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Here is a powerpoint handout for anyone who is interested in how to signal for help in most emergencies. Hope it helps!

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  1. 1. Signaling Kevin Estela Survival Instructor Wilderness Learning Center 435 Sandy Knoll Road Chateaugay, NY 12920 (518) 497-3179
  2. 2. Foreword <ul><li>This signaling PowerPoint is not intended to cover in detail electronic means of signaling such as Electronic Personal Locator Beacons (EPLB’s or GPS equipped devices) satellite/cell phones or two way radios. </li></ul><ul><li>These are generally expensive and cannot be created in the bush. However, they are extremely effective when they work. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of those walking around town aren’t carrying them. </li></ul><ul><li>Radios work great if there is a clear line of site. Cell phones have spotty network coverage and limited range. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind, batteries fail. Gadgets break. Murphy’s law takes over. </li></ul><ul><li>I recommend learning how to use them if you carry them but do not rely on them as your sole mean of signaling. </li></ul><ul><li>You must make a personal decision, how much is your life worth? What kind of gear will you carry? </li></ul><ul><li>This PowerPoint handout will touch upon or reference these devices from time to time but by no means does it represent training or explanation of how to use them appropriately. </li></ul>
  3. 3. PART I: Signaling Priority and Overview <ul><li>I place signaling as a high priority in survival situations. In the wilderness, there is no 911. You must rely on yourself to handle emergencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Most emergency situations end in 72 hours due in part to effective signaling. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t wait to signal for help. Don’t wait to build a signal. </li></ul><ul><li>If 9/10 emergencies are resolved quickly with signaling, do you want to be the 1/10 that isn’t? </li></ul><ul><li>My basic kit always includes gear for the following: FIRE, SHELTER, WATER, SIGNALING. </li></ul>My Basic Kit: Fixed blade knife, compass, metal canteen with carrier containing small emergency kit items.
  4. 4. Follow Your Intended Plan <ul><li>Don’t stray from your intended destination. It will make help search for you in the wrong location. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a schedule of “checking in” with friends and family en route to your destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Let others know before you go where you are headed. Check in when you enter the woods and when you exit. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off electronic communications devices when not in use. Remove battery and store safely together. Prevent battery drain. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan on having a minimum amount of gear including a whistle and mirror on you at all times, even if you aren’t intending to get lost. Carry a small emergency kit at all times just in case. </li></ul>
  5. 5. When Your Situation Becomes Bad <ul><li>STOP, Stop Think Observe Plan. Do you need to get help? If so, prepare to do two objectives. 1. Signal for help 2. Inform rescuers of your condition </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling for help actually involves two parts, getting attention and relaying information. </li></ul>Put on any bright clothing if you have it. Make yourself an easy find. Bandanna pressed into service as a bright head covering.
  6. 6. Make Yourself an Easy Find <ul><li>Leave a note. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an aluminum foil imprint. </li></ul><ul><li>Notch your boot. Make it easier to tell apart from similar boots. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave “breadcrumbs” with flagging tape. Orange and Blue or combinations to make it easy to see. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a sharpie and write where you’re headed. </li></ul><ul><li>AGAIN! Always let someone know before you go . Don’t deviate from your planned course. </li></ul>My boot print taken on my front lawn with daypack kit on my back
  7. 7. How Signaling Works <ul><li>Humans pick up geometric patterns and look for symmetry. Don’t believe me? We look at imperfections in a person’s face because they aren’t always symmetrical. Science has proven human beings are attracted to those with near perfect symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>Camouflage or blending in works based on 5 S’s that vary based on training. These include Shape, Shine or Shadow, Symmetry, Silhouette, Spacing. Sound can also be included in these. </li></ul><ul><li>Your signal should serve to work opposite to the S’s of camouflage. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals have more acute senses than humans and can pick up on signals when humans cannot. </li></ul><ul><li>Signaling is all about contrasting what is expected with what is actually there. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case, it is good to stick out like a sore thumb. