Dutch settlement in South Africa began in March 1647, with the shipwreck of the Dutch ship Nieuwe Haarlem, the shipwreck victims, built a small fort named “Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope”. The stayed for nearly one year at the came before being rescued by a fleet of 12 ships under the command of W.G. de Jong, on one of these ships was also Jan van Riebeeck. After their return to Holland, a part of the shipwrecked persuade the Dutch East India Company to open a trading center at the cape. Under the command of Jan Van Riebeeck, in 1652, a Dutch expedition of 90 Calvinist settlers, settle near the Cape of Good Hope. The location becomes vital as a refreshment station. Ships on their way to the East Indies could stock up with fresh meat and produce, they could easily trade or barter with the Khoikhoi, the native people in the area. Conflict between the colony and native became frequent.The leaders of the Khoikhoi and Musim nations of East India show great resistance with the Dutch building colonies in the Cape and the East Indies. Some of the Khoikhoi and Muslim nations members constitute the Islands first prisoners. In the late 1600’s a new group of prisoners arrived in Robben Island, they were mostly political leaders of Anti-Dutch governing in the East Indies, many brave and courageous men, kings, princes, and religious leaders.The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in April 1652 was the irreversible beginning of the end of indigenous cultures. Other than establishing a refreshment station, Van Riebeeck opened up the floodgates for the total colonization of independent political entities and free people.
On the 1st of July 1795, the British Naval squadron entered False Bay and anchored in Simons Bay. Simon Bay, which is also known as False Bay today, is a protected bay on the east coast of the Cape Peninsula. The squadron landed 450 troops on the beach on the 7th of July and then marched them along the coastline through Fish Hoek, Clovelly, and Kalk Bay to Muizenberg.At Kalk Bay the Dutch had set up batteries to defend the 670 people living in Cape Town and also the route from Simonstown to Cape Town. The British, after landing their troops at Simonstown, sailed up and down the coast in front of the batteries and engaged the Dutch fort at Kalk Bay. As the British troops advance they enter the Muizenberg were both nations were involve in several Battle. The Dutch withdrew to Retreat where they surrendered and handed over the rule of the Cape to the British. This event is known as the First British Occupation of the Cape.The Cape was occupied by the British for several years and then they were forced by the Treaty of Amiens to hand the Cape back to the Dutch. In 1806 the British reinvaded the Cape Town after the battle of Blouberg.Table Bay was utilised by the British as their main shipping harbour but was move to Simmonstown which brings properity to Simmonstwon. The ships that are based at the Simonstown Naval base were use by the Royal Navy to intercept slave traders. From the year 1806 till 1816 more than 2000 slaves were confiscated and forfeited to the British Crown. All slaves in the Cape were eventually set free in 1834.
The Groot Trek or better known as the Great Trek occur in 19th century South Africa. Starting in 1835, more than 10,000 Boers, the Voortrekkers, left the Cape colony with their families and went north and north-east in search of land where they could establish their own homeland. Leaving the colony was the only way for the Voortrekkers to restore economic, cultural and political unity independent of British power. They were insecure about the conflict with the Xhosa, who settled on the other side of the Fish River, and primarily, unhappy with the English colonial authorities who didn’t provide sufficient protection and had forbidden the slave trade and postulated the equality of whites and non-whites.The central government in Cape Town was neither willing nor able to give the Boers efficient military protection with the constant conflict between the Xhosa and Boers in the border area at the Fish River. The Boers does not understand why does the British colony wanted to free the slave and end the slave trade. The Voortrekkers felt that the British policy, in 1833, of declaring slave trade as illegal was destroying their traditional social order which was based on racial separation, and would undermine God’s own will which was the predominance of white. The policy includes the “Emancipation Act” which demands that white masters set their slave free, for a small compensation by the state.
The trekkers, dressed in traditional dopper coats (short coats buttoned from top to bottom), kappies (bonnets) and hand-made riempieskoene (leather thong shoes), set out in wagons which they called kakebeenwoens(literally, jawbone wagons, because the shape and sides of a typical trek wagon resembled the jawbone of an animal).These wagons could carry a startling weight of household goods, clothes, bedding, furniture, agricultureal implements, fruit trees and weapons. They were designed to pass narrow valley and steep precipices which lay ahead, it is surprisingly light so as not to strain the oxen. Travelling down the 3500 meter slope of the Drakensberg, they remove the hindwheels of wagons and heavy branches were tied securely underneath, and a new form of brake was invented.
