DNA vacccine


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DNA Vaccine -- vaccination

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DNA vacccine

  2. 2. CONTENTS Introduction  Advantages History  Disadvantages DNA vaccines Vs  Clinical trials Traditional vaccines How DNA vaccine is made  Safety issues Methods of delivery  Future of DNA How DNA vaccine works vaccines  Conclusion  References
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION DNA vaccine is DNA sequence used as a vaccine. This DNA Sequence code for antigenic protein of pathogen. As this DNA inserted into cells it is translated to form antigenic protein. As this protein is foreign to cells , so immune response raised against this protein. In this way ,DNA vaccine provide immunity against that pathogen.
  4. 4. HISTORY• In 1990, University of Wisconsin, Jon Wolff found that injection of DNA plasmids produce a protein response in mice.• In 1993, Merck Research Laboratories, Dr. Margaret Liu found that intramuscular injection of DNA from influenzae virus into mice produced complete immune response• In 1996, trials involving T-cell lymphoma, influenzae & herpes simplex virus were started
  5. 5. DNA vaccines Vs Traditionalvaccines DNA vaccines Traditional vaccines» Uses only the DNA » Uses weakened or from infectious killed form of infectious organisms. organism.» Avoid the risk of using » Create possible risk of actual infectious the vaccine being fatal. organism.» Provide both Humoral » Provide primarily & Cell mediated Humoral immunity immunity » Usually requires» Refrigeration is not Refrigeration.
  6. 6. HOW DNA VACCINE IS MADEViral gene Recombinant DNA Technology Expression plasmid Plasmid with foreign gene
  7. 7. Transform into bacterial cellPlasmidDNA Bacterial cell
  8. 8. Plasmid DNA getAmplified
  9. 9. Plasmid DNAPurifiedReady to use
  10. 10. METHODS OF DELIVERYSyringe delivery:- Either intramuscularly or Intradermally
  11. 11. Contd..Gene gun delivery:- Adsorbed plasmid DNA into gold particles Ballastically accelerated into body with gene gun.
  12. 12. HOW DNA VACCINE WORKSBY TWO PATHWAYSENDOGENOUS :- Antigenic Protein is presented by cell in which it is producedEXOGENOUS :- Antigenic Protein is formed in one cell but presented by different cell
  13. 13. HOW DNA VACCINES WORK +Muscle Cells Plasmid DNA
  14. 14. ENDOGENOUS PATHWAYNucleusPlasmidDNA mRNA MHC-I Antigenic Peptides Antigenic Protein
  15. 15. T- Helper CellMu lt ipl y Memory T cells
  16. 16. EXOGENOUS PATHWAY Antigenic Protein come outside
  17. 17. s ed oc yto g Pha Antigen Presenting Cell Antigenic Peptides Memory T- Helper Cell Antibodies Cytokines Plasma B-CellMHC-II Activated B-Cell Memory B-Cell
  18. 18. WHEN VIRUS ENTER IN THE BODY Memory T-Cell Viral Protein Antibodies
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES* Elicit both Humoral & cell mediated immunity* Focused on Antigen of interest* Long term immunity* Refrigeration is not required* Stable for storage
  20. 20. DISADVANTAGES Limited to protein immunogen only Extended immunostimulation leads to chronic inflammationo Some antigen require processing which sometime does not occur
  21. 21. CLINICAL TRIALSJune 2006,DNA vaccine examined on horse Horse acquired immunity against west nile virusesAugust 2007,DNA vaccination against multiple Sclerosis was reported as being effective
  22. 22. Genetic ToxicityIntegration of DNA vaccine into host Genome Insertional mutagenesis Chromosome instability Turn ON Oncogenes Turn OFF Tumor suppressor genes
  23. 23. Over Expression of DNA vaccine Acute or chronic inflammatory responses Destruction of normal tisues
  24. 24. Generation of Autoimmunediseases Anti DNA Antibodies Autoimmune diseases Autoimmune Myositis
  25. 25. Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid used is resistance to antibiotics for selection Raise the resistance to sameantibiotic in the host
  26. 26. FUTURE PROSPECTSPlasmid with multiple genes provide immunity against many diseases in one boosterDNA vaccines against infectious diseases such as AIDS, Rabies, Malaria can be available
  27. 27. CONCLUSION* DNA vaccines are in their early phase.* There are no DNA vaccines in market at present.* But this just the beginning .* DNA vaccines are going to be the vaccines of next generation.
  28. 28. References> www.medscape.com> www.wikipedia.org> www.sciencedirect.com> www.nature.com> www.biokenyon.com> www.biolife.com Immunology by Kuby 6th Edition Immunology by Tizard 4th Edition
  29. 29. THANK YOU