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Active vs. Passive Signaling <ul><li>A signal can be active (whistle blowing) or passive (Letters stamped into the snow.) </li></ul><ul><li>Active signaling should be as active as possible without causing exhaustion. Blow your whistle as frequently as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>A person should learn to implement both as they are effective in different situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive signaling allows a stranded person to perform other survival related tasks while the signal works for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Active signaling is only as effective as the effort placed into it. Conserve your energy. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Importance of Contrast <ul><li>Imagine a quiet library. Now imagine a loud irate patron who can’t find a book. Will you notice him? </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine a snowy forest scene. Now imagine hunters clad in blaze orange. Will you see them? </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast your environment. Look or sound different and you’ll be found. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose your signaling devices accordingly. Make sure it will contrast well with the environment you will travel in. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry what works, not what you believe will. Don’t carry the unnecessary. Ex. Don’t carry a dye marker in the desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to stick out in a good way. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Signal Placement <ul><li>Don’t place your signal where it will not be seen. Get out in the open or find an opening in the forest canopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Get to a high spot for the best vantage point. Do so safely! </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke near the base of trees will climb the trunk and disperse in the leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, don’t place your signal somewhere without materials to make your signal. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible, keep your signal nearby so you don’t have to travel far to check on it or make it active. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your signal close to you to prevent having to travel great distances to use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider which way rescue will come. By air? By foot? Etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. PART II: Types of Signals <ul><li>The majority of signals possible will trigger your auditory and visual senses. There are really only two types. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot reach and out and touch someone literally. </li></ul><ul><li>People will not taste you to find you. </li></ul><ul><li>Hopefully your body won’t be found because of its decomposing odors. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs can track smell and humans can pick up on smoke scents too. </li></ul><ul><li>At the WLC, we focus on teaching mirror and whistle use and then highlight and demonstrate other methods. </li></ul><ul><li>You must decide what you want to carry and practice. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Visual Signals <ul><li>Can work day or night. </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes pick up symmetry and spot irregularities. </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral vision can pick up slight movement and presence. </li></ul><ul><li>Human eyesight has limited range. Recognize this limitation and make sure not to prematurely signal if it is a “one shot deal” type of signal. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mirrors <ul><li>Mirrors are not all created the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose between glass and polycarbonate. Glass is king but heavy and fragile. </li></ul><ul><li>Sighting holes are not necessary. Mirrors need not be the “survival” type. Any will do. </li></ul><ul><li>The bigger the better. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry two mirrors with you to not only signal but to self-examine for injuries where your eyes can’t see. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect your investment with a padded protective case. Use an old mouse pad to make a case. </li></ul><ul><li>Another great signaling option for little kids. Who will take a compact away from a child playing dress up? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Proper Use of Signal Mirrors <ul><li>According to one Search and Rescue technician in a recent conversation, a properly used mirror can be seen in ideal conditions over 100 miles away. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to use one mirror or two. </li></ul><ul><li>Get out and practice the methods of signaling with mirrors. You will find certain methods to work better than others. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Visual Reference (Mirror Signaling) Mirror Plane #2 Plane #1 Sun 2 nd Mirror Sunlight Reflection off of 2 nd Mirror Reflection from Mirror In this diagram, you can see one method of how a mirror is able to reflect light in two scenarios: when a plane is in the same direction as the sun (Plane #1)and when a plane is in the opposite direction of the sun (Plane #2). With a single mirror, it is possible to signal Plane #2 but it requires holding the mirror flatter.
  16. 16. Signal Mirror Reference Slide Less Preferred Methods With Sighting Hole Recommended Method: Flash the beam from the sun off of your pointer and middle finger. Make sure your target is placed in between. Will work with all mirrors or reflective objects even those not equipped with a sighting hole.