South African Republic (Transvaal), which was governed by Boers, was annexed by the British. Its Boer denizens opposed British rule, especially when the Boers were heavily taxed by the Brits. The hatred, rivalry and suspicion between the Boers and the British played a large part in the war. However, a small incident, the confiscation of a disgruntled Boer’s wagon in Potchefstroom in November 1880, sparked the seeds of war which was later named the first Anglo-Boer war (Transvaal war; the whites war; Dutch: EersteBoerenoorlog; Afrikaans: EersteVryheidsoorlog – first freedom war). Boer civilians, who were skilled hunters and expert marksmen, formed militia and fought the British soldiers. It was easier for the Boers because the British soldier were dressed in striking red while the Boers used civilian clothing. Also, the British soldiers underestimated the Boers skills which led to their lost. The war ended after the signing of the Pretoria convention in 1881, and Transvaal was returned to the Boers to govern.
A short period of peace followed the first Boer war, but then, the biggest gold deposit was discovered in Transvaal. Seas of foreigners flooded into Transvaal and the city of Johannesburg was “built” overnight. These foreigners, which didn’t only include the British but also others from all over the world, were called uitlanders by the Boer government. With the Boer feeling threatened, they denied the uitlanders voting rights and taxed the gold industry heavily (uitlander franchise). This added tension between the British and the Boers.Cecil John Rodes, who was the prime minister of cape colony, wanted Transvaal to be part of the British Empire. He sponsored a failed coup d’état known as the “Jameson Raid”.In september 1899, British colonial secretary demanded full equality rights for British residents in Transvaal. Paul Kruger, president of ZAR, demanded that all British troops withdraw from the Transvaal border or else ZAR (Transvaal) allied with Orange free state would wage war.
The second Boer war was declared on October 11 1899 and the Boers attacked first. The British suffered a series of devastating losses until reinforcements arrived in February 14 1900. Soon after, British reinforcements captured Pretoria, the capital of ZAR, and Bloemfontein, capital of Orange Free State. However, the war is far from over and the Boers planned Guerillas (hit-and-run). In an effort to end the war, the British implemented the scorched-earth policy by attacking the enemies and destroying Boer houses and farms.
Boer civilians, any boer who did not die in the war, and black and colored people were put in concentration camps. These concentration camps had poor hygiene and sanitation which resulted in contagious diseases such as measles, typhoid and dysntry. It also provided meager food rations that led to malnutrition. With the severe standard of living in these concentration camps, over 27 thousand Boer women and children and 14 thousand black and colored people died in concentration camps.
Impact of White People on Afrikaners
SOUTHTHE IMPACTS OF BRITS ON AFRIKAANERS tiara dhianty ongso & kevin erning
afrikaner(noun)• a white South African who speaks Afrikaans as their first language, esp. one descended from Dutch settlers• Also known as the Boers
Dutch Settlement in Cape of Good HopeMarch 1647 12 Dutch’s ships are stranded in theCape of Good Hope. In1652, under the command ofJan Van Riebeeck, Cape of Good Hope become arefreshment station and a Dutch colony. Trading andbartering occur between the Dutch and the nativepeople of the area. http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/1800s http://www.info.gov.za/aboutsa/history.htm http://www.southafrica-travel.net/history/eh_boer2.htm
British Settlement1st July, 1795 British Naval squadron entered False Bay.After several battles, the Dutch withdrew and the CapeColony became British Colony. Under the Treaty of Amiens,the British was force to hand back the Cape. The British reinvadedthe Cape in the battle of Blouberg. The Royal Navy interceptslave trades and slaves in the Cape were set free in 1834. http://www.turtlesa.com/Cape%20History.html
The Groot TrekThe Groot Trek occurred in the 19th century withmore than 10,000 voortrekkers migrating fromthe Cape colony. They wanted to be independent ofBritish Colony. They disagreed with theEmancipation Act. http://www.southafrica-travel.net/history/eh_gtre1.htm http://www.sahistory.org.za/south-africa-1806-1899/great-trek-1835-1846
first The battle of Majuba hill during the first Boer war Anglo-Boer War The British annexed the Boer governed Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (ZAR) or also known as Transvaal. Boers opposed British Rule and the first anglo-boer war broke out. The British were defeated in Majuba Hill. In the pretoria convention in 1881, Transvaal returned to the boers. http://www.southafrica-travel.net/history/eh_boer2.htm http://www.tourismnorthwest.co.za/history/anglo_boer_war.html http://althistory.wikia.com/wiki/First_Anglo-Boer_War_(South_African_Union) http://www.sahistory.org.za/south-africa-1806-1899/first-anglo-boer-war-1880-1881
second Anglo-Boer War Gold deposit was discovered in Witwatersrand, Transvaal in 1886. Uitlanders flooded into transvaal leading to the uitlander franchise. Brit-boer rivalry and hatred resulted in the second anglo-boer war. The war started in 1899 until 1902, longer than the previous war and included guerilla, scorched earth and concentration camps. The war ended with the treaty of Vereeniging. http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/1800s http://www.info.gov.za/aboutsa/history.htm http://www.sahistory.org.za/south-africa-1652-1806/south-african-war-1899-1902-second-anglo-boer-war
De Boers using the long tom cannon in the siege of MafekingThe British implementing the scorched earth policy Boer guerilla commando during second Boer war