Consulting design presentation

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This is a case study of the development of the C-1 from concept to prototype in a three-month deadline.

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Consulting design presentation

  1. 1. KEVIN LOMELIMechanical Engineering Consulting Project: Lit Motors 1
  2. 2. ABOUT MYSELF 2
  3. 3. International Traveller Hobbyist Photographer 3
  4. 4. Rebuilt ’67 Mustang in HS 4
  5. 5. INVERTED PENDULUM Y I enjoy developing mechantronic side-projects X øArduino based project 5
  6. 6. BSME MSME 6
  7. 7. Matrix Technologies Control system design & validationConsultancy for Biotech Automation First job out of college 7
  8. 8. Stumbled upon Lit & decided to provideconsultation to develop the project and company A lean startup, striving to disrupt the automotive industry with an efficient and safe EV. 8
  9. 9. THE IDEA + = The C-1A fully enclosed and self-stabilized electric motorcycle. 200 mile range per charge. 120MPH top speed. Low drag. Extremely efficient 9
  10. 10. THEORY 10
  11. 11. GYROSCOPES Referred to as a “controlled moment gyroscope” or “CMG” Spin Ω MMAX = ά Ω IG IG(disk) = (m r2)/2 𝛕 M α OutputInput IG Moment of Inertia (kg m2) α Precession Angle (rad) Ω Flywheel Spin Speed (rad/s) 𝛕 Applied Torque (Nm) M Righting Moment (Nm) 11
  12. 12. Ω G1 𝛕 αOne gyro for stabilization is too big!If we run two mirrored gyros, it (theoretically)simplifies dynamics & saves some space. 12
  13. 13. Ω G1 𝛕 -Ω α G2 -𝛕 -αG1 & G2 Assumptions Realistic?Same material & geometry Achievable w/in a toleranceFlywheels spin equal & oppositePrecess opposite depends on H/W & S/WApply same torque 13
  14. 14. Φ B B G1 G2 G A Aφ ̈(k9 +k4)−σψ ̇k7 +α ̇ΩIG33 +ψ ̇φΩIG33 =k7gφα ̈k5 +Ω(ψ ̇α−φ ̇)IG33 = 𝛕 The dynamics are linearized placed into state-space form, and controlled w/ modern theory. 14
  15. 15. Game-changing IssuesSteering angle These topics make loss of precession (α) occurroad incline rapidly, leading to the vehicle tipping over.moving loadsTire & suspension dynamics 15
  16. 16. WHEN I JOINED LIT 16
  17. 17. Lit made concepts and test beds of the ideaThe control system and stability algorithm wasn’t figured out 17
  18. 18. I created the simulation & control algorithm 18
  19. 19. We installed the CMG in the full scalevehicle, tuned it, and demonstrated it 19
  20. 20. The prototype sparked interest with the press 20
  21. 21. REORGANIZATION Some internal restructure led to my leading the engineering development. I took a new approach to project. 21
  22. 22. VC Funding NEED A competent team A working P.O.C. P.O.C. = “Proof of Concept”No documents InternalKnowledge of ROAD BLOCKS! H/W gone Vehicle CMG Landing Gear Non- Existent Algorithm Rust-prone Driver not safe non-automated development limitations Multi-person Falls over any operation time unrepeatable Looks ugly Chassis isn’t rigid Hardware failure latency issues Driver not safe 22
  23. 23. SOLUTION? 23
  24. 24. A working TechCrunch P.O.C. Disrupt 2012 VC Funding 24
  25. 25. C-1 OVERHAUL 25
  26. 26. The Process EvaluateDef Requirements Functions SpecH/W & S/W Spec Purchase Build Validate 26
  27. 27. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August SeptemberEvaluation The reorganization & evaluation occurred early June ’12. The summer interns leave late August, and the Tech Crunch Disrupt deadline is early September. 27
  28. 28. Evaluate Skill Set Team Bandwidth Cost Functional Specs & Req’s Tasks Spec Feasibility HW & SW Time Existing Platform Capabilities Tools & HW 28
  29. 29. Evaluate Skill Set •Mech. design Team •Electrical system design Bandwidth •LabVIEW software design Functional Specs & Req’s Tasks Spec HW & SW Existing Platform •Access to 3-Axis CNC, lathe, press/ brake, Capabilities laser cutter, etc. Tools & HW •In-house: Mill, Arc & Mig, general shop tools •Full-scale prototype 29
  30. 30. Evaluate Team Functional Specs & Req’s Tasks Spec HW & SW Capabilities Evaluated the team and our capabilities, then began looking at all the tasks we could accomplish. 30
  31. 31. Tasks C-1 Upgrade Vehicle CMG Landing Gear Control Gyro Energy LGWindshield Custom Seat Storage System Assembly AssemblyBody & Trim Head & Tail Sensors Lights The focus of this presentation & my primary scope 31
