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  • Hardware

    1. 1. Hardware refers to the tangible parts of computer systems and typically includes support for processing, storage, input, and output. <br />Hardware<br />In this section:<br />Processing<br />Storage<br />I/O<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware<br />
    2. 2. Processing carries out the instructions provided by software using specially designed circuitry and a well-defined routine to transform data into useful outputs.<br />Processing<br />Transistor<br />Integrated Circuit<br />Central Processing Unit<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing<br />Multicore Processor<br />Moore’s Law<br />Multiprocessing<br />Motherboard<br />Bus <br />Machine Cycle<br />
    3. 3. A transistor is an electronics component typically composed of silicon that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits. <br />Transistor<br />When electricity is flowing through a transistor, it represents a 1; when it is not flowing, it represents a 0.<br />Links:<br />PBS: Transistorized!BBC News: Chips pass two billion milestoneIntel: How Transistors Work<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Transistor<br />
    4. 4. Integrated Circuit<br />An integrated circuit connects tiny transistors and other electronics components on a thin piece of semiconductive material such as silicon. <br />Links:<br />Intel: How Chips are Made<br />Nobelprize.org: The History of the Integrated Circuit<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Integrated Circuit<br />
    5. 5. Central Processing Unit<br />The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a group of circuits that perform the processing in a computer, typically in one integrated circuit called a microprocessor.<br />Most of today’s microprocessors contain multiple CPUs or cores. Multicore processors, such as dual core (two processors) and quad core (four processors), use an architecture that allows the cores to work together for faster processing. <br />Links:<br />Intel: Silicon Technology from Intel<br />Intel: How Microprocessors Work<br />Intel microprocessors <br />AMD microprocessors<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Central Processing Unit<br />
    6. 6. Multi-Core Processor<br />Multicore processors such as dual core, triple core, and quad core combine multiple CPUs on one chip to share the workload and speed up processing.<br />Multicore processors are used in computers other than PCs. Some of the fastest multicore processors are used in graphics processors (GPUs) powering game consoles. They are also used in servers, supercomputers, and embedded systems.<br />Links:<br />AMD Multi-Core Processors<br />Intel Multi-Core Technology<br />Intel News Release: Intel Research Advances ‘Era Of Tera’<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Multi-Core Processor<br />
    7. 7. Moore’s Law<br />Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors on a chip will double about every two years.<br />Links:<br />Intel: Moore’s Law<br />Intel: No Exponential Is Forever<br />Intel: World’s First 2-Billion Transistor Microprocessor<br />Intel: Revolutionizing How We Use Technology—Today and Beyond<br />Intel: Hafnium-based Intel 45nm Process Technology<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Moore’s Law<br />
    8. 8. Multiprocessing<br />Multiprocessing is processing that occurs using more than one processing unit, to increase productivity and performance.<br />Links:<br />Apple Mac Pro<br />Silicon Graphics Octane2<br />IBM: The Roadrunner Project<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Multiprocessing<br />
    9. 9. Motherboard<br />The motherboard is the primary circuit of a computer to which all core components are connected including the CPU.<br />The motherboard connects all of a computer’s components together and enables them to communicate. Both general-purpose and special-purpose computers utilize motherboards. <br />Links:<br />MacBook Air motherboard<br />iPhone motherboard<br />YouTube video: Alienware Thermaltake Liquid Cooling<br />Apple Mac Pro Processor<br />My Super PC: How To Build A PC<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Motherboard<br />
    10. 10. Bus<br />The bus is a subsystem on the motherboard that transfers data among system components.<br />Links:<br />Intel Developer Network for PCI Express ArchitectureUnderstanding System Memory and CPU Speeds<br />FSB speeds<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Bus<br />
    11. 11. Machine Cycle<br />The machine cycle is used as an orderly method of processing software instructions. <br />Links:<br />Being Fluent with Information Technology<br />Information Literacy<br />Computer literacy standards<br />Internet and Computing Core Certification (IC³)<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Processing > Machine Cycle<br />
    12. 12. In computing and digital technologies, storage refers to the ability to maintain data within the system temporarily or permanently.<br />Storage<br />In this section:<br />Random Access Memory (RAM)<br />Video Memory<br />Read Only Memory (ROM)<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage<br /><ul><li>Magnetic Storage
