Increased earningpotential andgreaterindependence Aid agencies, NGOsLess likely to marry and governmentsyoung and children getting more girls Educatedmore spaced apart into school by:More education the abolishing fees girls change Girls forced to queue for upgreater likelihood worlds providing toilets to 10 hours a day to collectthat the children (not having them is water from a far off wellwill be immunised, a huge deterrent). denies them of an educationbetter fed andbetter educatedtoo. Water & A matter of human dignity as well as saving lives - sanitation thousands of under 5s die save lives from cholera, dysentery and Tiny loans (known typhoid every dayBeing very small as microfinance)(often less than that buy inexpensive items, Preventing diarrhoeal200$) repayment is such as mobile diseases reduces malnutritionpossible in a fewmonths, so avoiding phones, enableburdensome debt and entrepreneurs to Wider benefits include fewerturning on its head start a small days off work or school thusthe entrenched view business - eg benefiting the economy boththat poor people are selling, weaving, short term (work) and longcredit risks. baking, bicycle SMART AID Researchers, term (school). repair, etc. governments, NGOs and health workers Small loans cooperating to help eradicate killer Sickness can be devastating Improved earnings mean: produce big diseases like malaria, for the entire family because: children can be sent to school results measles, polio and they must pay for doctors, families eat better and are therefore AIDS, that can kill hospitalisation and healthier millions each year. medication from their own women earning gain self-esteem and pockets more say in the home & neighbourhood. someone in the family has to stop work to care for the Killer disease sick relative Success means others can be employed in can run into debt just by on the runs paying for over the counter the business. drugs to combat childhood fevers. New strains of plants developed such as the staple crop cassava led to yields 9X that of older varieties. Important developments include: Research insecticide treated bed nets to prevent drives malaria development improved vaccines and better access to Helps understand how plant, animal and human diseases spread those who need them.
Providing incentiveand motivation todrive development Land reformforward Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger - achieved in Thailand, progressing in SouthCreating the means to Africa & Mexicodevelop education,training, maternal Debthealth and general re-scheduling Eg mobile phones are Primary education forhealth (see MDGs) all - achieved Mexico & High cheaper and easier technology than computers at Thailand and accessing information progressing in South Africa, Bangladesh &Linked to tied aid Kenyathat is both top down IMFs structural Eg Pergau Dam inand donor controlled readjustments Malaysia - UK TOP DOWN government aid Capital programme set up Gender equality and intensive and without local empowering women - often consultation. Many achieved in BangladeshTiny loans that can government believe the £234m aid & Thailand andfacilitate progress but Micro-funding led package was tied to a progressing in Southbe easily repaid £1b arms deal. Africa & Mexico Reducing by two thirdsMultilateral - IMF, UN Millennium infant mortality -World Bank, etc Narrowing the Development Goals achieved in Mexico & Thailand Development Gap priorities achieved byBilateral - individual International Aid strategies oppositecountries Official Development Improvement to Assistance (ODA) maternal health - Achieved in ThailandBoth multi- and bi- Eg Hunger Project - onelateral ODA aid are of several organisationsexamples of top-down BOTTOM UP forging partnerships Combating diseasesdevelopment Local with local communities especially HIV & initiatives in Africa, Asia & Latin malaria - Achieved in supported by America to mobilise Thailand and NGOs grassroots people for progressing in MexicoFairtrade - working self-reliant action aswith small farmers well as intervening forhelping to make them gender equalitymore economically Ensuring environmentalsecure sustainability - achieved in Thailand Trade and progressing in Appropriate to means South Africa & MexicoManaging subsidies and needsand tariffs to facilitatea level playing field Appropriate technology Developing a global Eg tube wells are less partnerships for costly and more development - practical than large Progressing in SouthFacilitating dam schemes atdevelopment in Africa Reducing the providing clean watereducation,infrastructure, digital dividecommunication, etc
Averages 70% of GDP In Mozambique it is 204% of GDP Debt There have been at least 18 civil and Repayments drain Conflict international conflicts in government income the region since 1990Lack of water supplyprevents farm Barriers toimprovements narrowing the Water development Averages 4% of GDPAquifers over used gap in and is off-set by debtand running dry sub-Saharan Africa Aid Most MEDCs do not give the 0.7% of their GDP 12 countries have they promised experienced famine since 1990 Food Deforestation, soil erosion and desertification are occuring as Per capita food production is falling Resources increasing populations degrade resources in the region