  32. 32. Tasks C-1 Upgrade Vehicle CMG Landing Gear Control Gyro Energy LGWindshield Custom Seat Storage System Assembly Assembly Head & TailBody & Trim Sensors Lights I oversaw subcontractors, interns, industrial designers 32
  33. 33. Functional SpecsTasks & Req’s Software: state machine, critical alarm sequence Hardware: Off the shelf products, industry standard only, no redundancy Power: 72 / 48 / 24 / 12 / 5 VDC Control: stability initiated in normal operating sequence Safety: landing gears are mechanically fail-safe, landing gear deployed if 𝜙 or α are out of bound in the control and alarm states Payload: Vehicle weight <700Lbs, Driver weight < 200lbs Drive conditions: flat ground, <5MPH wind, dry weather, drive speed limit of <10 MPH TCDisrupt: Drive on stage balancing. Drive back & forth. Deploy landing gear. 33
  34. 34. SpecTasks HW & SW High Level BOM Item# QTY Primary Subsystem Description System Tag OTS? System 1 2 CMG Mechanical Gyroscope Housing Assembly - N 2 1 CMG Mechanical Gyroscope Chassis Assembly - N 4 2 CMG Mechanical Flywheel F1 / F2 N 5 A/R CMG Mechanical Bearings - Y 6 2 CMG Mechanical Flywheel Motor FM1 / FM2 N 7 2 CMG Mechanical Servo Motor SV1 / SV2 Y 8 1 CMG Electrical Gyroscope+Inertial Sensor VEC1 Y 9 5 CMG Electrical DC/DC Converter - Y 10 A/R CMG Electrical Wiring, Terminal Blocks, Relays, & Misc. H/W - Y 11 1 CMG Electrical NI CompactRIO MCU1 Y 12 A/R CMG Electrical AI, DI, DO Modules - Y 13 A/R CMG Electrical Flywheel Motor Driver, Inductors, Capacitors FMC1 / FMC2 Y 14 1 CMG Electrical 72VDC LiFePo4 Battery Pack + BMS - Y 15 1 CMG Test Bed Stability Control Test Platform Assembly - N 16 1 CMG Test Bed Torque Output Test Platform Assembly - N 17 2 Landing Gear Mechanical Fail-Safe Landing Gear Assembly LG1 / LG2 N 18 2 Landing Gear Mechanical Pneumatic Cylinder, Hosing, & Fittings - Y 19 2 Landing Gear Electrical Solenoid valve - Y 20 A/R Vehicle Chassis Steel Subframe Assy - N 21 A/R Vehicle Body Bondo & Paint - N 22 1 Vehicle Interior Carbon Fiber Seat - N 23 A/R Vehicle Exterior Windshield, Trim, Headlights, Taillights - N 34
  35. 35. SpecTasks HW & SW High Level BOM Item# QTY Primary Subsystem Description System Tag OTS? System 1 2 CMG Mechanical Gyroscope Housing Assembly - N 2 1 CMG Mechanical Gyroscope Chassis Assembly - N 4 2 CMG Mechanical Flywheel F1 / F2 N 5 A/R CMG Mechanical Bearings - Y 6 2 CMG Mechanical Flywheel Motor FM1 / FM2 N 7 2 CMG Mechanical Servo Motor SV1 / SV2 Y 8 1 CMG Electrical Gyroscope+Inertial Sensor VEC1 Y 9 5 CMG Electrical DC/DC Converter - Y 10 A/R CMG Electrical Wiring, Terminal Blocks, Relays, & Misc. H/W - Y 11 1 CMG Electrical NI CompactRIO MCU1 Y 12 A/R CMG Electrical AI, DI, DO Modules - Y 13 A/R CMG Electrical Flywheel Motor Driver, Inductors, Capacitors FMC1 / FMC2 Y 14 1 CMG Electrical 72VDC LiFePo4 Battery Pack + BMS - Y 15 1 CMG Test Bed Stability Control Test Platform Assembly - N 16 1 CMG Test Bed Torque Output Test Platform Assembly - N 17 2 Landing Gear Mechanical Fail-Safe Landing Gear Assembly LG1 / LG2 N 18 2 Landing Gear Mechanical Pneumatic Cylinder, Hosing, & Fittings - Y 19 2 Landing Gear Electrical Solenoid valve - Y 20 A/R Vehicle Chassis Steel Subframe Assy - N 21 A/R Vehicle Body Bondo & Paint - N 22 1 Vehicle Interior Carbon Fiber Seat - N 23 A/R Vehicle Exterior Windshield, Trim, Headlights, Taillights - N The focus of this presentation & my primary scope I oversaw subcontractors, interns, industrial designers 35
  36. 36. SpecTasks HW & SW Software Development Tasks Item# Primary System Subsystem Description 1 CMG Mechanical Servo Motor Initialization and Tracking 2 CMG Electrical Gyroscope+Inertial Sensor configuration 4 CMG Electrical NI CompactRIO Control algorithm, State-Machine, Data Acquisition 5 CMG Electrical AI, DI, DO Module configuration, FPGA programming, & Drivers 6 CMG Electrical Flywheel Motor Driver configuration & Main controller 7 CMG Test Bed Stability Control Test Platform: Algorithm dev. & validation 8 CMG Test Bed Torque Output Test Platform: SISO Analysis 9 Landing Gear Electrical Solenoid Valve / Relay Digital Output Configuration & Override 36
  37. 37. Tasks Spec HW & SW CMG: I/O 24VDC 5VDC on/off Switch α, 𝛕 Ω HI-DIO RS232 DIO MCU1 ALM LED SV1 FM1 RDY LED -α, -𝛕 FM2 SV2 PWM FMC1 -Ω FMC2 Φ VEC1 LG1 LG2 After deciding requirements, evaluating previous prototype and current skill set, I came up with this architecture for the CMG. 37