  17. 17. Visual Reference (Mirror Signaling) Part II <ul><li>Figure 19-4 shows a method of signaling a rescue aircraft holding the mirror flatter than usual. Figure 19-5 shows how a stationary object can be used in lieu of fingers. Please note the person signaling will have to move around the stationary object as the aircraft moves in the sky. This is not always possible and the finger method should be the default method. </li></ul><ul><li>With a signal mirror, signaling from a variety of angles is possible but sometimes difficult. </li></ul>U.S. Army Field Manual 21-76
  18. 18. Orange and Blue <ul><li>Blaze orange is a great survival color as it stands out 3 seasons out of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>In the fall, when leaves turn vibrant colors, orange can become less visible. </li></ul><ul><li>No tree, plant or lake will be as blue as a standard blue tarp in the Northeast. </li></ul><ul><li>One of our instructors, an avid skydiver, uses a small blue tarp as a landing zone while jumping out of a plane over 16,000’ above the ground. It stands out better than orange at this height. </li></ul><ul><li>Your gear doesn’t need to be for signaling to also be orange and blue. You may consider carrying a knife with a bright lanyard in case you drop it. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Note the Error in Contrast <ul><li>In preparing this handout, I only had orange surveyor’s tape handy. I decided to set up a few ribbons of it in an autumn forest regardless to show how blaze orange is difficult to see at times. On the left is the photo untouched. On the right are the ribbons pointed to with blue to contrast and point out location. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Large Letters on the Ground <ul><li>The larger the letters you can create, the better. </li></ul><ul><li>On snow, evergreen boughs or branches can contrast with white. </li></ul><ul><li>On grass, white birch can be used to contrast with green. </li></ul><ul><li>On dirt or stone, combinations of the above can be used or other contrasting colors. </li></ul><ul><li>Lay out extra clothes or anything irregular to the environment for contrast. Anything really means anything wreckage debris, blood or bodies. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Air to Ground Symbols (Part I) U.S. Army Field Manual 21-76
  22. 22. Air to Ground Symbols (Part II) U.S. Army Field Manual 21-76
  23. 23. Signal Fire Basics <ul><li>Signal fires are as much about smoke as they are about fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke has more of a presence above tree line than a fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Signal fires should always be created in a triangle to signal distress. </li></ul><ul><li>Always consider the background when determining what type of smoke to make with your fire. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Signal Fire Construction <ul><li>Build to burn hot, fast and large. Too much heat will turn smoke to flame though. </li></ul><ul><li>Think teepee fire inside a log cabin fire. </li></ul><ul><li>You want a fast burning fire able to generate a lot of heat quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Build a teepee fire then box it in with a log cabin fire. Make top layer of log cabin solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Face opening in direction of prevailing wind. </li></ul><ul><li>Have smoke generating materials handy for rapid placement on fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure it is ready for day or night use. Fires are excellent signals at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Make fires in a triangle pattern approximately 50’ to 75’ apart. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Signal Fire References <ul><li>While this diagram shows the correct construction of a “log cabin” fire layout. It is confusing because it implies putting kindling in after construction. At the WLC, we build our teepee fire layout first then box it in with a log cabin. </li></ul>U.S. Army Field Manual 21-76
  26. 26. Actual Signal Fire Construction <ul><li>This smoke generator started off strong but the heat from the fire caused the wet material to burn instead of smoke. </li></ul>These two were created and lit simultaneously with a 3 rd (not pictured) to demonstrate the increased challenge of creating and maintaining three fires instead of just one.
