause of the changing landscape in theUnited States has been suburban sprawl - i.e. the construction of strip malls, roads, and, particularly housing along theoutskirts of cities in a seemingly haphazard and unplanned fashion]. Selection in this environment has been for increasingprofits and economic growth as opposed to a strict biological interpretation of fitness. In many ways, it is Darwinian, but isitnatural (in terms of ‘Natural Selection)?4 Whenever construction of this sort is mentioned, the word economics is usually mentioned in the same breath. This isprobably more so now than ever, especially with the recent downturn in the economy that resulted from the collapse of thehousing market, whose boom and subsequent bust was caused by speculative trading on Wall Street. Ecology usually isntmentioned in this regard, and I doubt the trading floors of Wall Street enter into the image of a fictitious nature for anyone.However, it is interesting to note that the words economy and ecology share the same word part, eco-, which actually comesfrom the ancient Greek word oikos, meaning house.
  5. 5. 5Starting in the 1950s, major US industrial cities saw a decrease in population size as middle class (primarily white)Americans fled the cities for the suburbs. While some cities (such as New York) maintained their population as the USeconomy shifted from industrial capitalism to finance capitalism, many cities continued to lose residents, who movedinto newly constructed houses outside of the city. Land that was previously used for farming or was covered with foresthas increasingly been converted to residential neighborhoods, which has a major impact on the local and globalenvironment.6Globally, sprawl has contributed to global warming due to increased emissions from cars, which are the primary modeof transportation outside of urban areas, and increases in energy consumption for the heating and cooling of spacioussuburban houses. This consumption is also a primary driver behind resource extraction including oil drilling, hydraulicfracturing (a.k.a. ‘fracking) for natural gas, and coal mining - all of which have major implications for the localenvironments from which they are taken.Probably the most notable consequence of resource extraction for local environments is water contamination.Unfortunately, the number of cases is steadily increasing, but one only needs to recall the BP Deepwater Horizondisaster from 2010 to get a feel for the scale of environmental contamination we are talking about. Besides indirectlycausing contamination, sprawl is directly linked to water depletion. For example, water supply is not only becoming aconcern for cities in deserts such as Las Vegas, which saw major development throughout the 90s and early 2000s, butalso other metropolitan areas that are experiencing major population growth. As a case in point, the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area in North Carolina experienced a drought in 2007-08 that was exacerbated by the increased pressure onwater supplies due to residential development.7In light of the environmental problems we are facing, it is necessary that we rethink what natural selection is. Insteadof being analogous to Adam Smiths invisible hand, we must realize that there are very real hands at workthat construct the environment and alter the course of evolution for humans and non-humans alike. This construction,however, should not only be for short-term economic growth. The romantic image of nature that we have inherited seesnature as some entity detached from humans. This view is (and probably always has been) a bit anachronistic, onlyreally existing in the time before modern Homo sapiens evolved and dispersed around the globe. A more contemporaryversion of nature makes humans an integral part of it. I dont mean to suggest that we should completely forgetromanticism and reduce natures beauty to simple (and selfish) utilitarian calculations. I am, admittedly, a bit of aromantic myself who loves a good ramble in the woods every now and again. It is simply a reminder that part of what isso beautiful about a clean river and expansive forests is that we depend on them. We simultaneously construct and areconstructed by the environment; we envelop and are enveloped by it. If the environment we build for ourselves is only forthe short term, then thats how long itll last.
  6. 6. Inferences. Working in pairs.From the paragraph chosen, infer the main idea. Paragraph 3: This process, which is called ecological niche construction, views an organism as embedded in an environment that the organism itself is capable of altering. These modifications then change selection pressures on that organism, and they change selection pressures on other evolving organisms too. Since the 1980s, the primary cause of the changing landscape in the United States has been suburban sprawl - i.e. the construction of strip malls, roads, and, particularly housing along the outskirts of cities in a seemingly haphazard and unplanned fashion]. Selection in this environment has been for increasing profits and economic growth as opposed to a strict biological interpretation of fitness. In many ways, it is Darwinian, but is it natural (in terms of ‘Natural Selection)?
  7. 7. Create a situation.Each group have to create an specific situation about the text. Forexample:“ Joshua and his family live in Santiago, and they are tired of the citylifestyle. Fortunately, Joshua’s mom has the possibility to applied for ajob at Gaete’s Company, located 200 miles from their town, at thecountryside. Unfortunately, the distance is too long so the have tomove to there and buy a car to go to the place and they also should payfor a moving truck. They’re going to make a couple of back and forthtrips…After finished, each group should expose their history to the class.
  8. 8. Concept Map. Create a concept map refering to the causes and consequenses of GloballySpraw. Global Spraw Consequenses Causes
  9. 9. Scrabble: is a word game in which two to fourplayers score points by forming words fromindividual lettered tiles on a gameboard markedwith a 15-by-15 grid. The words are formed acrossand down in crossword fashion and must appear ina standard dictionary.Instructions:-Team work.-The class will be divided into 2 group, each groupwill receive a printed gameboand with a vastamount of letters. Each team will receive 10concepts.-after selected the synonyms, the teams have tosearch them on the dictionary to make sure thewords chosen are correct.