    13. 13. Optical Storage
    14. 14. Solid-State Storage</li></li></ul><li>Random Access Memory (RAM)<br />Random access memory (RAM) is temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.<br />Links:<br />Crucial, the Memory ExpertsHardware Secrets: How to Upgrade your Notebook Memory<br />eHow: How to Install RAM<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Random Access Memory (RAM)<br />
    15. 15. Video memory, sometimes called video RAM, VRAM, or graphics memory, is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video and graphics images.<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Video Memory<br />Links:<br />Karbo’s Guide: The video card<br />Most of today’s PCs come equipped with at least 256 MB of video memory and may include a graphics processing unit (GPU) to process the graphics and take the load off the CPU. <br />Video Memory<br />
    16. 16. Read-only memory (ROM) provides permanent storage for data and instructions that do not change, such as firmware—programs and data from the computer manufacturer, including the boot process used to start the computer.<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Read Only Memory (ROM)<br />Read Only Memory (ROM)<br />The software stored in ROM in many different types of digital devices is sometimes called firmware. Firmware may be updated over time to correct bugs or provide additional functionality.<br />
    17. 17. Magnetic storage is a storage technology that uses the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM using magnetic properties rather than electric charges.<br />Links:<br />StorageReview<br />PC Magazine<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Magnetic Storage<br />Magnetic Storage<br />
    18. 18. Optical Storage<br />Optical storage media, such as CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs, store bits by using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective disc. A pit in a specified location represents a 0 and the lack of a pit represents a 1. <br />Optical storage represents bits using microscopic pits burned into the disc surface with a laser.<br />Links:<br />CNET optical drive reviews<br />PC Magazine hard drive reviews<br />InPhase Technologies holographic storage<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Optical Storage<br />
    19. 19. Solid-State Storage<br />A solid-state storage devicestores data using solid-state electronics such as transistors, rather than the magnetic technology of disks or tape, and does not require any moving mechanical parts. <br />Solid state drive.<br />8 GB comes in a tiny package for your cell phone.<br />Flash drives attach to a USB port and come in a variety of shapes and styles<br />A USB thumb drive <br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > Storage > Solid-State Storage<br />
    20. 20. I/O refers to input and output—the manner in which data is received into a computer system, and the manner in which information and the results of processing are provided to the user from a computer system. <br />I/O<br />In this section:<br />Input Device<br />Output Device<br /><ul><li>Video Card
    21. 21. Expansion</li></ul>CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O<br />
    22. 22. Input Device<br />An input device assists in capturing and entering data into a computer system. <br />Links:<br />CNET input device reviews<br />Kombo.com: Evolution of Game Controllers<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Input Device<br />
    23. 23. Output Device<br />An output device allows a user to observe the results of computer processing with one or more senses. <br />Links:<br />Myvu head-mounted display for iPod<br />The Scent Dome from TriSenx<br />CNET monitor buying guide<br />CNET television buying guide<br />CNET printer reviews<br />CNET: Best Computer Speakers<br />Z Corporation<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Output Device<br />
    24. 24. Video Card<br />A video card combines video processing and storage onto an expansion card, or integrated onto the motherboard to manage video images for display.<br />Video cards combine powerful graphics processing and memory for realistic 3D real-time image rendering.. <br />Links:<br />CNET graphics card reviews<br />NVIDIA (graphics card manufacturer)<br />AMD (ATI) (graphics card manufacturer)<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Video Card<br />
    25. 25. Expansion Card<br />Expansion refers to a computer’s capacity to interface with a variety of external devices such as I/O devices, network devices, and storage devices by connecting through ports, slots, and wireless technologies.<br />The universal serial bus, or USB, standardizes expansion around one type of interface and connector.<br />A Wireless Connect Card utilizes a notebook computer’s PCMCIA port or USB port to connect to the Internet over a cell phone network.<br />Links:<br />Smart Computing: How To Install Ports & Expansion Cards<br />USB devices at USB Geek<br />Top 10 weirdest USB devices ever<br />CT3 > Concepts > Hardware > I/O > Expansion Card<br />