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Credit: Clifford Krauss



                          Building Solutions to Climate Change                                 ...
How far away is climate change?   

• Global warming: When you feel it, it’s already too late.
      ®            




   ...
2 degrees  450 ppm   2+450ppm




• GHG concentration can’t exceed the equivalent of 450 ppm of CO2   CO2   ++-450ppm
• CO...
Climate change impact on China   -   




                                                    4
Source: Jinyun Li
Do it now         +




                                                             5
Source: Design to Win, California E...
ACES   #     +
• 6 26       #     )      219 212      -“#     +   ”
  ACES was passed by House on June 26, 219-212
• #    ...
Cap and trade provisions   ¦/ +          Ø
•                                  
    reduce GHG emissions by pricing carbon
...
Illustration of carbon emission by 2050   2012   2050  ­




                                                             ...
Other provisions         Ø
•         ˜                   W        50%
  stricter building codes: 50 percent energy reducti...
What’s next   +
•      )     :9 4 R
    The Senate may submit its own draft in September
•   -O- , X6))
    Need to go thr...
Carbon affects balance sheet       B
•               .             
    carbon allowances become value assets
•           ...
Global 500 on Carbon Disclosure           500 ,

    Carbon Disclosure: Global 500




                                   ...
China 100 on carbon disclosure            - 100+ O

 Carbon Disclosure:
 • China 100
 • only 5 fill up survey




        ...
Building sector key to climate change           ˜                                       /




   The building sector has t...
mitigation scenario in 2030         2030  




80% of the needed mitigation, 25 Gt, can be achieved with existing technolo...
Building sector most economic   ˜      {




                                            16
Potential of China’s building sector                                  - ˜                        

                       ...
Potential of China’s building sector                                  - ˜                        
                        ...
China’s buildings  appliances   - ˜   




                                            19
US-China MOU on building efficiency     -#˜  %
• - ˜) +#                             20097        )˜               %
    M...
Policy recommendations for retrofit         ˜                       
•                          ,           /             ...
Execution is an issue          W          8  9
•         `         /                      ˜                   /
    Heatin...
centerpiece of energy efficiency   ˜    
•   RESNET                # 9,
    )              )
    RESNET: well established ...
U.S.DOE Builders Challenge   #      




                                         24
Energy labeling to remove barriers            )
•   œ ˜
    Enforce building energy code
     – ˜          X+ %           ...
Shanghai existing building retrofit label   +   9   )




                                                           26
National energy labeling guideline      )




                                             27
Retrofit of Empire State Building    9 
•   1931˜
    built in 1931
•   102 , 381
    102 floors, roof height: 381 meters...
Planning and scheduling process        ˜
•                   +                     •     ))
    Inventory and planning    ...
Prioritize order

•        .                      6514 -          6500-/ b               ; /
           
    First address...
Retrofit options   
•         @  -                      a… -                : b
                  / +             )%      ...
Retrofit of Willis Tower        9
•   #                           T
    The highest tower in USA, former name is
    Sears...
Implementation plan   
•        2                                    –      104           16        
                     ...
END
• Thank you



• Contact
  '     b
   Kevin Mo, Ph.D.
             ˜      
   Senior Sustainable Building Specialist
 ...
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Building & Climate Change

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the presentation was given at the 2009 Green Building and Energy Efficiency International Conference in August in Shanghai, China. The conference was organized by McGraw-Hill and sponsored by U.S. DOE, USGBC, Shanghai Green Building Council, etc.