  38. 38. SpecTasks HW & SW CMG: Power Distribution 24VDC 5VDC on/off Switch α, 𝛕 Ω HI-DIO RS232 DIO MCU1 ALM LED SV1 FM1 RDY LED -α, -𝛕 FM2 SV224/5VDC FMC148/12VDC -Ω FMC272/24VDC72/48VDC Φ VEC1 LG172/48VDC LG2 72VDCLiFePo4 + BMS 38
  39. 39. Evaluate Team Cost Tasks Feasibility Time Capabilities Developed the scope of work. Next, I budgeted the cost for parts & services. 39
  40. 40. After deciding LabVIEW & cRIO for prototyping,I applied for & won the Green Grant from NI (good for $25K grant towards software & support) After NI support, parts & services for CMG ~$60K 40
  41. 41. Evaluate Team Cost Tasks Feasibility Time Capabilities Next, I determined the amount of man-time it would take to complete the scope. 41
  42. 42. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Battery Pack + BMS Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW Test Bed 1 Modification & CL Control Test Bed Test Bed 2: S,P, & LT Test Bed 2: CL Control Torque Bed Torque Bed: S,P, & LT Torque Bed: SWIntegration CMG + C-1 Full Scale CMG + LG S = “Specification” CL ControlValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” LG BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” CL Control+LG+ Drive 42
  43. 43. Evaluate Team Cost Tasks Feasibility Time Capabilities Is it feasible? 43
  44. 44. Evaluate Team Cost Tasks Feasibility Time Capabilities Yes. It will be intense, and we may need to cut out a few low priority tasks, but the primary goals will be accomplished. 44
  45. 45. WHAT REALLY HAPPENED 45
  46. 46. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Battery Pack + BMS Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW Test Bed This was the initial plan. Plan Torque BedIntegration Full Scale S = “Specification”ValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” 46
  47. 47. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Battery Pack + BMS Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW This was the reality. The causes: part lead-time, last- Test Bed minute functional requirement changes, and compatibility issues. Reality Torque BedIntegration Full Scale S = “Specification”ValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” 47
  48. 48. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD CMG: S, P & LT June July August September The initial plan to modify test bed 1 & 2 and created a torque output validation system. Test Bed 1 Modification & CL Control Test Bed Test Bed 2: S,P, & LT Test Bed 2: CL Control Plan Torque Bed Torque Bed: S,P, & LT Torque Bed: SWIntegration Full Scale S = “Specification”ValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” 48
  49. 49. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD CMG: S, P & LT June July August September The test bed 1 & 2 development was pushed back. The torque output validation system was partially done, but S/W not complete by deadline. Test Bed 1 Modification & CL Control Test Bed Test Bed 2: S,P, & LT Reality X Test Bed 2: CL Control Torque Bed Torque Bed: S,P, & LT Torque Bed: SWIntegration Full Scale S = “Specification”ValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” 49
  50. 50. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD CMG: S, P & LT June July August September If all went well, we could demo a working prototype for the interns before they returned to school. Test Bed Plan Torque BedIntegration CMG + C-1 Full Scale CMG + LG S = “Specification” CL ControlValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” LG BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” CL Control+LG+ Drive 50
  51. 51. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD CMG: S, P & LT June July August September As I thought, the project development took up to the last hour before the TCD demo. Test Bed Reality Torque BedIntegration CMG + C-1 Full Scale CMG + LG S = “Specification” CL ControlValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” LG BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” CL Control+LG+ Drive 51
  52. 52. How it happened A few snapshots in the process 52
  53. 53. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Battery Pack + BMS Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW Test Bed 1 Modification & CL Control Test Bed Test Bed 2: S,P, & LT Test Bed 2: CL Control X Torque Bed Torque Bed: S,P, & LT Torque Bed: SWIntegration CMG + C-1 Full Scale Here’s the entire summer. CMG + LG S = “Specification” CL ControlValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” LG BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” CL Control+LG+ Drive 53