  10. 10. 1. Grassland2. Pristine3. Background4. Inherted5. Ecological6. Embedded7. Organism8. Suburban9. Outskirts10. Downturn11. Fictitious12. Residents13. Sprawl14. Cooling15. Resource16. Contamination17. Depletion18. Detached19. anachronistic20. Ramble
  11. 11.  Science Nation - Sandfish Lizard Slithers into Science Spotlight Reading Comprehension questions
  12. 12. Information about the author Alfred Tennyson is one of the most well-loved Victorian poets. At the age of twelve he wrote a 6,000-line epic poem.His father, the Reverend George Tennyson, tutored his sons in classical and modern languages. He and his brother Charles published Poems by Two Brothers. Although the poems in thebook were mostly juvenilia, they attracted the attention of the "Apostles," an undergraduate literary club led by Arthur Hallam. Tennyson published Poems, Chiefly Lyrical and in 1832 he published a second volume entitled simply Poems. Some reviewers condemned these books as "affected" and "obscure." Tennysons Poems in two volumes was a tremendous critical and popular success. He became one of Britains most popular poets.At the age of 41, Tennyson had established himself as the most popular poet of the Victorian era.
  13. 13. Literary devices: also known as “figures of speech” Simile Foreshadowing Metaphor Free verse Hyperbole Dialect Personification Flashback Alliteration Point of view Allusion Irony Imagery Humor Onomatopoeia Satire Characterization Suspense
  14. 14. To the Queen is a poem extracted from ‘Idylls of the King’ which retells the legendof King Arthur, his knights, his love for Guinevere and her tragic betrayal of him,and the rise and fall of Arthurs kingdom. The whole work recounts Arthursattempt and failure to lift up mankind and create a perfect kingdom, from hiscoming to power to his death at the hands of the traitor Modred.Tennysons descriptions of nature are derived from observations of his ownsurroundings, collected over the course of many years. The dramatic narrativesare not an epic either in structure or tone, but derive elegiac sadness fromthe idylls of Theocritus. Idylls of the King is often read as an allegory of thesocietal conflicts in Britain during the mid-Victorian era.
  15. 15. 1 O loyal to the royal in thyself, 2 Is this the tone of empire? here the faith That made us rulers? this, indeed, her voiceAnd loyal to thy land, as this to thee-- And meaning, whom the roar of HougoumontBear witness, that rememberable day, Left mightiest of all peoples under heaven?When, pale as yet, and fever-worn, the Prince What shock has fooled her since, that sheWho scarce had plucked his flickering life should speakagain So feebly? wealthier--wealthier--hour by hour!From halfway down the shadow of the grave, The voice of Britain, or a sinking land,Past with thee through thy people and their Some third-rate isle half-lost among her seas?love, There rang her voice, when the full city pealedAnd London rolled one tide of joy through all Thee and thy Prince! The loyal to their crownHer trebled millions, and loud leagues of man Are loyal to their own far sons, who loveAnd welcome! witness, too, the silent cry, Our ocean-empire with her boundless homesThe prayer of many a race and creed, and For ever-broadening England, and her throneclime-- In our vast Orient, and one isle, one isle,Thunderless lightnings striking under sea That knows not her own greatness: if sheFrom sunset and sunrise of all thy realm, knowsAnd that true North, whereof we lately heard And dreads it we are fallen. --But thou, myA strain to shame us keep you to yourselves; Queen,So loyal is too costly! friends--your loveIs but a burthen: loose the bond, and go.‘
  16. 16. 3 Not for itself, but through thy living love 4 And fierce or careless looseners of theFor one to whom I made it oer his grave faith,Sacred, accept this old imperfect tale, And Softness breeding scorn of simple life,New-old, and shadowing Sense at war with Soul, Or Cowardice, the child of lust for gold,Ideal manhood closed in real man, Or Labour, with a groan and not a voice,Rather than that gray king, whose name, a ghost, Or Art with poisonous honey stolen fromStreams like a cloud, man-shaped, from mountain France,peak, And that which knows, but careful for itself,And cleaves to cairn and cromlech still; or him And that which knows not, ruling that whichOf Geoffreys book, or him of Malleors, one knowsTouched by the adulterous finger of a time To its own harm: the goal of this great worldThat hovered between war and wantonness, Lies beyond sight: yet--if our slowly-grownAnd crownings and dethronements: take withal And crowned Republics crowning common-Thy poets blessing, and his trust that Heaven sense,Will blow the tempest in the distance back That saved her many times, not fail--their fearsFrom thine and ours: for some are scared, who Are morning shadows huger than the shapesmark, That cast them, not those gloomier whichOr wisely or unwisely, signs of storm, foregoWaverings of every vane with every wind, The darkness of that battle in the West,And wordy trucklings to the transient hour, Where all of high and holy dies away.

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