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Building & Climate Change

  1. 1. Credit: Clifford Krauss Building Solutions to Climate Change à@ ^ Kevin Mo, Ph.D. Senior Sustainable Building Specialist Natural Resources Defense Council 2009 Green Building and Energy Efficiency Internationa 2009 , 2009 8 19 Conference, Shanghai, CHINA August 19, 2009
  2. 2. How far away is climate change? • Global warming: When you feel it, it’s already too late. ® 2
  3. 3. 2 degrees 450 ppm 2+450ppm • GHG concentration can’t exceed the equivalent of 450 ppm of CO2 CO2 ++-450ppm • CO2 levels have already increased 1/3 from 280 ppm to 380 ppm CO2 1/3 • 550 ppm by 2040 if BAU CO2 :2040 - 550ppm 3 Source: Stern Review, 2006
  4. 4. Climate change impact on China - 4 Source: Jinyun Li
  5. 5. Do it now + 5 Source: Design to Win, California Environmental Associates
  6. 6. ACES # + • 6 26 # ) 219 212 -“# + ” ACES was passed by House on June 26, 219-212 • # - “¦/ + ”) First ever U.S. GHG cap and trade program • Ø Clean energy provisions • Energy efficiency standards • + CCS deployment program • Ø Other provisions 6
  7. 7. Cap and trade provisions ¦/ + Ø • reduce GHG emissions by pricing carbon • ¦/) set a limit on total emissions • ¦/ . 9 1- 1: distribute allowances equal to the limit. 1 allowance = 1 ton of CO2 equivalent • ) allow trading of allowances • , . + , companies that reduce more emissions can sell extra allowance to other companies • + , Penalize companies that emit without allowances 7
  8. 8. Illustration of carbon emission by 2050 2012 2050 ­ 8 Source: Environment Northeast
  9. 9. Other provisions Ø • ˜ W 50% stricter building codes: 50 percent energy reduction for residential and commerical buildings • b upgrade standards for appliances • ¦/ ) + cap and trade program funds state renewable energy and energy efficiency programs • - 2020+ , ý Border Tax Adjustment: If implemented, would require U.S. importers of carbon-intensive products hold allowances to prevent “carbon leakage” 9
  10. 10. What’s next + • ) :9 4 R The Senate may submit its own draft in September • -O- , X6)) Need to go through six committee • 60 + 51 - Need 60 votes to end filibuster, and then need 51 votes to pass the bill • ) - ) - : U If passed in the Senate, will reconcile the house and senate bills, and vote again • ¦ #» ™ . President to sign • - a) ) 67 -» If a Copenhagen treaty is reached, require 67 votes to be ratified by the Senate 10
  11. 11. Carbon affects balance sheet B • . carbon allowances become value assets • . L carbon allowances become tradable • + carbon market • . , . . B saved carbon allowances become assets, extra carbon emissions become liabilities • , B /˜ balance sheet needs to be restructured under carbon cap and trade • , : ° ) , + many corporations are evaluating potential carbon risks and opportunities by trading at voluntary carbon exchanges 11
  12. 12. Global 500 on Carbon Disclosure 500 , Carbon Disclosure: Global 500 12 Source: Carbon Disclosure Project Report 2008
  13. 13. China 100 on carbon disclosure - 100+ O Carbon Disclosure: • China 100 • only 5 fill up survey 13 Source: Carbon Disclosure Project Report 2008
  14. 14. Building sector key to climate change ˜ / The building sector has the greatest potential of any sector for reducing GHG…We can’t meet the climate change commitment without addressing building energy performance ˜ 4 , 9 + ˜ - The potential exists in both developing and developed countries, as well as in economies in transition ˜ :- - : (IPCC 4th assessment report) 14 Source: The Kyoto Protocol, the CDM and the buildings and construction sector, UNEP/SBCI Report
  15. 15. mitigation scenario in 2030 2030 80% of the needed mitigation, 25 Gt, can be achieved with existing technologies 980% CO2 / 250 : ˜ 40 : - ˜ )% 910 : 15 Source: Design to Win, California Environmental Associates
  16. 16. Building sector most economic ˜ { 16
