Faculty Of Engineering
Software Engineering Department_ 3rd
Open Source Technology
What is E-Government?
The purpose of this report is to develop a framework through which effective and
efficient e-Governance can be done
The e-Gov. field (also called Electronic Government, Digital Government,
Electronic Governance, and similar names) emerged in the late 1990´s. Since
then it spurred several scientific conferences and journals. Because the field grew
considerably in size, both its contents and position with respect to other research fields
and disciplines need to be explained and discussed. 
E-Government is a way for governments to use the new technologies to provide people
with more convenient, access to government information and services, to improve the
quality of the services and to provide greater opportunities to participate in our System
institutions and processes.
E-Government provides with some tremendous opportunities to move forward in the
21st century with better quality, cost-effective, government services and a better
relationship between citizens and their government. 
The term e-Government (e-Gov.) emerged in the late 1990s, but the history
of computing in government organizations can be traced back to the beginnings of
computer history. A literature on “IT in government” goes back at least to the
1970s ,This literature concerns IT use within government, while the recent
e-Gov. literature more often concerns external use, such as services to the citizens.
While some earlier e-Gov. computer issues, such as office automation, may not be
highly relevant to research today, many issues are, for example decision making, service
processes, and values. 
Essentially, the e-Government delivery models can be briefly summed up as 
G2C (Government to Citizens)
G2B (Government to Businesses)
G2E (Government to Employees)
G2G (Government to Governments)
C2G (Citizens to Governments)
Citizens increasingly expect the same level of services from government as they do from
other organizations. Businesses transforming their operations for the virtual world are
unwilling to go for form-filling and standing in line for government. The distinctions
between agencies of government, business and civil society – and the functions they
perform – are becoming blurred as power is distributed and the access costs to
connectivity fall. 
Benefits of e-Governance
E-Governance offers a new way forward, helping improve government processes,
connect citizens, and build interactions with and within a civil society. What reform has
e-Governance in store? According to one school of thought, at root it provides three
basic change potentials for good governance for development:
Automation: Replacing current human-executed processes, which involve
accepting, storing, processing, outputting or transmitting information. For
example, the automation of existing clerical functions.
Informatisation: Supporting current human-executed information
processes. For example, supporting current processes of decision-making,
communication, and decision implementation.
Transformation: Supporting new human-executed information processes.
For example, creating new methods of public service delivery.
These change potentials, in turn, can bring – singly or in combination, five main benefits
to governance for development:
Governance that is cheaper: Producing the same outputs at lower total cost.
Governance that does more: Producing more outputs at the same total cost.
Governance that is quicker: Producing the same outputs at the same total cost in
Governance that works better: Producing the same outputs at the same total
cost in the same time, but to a higher quality standard.
Governance that is innovative: Producing new outputs.
The main disadvantages concerning e-government is the lack of equality in public
access to the internet, reliability of information on the web, and hidden agendas of
government groups that could influence and bias public opinions. There are many
considerations and potential implications of implementing and designing e-government,
including disintermediation of the government and its citizens, impacts on economic,
social, and political factors, vulnerability to cyber-attacks, and disturbances to the status
quo in these areas.
Increased contact between government and its citizens goes both ways. Once e-
government begins to develop and become more sophisticated, citizens will be forced
to interact electronically with the government on a larger scale. This could potentially
lead to a lack of privacy for civilians as their government obtains more and more
information on them. In a worst case scenario, with so much information being passed
electronically between government and civilians, a totalitarian-like systemcould
develop. When the government has easy access to countless information on its citizens,
personal privacy is lost.
Although "a prodigious amount of money has been spent" on the development and
implementation of e-government, some say it has yielded only a mediocre product. The
outcomes and effects of trial Internet-based governments are often difficult to gauge or
unsatisfactory. According to Gartner, Worldwide IT spending is estimated to total
$3.6 trillion in 2011 which is 5.1% increase from the year 2010 ($3.4 trillion).
An e-government site that provides web access and support often does not offer the
"potential to reach many users including those who live in remote areas, are
homebound, have low literacy levels, exist on poverty line incomes.
World e-Government Ranking 
In conclusion, we believe e-Gov. is a budding field that is interesting both as a new
research area for IS theories and methods and as a source for IS practitioner
contribution and use.
So beauty thing in E-Gov. is that each citizen can interacts with his government easily,
less cost, more transparency