GAMES ARE INTERACTIVE 1. Interaction with a story through multiple options 2. Interaction with a closed data world which the viewer can navigate 3. Interaction through body interfaces 4. Data structures subject to dynamic self- development & influenced by interaction 5. Dialogue-based models 6. Exemplary viewer 7. Collective structures in the media realm
EBERT VS. SANTIAGO no games are currently comparable to the great works of art; Santiago says it will take time like cave paintings needed to evolve.
TAVINOR & GAUT TAVINORcluster theory of art Aesthetics Expressive Intellectually challenging Formal complexity & coherence Complex meanings Unique point of view Creative imagination / originality High degree of skill Established art form Intention to create art
“In a Japanese conception of the term ‘art’, it’s thought that it might be something that’s Born in Japan in 1970, he attended the -Fumito Ueda Osaka University of Arts and after a failed attempt to work as an artist he entered the video games industry.FUMITO UEDA
HIS DEFINITION high art vs. low art High art belongs in a gallery, more traditional and less accessible. Games qualify as low art: open for wide audiences like movies or manga.
ICO (2001) Guide an enigmatic princess through a labyrinthine castle to escape imprisonment.
NOVEL INTERACTIONA body interface: the player mustphysically hold the L1 button inorder for the character to holdprincess Yorda’s hand.
CLOSED WORLD TO NAVIGATE There’s no user generated content nor is there any way for the player to alter the world. The player is free, however, to navigate any room in any order and to go back to previous areas at any time.
A STORY WITHMULTIPLE OPTIONS Although there’s only one or two opportunities to change the story of the game in minor ways, players create their flee, protect or abandon Yorda, and so forth.
TAVINOR & GAUTcluster theory of art Aesthetics Expressive Intellectually challenging Formal complexity & coherence Complex meanings Unique point of view Creative imagination / originality High degree of skill Established art form Intention to create art [?]
SHADOW OF THE COLOSSUS(2005) 16 monsters called colossi, in order to use their energy to save the one you love.
NOVEL INTERACTION A body interface: to make the character hold on to the colossi while scaling it, the player must hold a button on the controller. Since the triangle button is the topmost, Ueda made it the jump button in order to make players feel more anxious.
MIMESIS Ground-breaking physics and animation bring the player’s horse Agro to life, creating an emotional connection that enables meaningful plot elements.
A NON-LINEAR STORY Think more John Cage - all 16 colossi are available and waiting to be discovered when the game begins, but they must be killed in order. A vast open world mixed with an ordered series of events.
TAVINOR & GAUT TAVINORcluster theory of art Aesthetics Aesthetics Expressive Expressive Intellectually challenging Intellectually challenging Formal complexity & coherence complexity & coherence Complex meanings Complex meanings Unique point of view Creative imagination originality Creative imagination / / originality High degree of skill High degree of skill Established art form [?] Intention to create art Intention to create art
ATYPICAL FORTHE INDUSTRY There’s almost no dialogue, only a few buttons, little meaningless violence, no points system, innovative use of audio, storytelling, and interaction. good, friendship, love, death, and redemption. Top 5 games in 2001: Grand Theft Auto 3 MADDEN NFL 2002, Pokèmon Crystal Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty Super Mario Advance.
INTENTIONEven if Ueda didn’t intend them to be art,his process of tight control and designingfor emotional experience creates beauty.Money is the result of art, whereas manygames have art as the result of money.
CONCLUSIONRepresentation of beautyExpression of emotionCreation of beautiful formAesthetic experienceReveals the truth about the world-Heidegger
REFERENCES Daniels, D., & Frieling, R. (2000). Media Art Interaction, The 1908s and 1990s in Germany. Vienna / New York: Goethe-Institut Munchen / ZKM Karlsruhe. Ebert, R. (2010, April 16). Video games can never be art. Roger Ebert’s Journal. Retrieved March 15, 2012, from http://blogs.suntimes.com/ebert/2010/04/video_ games_can_never_be_art.html Grove, T. (2008, July 1). THE GAME DESIGNERS’ VIDEO GAME QUIZ; How much do you know about the game industry and its history? Game Developer, (Fall 2008), 103. Kollar, P. (2011, March 5). Ueda: Games Are Products, Not High Art. Gameinformer. Retrieved March 15, 2012, from http://www.gameinformer.com/b/news/archive/2011/03/ 05/ueda-games-are-products-not-art.aspx Shuman, S. (2010, September 24). Team Ico Talks: Fumito Ueda on The Last Guardian, Shadow of The Colossus. PlayStation Blog. Retrieved March 15, 2012, from http://blog.us.playstation.com/2010/09/24/team-ico-talks- fumito-ueda-on-the-last-guardian-shadow-of-the-colossus/ Tavinor, G. (2009). The Art of Videogames. US: Wiley-Blackwell. TEDxUSC - Kellee Santiago. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9y6MYDSAww