  17. 17. Potential of China’s building sector - ˜ - ˜ ˜ ˜ Avoiding Filling Shutting building 180,000 down 550 500 MW Tiananmen current coal-fired Squares world steel power with production5 plants rainforest3,4 Turning Building off all the Efficient 370,000 lights in buildings2 wind America for turbines 12 months Removing Building 20 Halting all all cars Three air traffic from the UK, Gorges globally for Spain and Dams five years4 Italy 1. Based on 2015 energy use and achieving energy savings of current best-in-class buildings in China; operating efficiencies only; excludes residential appliance usage 2. Equivalent to 1,950 Bn kWh or 2.0 Bn tonnes of CO2 3. Or area of Ireland; or saving all Amazon rainforest cut from 2001-2005 4. Based on CO2 emissions saved 5. Or 30x Baosteel Group's capacity for 1 year Source: BCG analysis; China Energy Ministry; IEA; US DOT; US DOE; EPA; IMF; WWF; CIA World Factbook; literature search 17 Source: From Gray to Green, BCG/NRDC joint report to be released in Sept 2009
  18. 18. Potential of China’s building sector - ˜ 5% ˜ 65% ˜ ˜ Avoiding Filling Shutting building 50 15,000 down 500 MW Tiananmen current coal-fired Squares world steel power with production plants rainforest3 for 5 weeks4 Turning off all the Building Efficient lights in 30,000 wind buildings2 America for turbines5 1 month Removing all cars Building Halting all from two Three air traffic Sweden, Gorges globally for Norway and Dams 4 months6 Denmark 1. Assumes by 2015: 5% compliance for existing buildings and 60% compliance for new buildings; includes operating efficiencies only; excludes residential appliance usage 2. Equivalent to 170 Bn kWh or 170 Mn tonnes of CO2 3. Or saving 50% of the Amazon rainforest cut in 2006; based on CO2 contained in representative area of rainforest 4. Or ~2.5x Baosteel Group's capacity for one year 5. Based on new 2MW capacity wind turbines 6. Based on amount of CO2 emitted from air travel Source: BCG analysis; China Energy Ministry; IEA; US DOT; US DOE; EPA; IMF; WWF; CIA World Factbook; literature search 18 Source: From Gray to Green, BCG/NRDC joint report to be released in Sept 2009
  19. 19. China’s buildings appliances - ˜ 19
  20. 20. US-China MOU on building efficiency -#˜ % • - ˜) +# 20097 )˜ % MOHURD and U.S. DOE signed an MOU on building efficiency in July 2009 • X ˜ ¿ )% + ˜ exchange on building efficiency technologies, including HVAC, insulation, lighting, cold storage, geothermal heat pump, and PV and solar thermal integration • ) ˜ ˜ :- demonstration projects on green buildings, building efficiency and renewable energy technologies • # - ˜) ) )) : + U.S. to support China’s eco-cities initiatives that integrates sustainable design, renewable energy and high efficient transportation system • -# : z + : U.S. and China to cooperate on eco-cities standards and guidelines 20
  21. 21. Policy recommendations for retrofit ˜ • , / ™ ¡ ˜ ) +)/ encourage utilities reform to support demand side management and accelerate transformation to energy use-based pricing and metering • 9 ˜ ˜ ,. )˜ ˜ ) Set energy performance goals and energy use management standards for large buildings and building owners • ˜ Integrate existing building retrofit demand and utilize international (carbon) finance opportunities • ˜) 9 ˜ ˜ / Capacity building to reduce retrofit costs and accelerate adoption of optimum retrofit technologies • ˜ Use market-based mechanism to provide low-cost investment and incentives to retrofit 21
  22. 22. Execution is an issue W 8 9 • ` / ˜ / Heating energy in cold climate zone alone accounts for 40 percent of China’s total building energy use • ˜ 20088 1 ¦ # Civil Building Energy Efficiency Executive Order, signed by Premier Wen Jiabao on August 1, 2008 – 18 … 9˜ )/ + )/ Article 18:…residential buildings should meet sub-metering requirements • ( ) 20097 O ­ Beijing Municipal Heat Supply Regulation (Draft for public review), July 2009 – 23 / . 11 15 3 15 … Article 23:…Heat season starts on Nov 15 and ends on March 15 – 31 : 5 1 10 31 ) 9 + -/ / Article 31:…By Oct 31, consumers should pay off next heating season’s heating bill • + still pay by floor area, not by actual energy consumption 22
  23. 23. centerpiece of energy efficiency ˜ • RESNET # 9, ) ) RESNET: well established and recognized energy rating program for residential buildings • # # / 9 LEED9 # 16-Œ ) 9 ENERGY STAR, USGBC, 16 states use it to set minimum requirements • # :. Accepted by IRS and DOE as a basis for tax credits for home energy efficiency • + À9 L ˜ ) In discussion with EU, Canada and Japan on harmonize building energy rating and labels 23