  54. 54. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW Test Bed Torque Bed Early July, already specified what we wanted and needed.Integration Full Scale S = “Specification”ValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” 54
  55. 55. Functional / Software Requirements Hashed out requirements in teams over whiteboard sessions. Lots of sticky notes too. 55
  56. 56. Hashed out the hardware layout. Hey there’s me in the corner with some of the E-team 56
  57. 57. Of course I took work home during crunch time. 57
  58. 58. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Battery Pack + BMS Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW Test Bed 1 Modification & CL Control Test Bed Test Bed 2: S,P, & LT Test Bed 2: CL Control Torque Bed Torque Bed: S,P, & LT Torque Bed: SWIntegration Full Scale Early August, a lot of H/W & S/W was developed and the CMG was working on test bed 1. S = “Specification”ValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” 58
  59. 59. Control Test Bed1Again, the E-team (L). Test bed 1 working with new servo and controller (R). 59
  60. 60. Torque Output Test BedLed the freshman & sophomore interns in designing the torque bed and ball-park checking geometry with properties of materials Pancake force sensors 60
  61. 61. Torque Output Test BedAmplifiers Pancake Power Supply force sensors Didn’t complete S/W. 61
  62. 62. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Battery Pack + BMS Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW Test Bed 1 Modification & CL Control Test Bed Test Bed 2: S,P, & LT Test Bed 2: CL Control X Torque Bed Torque Bed: S,P, & LT Torque Bed: SWIntegration CMG + C-1 Full Scale The interns left, I took over all aspects of the CMG control H/W & S/W development. CMG + LG S = “Specification”ValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” CL = “Closed Loop” 62
  63. 63. Battery Pack72VDC LiFePo4 Charger Battery TrayBattery Management System 63
  64. 64. CMG: Rack CAD & DesignHome for the control system CAD & laser cut shelving for H/W I measured the spacing and designed the control system so that it contours with the seat and geometry of the vehicle. 64
  65. 65. CMG: Rack CAD & Design Test fitting 65
  66. 66. CMG: Rack Wiring 4th floor, Controller & IO FMC1 HI-DIO RS232 DIO FMC2 MCU1 3rd floor, Flywheel motor controllers LG1 LG2 24/5VDC 72/24VDC72/48VDC 48/12VDC72/48VDC1st floor, Main power 2nd floor, IO & power distribution distribution 66
  67. 67. CMG: Rack Wiring Assembled & Tested 67
  68. 68. Control Test Bed 2Test bed 2 is much more rigid than the First 68
  69. 69. CMG: Rack TestingThe entire control system in closed loop control on test bed 2, prior to vehicle integration. 69
  70. 70. CMG: Test bed to vehicle integration 70
  71. 71. Summer 2012 Gantt Interns Leave TCD June July August September Functional Requirements NI Grant, CRIO + Modules CMG: S, P & LT Power distribution Sensors Servo Motors + Gearhead Battery Pack + BMS Switches, relays, LEDs, wiring, misc HW Test Bed 1 Modification & CL Control Test Bed Test Bed 2: S,P, & LT Test Bed 2: CL Control X Torque Bed Torque Bed: S,P, & LT Torque Bed: SWIntegration The final days before TCD deadline. The vehicle was CMG + C-1 Full Scale drive-validated at the lab, then taken to the event CMG + LG an hour before the event. S = “Specification” CL ControlValidationFull Scale P = “Purchase” LT = “Lead Time” BMS = “Battery Management System” LG CL = “Closed Loop” CL Control+LG+ Drive 71
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. 73
  74. 74. The C-1 balanced and drove on stage before thousands of viewers. We placed 2nd in the competition. 74
  75. 75. That’s Gavin Newsom! 75
  76. 76. More press coveragepost TechCrunch Disrupt 76
  77. 77. SUCCESS OR FAILURE? Its a gray zone to some Did we meet our needs? Kinda Did Lit get funded? No Did it balance & drive @TCD? YesIt was an unforgettably great experience. I led and worked with talented and smart people. I learned through the development process, and adapted to the numerous setbacks and unpredictable occurrences. To me, it was success. 77
  78. 78. Thank you. Questions? Disclaimer: Please do not ask about brands, vendors, or numerical specs for any of the disclosed information. 78

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