  24. 24. U.S.DOE Builders Challenge # 24
  25. 25. Energy labeling to remove barriers ) • œ ˜ Enforce building energy code – ˜ X+ % , ) Building code officials do not have expertise to conduct energy performance analysis • ˜ © Provide information on building energy performance – : º º :R Allow consumers make informed decisions in purchasing or renting – Ç ˜ Allow government to provide financial incentives for EE building • ) Simple messages easy to understand • . Consumer oriented – ˜ ):. ˜ EU requires a building label for any existing building is ready when sell or rent 25
  26. 26. Shanghai existing building retrofit label + 9 ) 26
  27. 27. National energy labeling guideline ) 27
  28. 28. Retrofit of Empire State Building  9 • 1931˜ built in 1931 • 102 , 381 102 floors, roof height: 381 meters • 242,000 242,000 square meters • 20094 6 ) Announced a retrofit plan on April 6, 2009 • 2000 # ) .5 # 20 million for energy retrofit on top of 500 million for rennovation • 38%, 15 11 5 : save energy by 38% and cut CO2 emissions by 115,000 tons in 15 yrs 28
  29. 29. Planning and scheduling process ˜ • + • )) Inventory and planning Design documentation – + – baseline energy performance Tenant energy management analysis and feasible future report targets – - - – + )/ integrate goals within the current Electric sub-metering for each renovation budget tenant to monitor via computer • )) – / ˜ Design Development Simulation modeling and analysis – – ¾ develop energy efficiency Financial modeling of synergistic measures model measures – : • online recommendations Final documentation – – ¦ consolidate a manageable / LEED ¾ number of potential solutions – ¾ ' Ç Development of project tools Integrated sustainability master plan report 29
  30. 30. Prioritize order • . 6514 - 6500-/ b ; / First address reducing energy needs by redesigning the building envelope 6514 windows, insulation behind 6500 radiators, daylighting, monitoring lighting etc. • )% - / b Address the supply energy needs by retrofitting the current chiller plant and installing two floor-mounted VAV handlers per floor • -. Energy use will be controlled by three measures – : í + . Tenant energy management: access to online energy and benchmark numbers as well as sustainability tips and updates – ®b / CO2 sensors for control of outside air introduction to chiller water air handling and DX Air handling units – ¾ » Balance of direct digital controls 30
  31. 31. Retrofit options • @ - a… - : b / + )% T • About half the reduction in energy use will be achieved in the first two years of the project… (by) retrofitting the double hung operable windows, insulating behind radiators and rebuilding chillers in the cooling plant in the basement. ” – Paul Rode, Project Executive 31
  32. 32. Retrofit of Willis Tower 9 • # T The highest tower in USA, former name is Sears Tower • ˜ 1973 Built in 1973 • 108 442 108 floors, 442 meters • 446,000 446,000 square meters • 20096 24 3.5 # ) , ¿ - . - ˜ $350 million retrofit announced on June 24, 2009, including adjacent net zero boutique building • ) 80% / reduce electricity use by 80 percent over five years 32
  33. 33. Implementation plan • 2 – 104 16 40% Planning phases Upgrade 104 elevators and 16 – escalators to achieve 40 percent Feasibility study reduction in energy consumption – – c P Sustainable goals / 40% / – Save up to 40 percent water by Energy benchmarking upgrading restroom fixtures, – condensation recovery system and water efficient landscape Phasing of implementation – - • ) Initiatives harvest daylight, and lighting control – 1 6 - that monitors amounts of incoming Replacing 16,000 windows sunlight – / – 5  New gas boilers that use fuel cell Wind turbine, solar panel, green roof technologies 33
  34. 34. END • Thank you • Contact ' b Kevin Mo, Ph.D. ˜ Senior Sustainable Building Specialist # X6 Natural Resources Defense Council . kmo@nrdc.org b (blog) http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/kmo » 134.888.67211 34

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