  27. 27. Signal Fire Reference Slide A proper signal fire should be built in a triangular shape. This is internationally recognized and cannot be accidentally viewed as another geometric pattern. The fires should be 50’ to 75’ feet apart. CORRECT Three fires should not be created in a line. If a plane is flying at a low angle and head on, it may view the three fires/smoke as a single large one. INCORRECT Perceived view of three in a row from head on. INCORRECT 50’ to 75’ 50’ to 75’ 50’ to 75’
  28. 28. White Smoke <ul><li>Generated by wet evergreen boughs, ferns, grass, leaves, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>White smoke is also created by snuffing out flames but obviously this method is not as effective. </li></ul><ul><li>The smoke pictured to the right was made with a 1’ by 1’ signal fire by the common fire ring at the WLC. </li></ul><ul><li>The next slide shows how much smoke it actually created. </li></ul>
  29. 29. White Smoke Continued <ul><li>With only a 1’x1’ signal fire, a plume of smoke over 25’ wide and well over 75” high was created. Note the contrast of the white smoke to the blue sky and green forest. </li></ul>I’m 6’ tall for reference
  30. 30. Black Smoke <ul><li>Generated by oils. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use birch bark and milkweed (filled with natural latex) to create black smoke. </li></ul><ul><li>Tires, other rubbers and plastic create black smoke too. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning synthetics is not good for the environment but you need to put green ideas out of your mind in an emergency. You can’t protect the environment if you are dead so get rescued! </li></ul><ul><li>Do whatever it takes! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Day and Night Flares <ul><li>The bigger the flare the better. More height and more to burn. The trade off is size. You can’t always carry the larger flares with you. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat flares like firearms. Obey firearm safety rules when handling them. </li></ul><ul><li>More popular with boaters. Different models for different boating uses. Inshore vs. offshore. </li></ul><ul><li>12 gauge pistol flares are not legal in all states. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t fire 12 gauge flares out of a conventional shotgun if the choke tube will prevent the flare from leaving the barrel. </li></ul><ul><li>Other models include pen flares, handheld, day and night, parachute and “laser flare.” </li></ul><ul><li>CAUTION: Do not stare at burning flares and be warned they will start fire to flammable objects. </li></ul>
  32. 32. COMMON FLARES 12 gauge flares will work in both pistols and shotguns if the overall length of the flare fits the chamber. The flares to the right attached to the grip of the pistol will not fit the shotgun’s chamber pictured above it. CAUTION: TREAT FLARE GUNS AS ACTUAL FIREARMS! EXERCISE BASIC SAFETY PRACTICES!
  33. 33. Dye Markers <ul><li>Small containers filled with green or yellow dye used to turn water into a visual signal. </li></ul><ul><li>Some dyes contain aggressive predator repellants. Many do not. </li></ul><ul><li>Use with utmost discretion! Will stain everything! </li></ul><ul><li>Can be applied to snow but they have a limited amount of dye. Create a water solution with melted dye and snow for more effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool-Aid and Jell-O mix also used as a dye but they are not as effective. Would you want to waste calories on the snow? </li></ul>Orion company dye markers. Note quarter for reference.
  34. 34. Ribbons and Flags <ul><li>Floating ribbons and flying the flag pictured here also indicate distress. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used sparingly to mark trails on the way out of a camp. </li></ul><ul><li>Available in both orange and blue along with a variety of colors. </li></ul>Skyblazer Company Emergency Flag
  35. 35. Flashlights and Strobes (Night Signaling) <ul><li>Carry a flashlight to signal help at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Momentary on off tailcaps on flashlights allow for easy S.O.S. signaling. </li></ul><ul><li>Some headlamps and flashlights are equipped with an S.O.S. program or strobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Use lithium batteries if light is stored for long periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>LED lights are inexpensive and can be seen up to a mile away. </li></ul><ul><li>Strobes will “burn” for hours on end because they only use a small amount of battery power to turn on and off intermittently. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Glow Sticks (Night Signaling) <ul><li>More than a kid’s toy and not illegal for them to possess. </li></ul><ul><li>Affix a length of cord and swing in a circle. It will create an illuminated circle more easily seen at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited lifespan. Replace before expiration date. </li></ul><ul><li>Great to give to kids for signaling and for emotional comfort. </li></ul><ul><li>Attach one to Fido to keep tabs on him too. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Unorthodox Visual Signals <ul><li>Potato Chip Bag </li></ul><ul><li>Pen Lasers (green is best) and Laser “Flares” (illegal to flash at planes unless real emergency) </li></ul><ul><li>Space Blanket </li></ul><ul><li>Leather Dye on Snow </li></ul><ul><li>Surveyor’s Tape </li></ul><ul><li>CD’s (hang from trees and let wind signal) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective tape can be applied to the weak face of a kayak paddle and used to increase head on visibility in the water. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Auditory Signals <ul><li>The human ear is very sensitive to sound. We tend to pick up odd sounds like white noise from a television and annoying tapping. </li></ul><ul><li>One should consider carrying multiple ways to make sounds of different pitch and tone. </li></ul><ul><li>Ears are different and the ability to hear certain sounds varies from person to person. Pitch and tone deafness. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Whistles <ul><li>Vary in size, shape, color, intensity and features. </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive life insurance legal for kids to carry. </li></ul><ul><li>Vastly superior to the human voice. </li></ul><ul><li>Many cannot be overblown. </li></ul><ul><li>Will work as long as you are breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach little kids to carry a whistle and use it only for emergencies. Remind them some strangers (Rescuers) are not bad. They shouldn’t hide from them. </li></ul><ul><li>Whistle features Pro: Multi-chamber, plastic Con: breakable parts, pea </li></ul>
  40. 40. Whistle Varieties
  41. 41. Weaknesses of Some Whistles The plastic insert of this whistle has a tendency to fall out and render the whistle virtually useless Old “pea” style whistles have had the pea fall out or freeze in place. Whatever whistle you buy, test it. Find out its limitations and remember your life may depend on it. Don’t carry something that isn’t proven
  42. 42. Personal Favorite Whistles Acme Brand Tornado. Very flat profile for easy packing in small places. Lifeguard favorite Fox 40. If you can hear the referees over thousands of screaming fans, you can hear it almost everywhere else! My favorite overall. The Storm whistle is easy to use with gloves on and can even be blown underwater. Carried on my BCD while Scuba diving.
  43. 43. Improvised Aluminum Can Whistle Even with nothing more than your knife and a littered aluminum can in the woods, you can create a decent whistle. Pinch the sides to create the chamber. Just under 100 decibles and easier than screaming!
  44. 44. Screaming <ul><li>Will cause laryngitis eventually. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually results in diminishing returns. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be muffled by woods and terrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound carries only so far. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, I was part of a whistle test. I blew whistles and also offered my yelling voice to gauge how loud a person could be. I did not get my voice back for 2 days afterwards. Each time I yelled, the sound became weaker. </li></ul><ul><li>The female tester (teenager) had a higher pitch scream most agreed was more noticeable than mine. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Gunshots <ul><li>Many survival books recommend firing three gunshots in succession to signal for help. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many bad bird hunters that fire three shots all the time but they aren’t in trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Gunshots will be dismissed as a signaling device during hunting season. </li></ul><ul><li>In a city, gunshots will be reported (hopefully!) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t waste your ammo, you may need it to hunt for food. </li></ul>
  46. 46. MISC. Sound Devices <ul><li>Stadium air horns: Very loud and easy to use. Can leak, limited life, bulky. </li></ul><ul><li>May be affected by climate. </li></ul><ul><li>May have an expiration date. </li></ul><ul><li>Very noticeable noise if above descriptions are not a deterrent. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Method #1: Use S.O.S. <ul><li>Save Our Souls </li></ul><ul><li>Save Our Ship </li></ul><ul><li>No reasonable person will say, “that is not S.O.S. it is O.S.O.” The sequence repeats itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Dot Dot Dot Dash Dash Dash Dot Dot Dot </li></ul><ul><li>… ---… </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized internationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be tapped, whistle blown, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Very versatile. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Method #2: As Frequent as Possible <ul><li>Blow your whistle or sound your device as frequently as you can without exhausting yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns in a group signaling. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, energy expended must be balanced out by energy returned. Don’t tire yourself out. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover your ears, you may need to hear your own rescuers. </li></ul><ul><li>What if someone doesn’t know S.O.S? This is the solution! </li></ul>
  49. 49. Assuming the Signal Works <ul><li>You have either been spotted by aircraft or found by search and rescue. </li></ul><ul><li>If an aircraft spots you, it will generally indicate seeing you by tipping wings or circling. </li></ul><ul><li>If possible (with radio or phone) make sure to relay the number in your party, any medical needs/emergencies taking priority, provisions and then provide any information asked of you. </li></ul><ul><li>The next stage of the rescue is waiting for help to get to you and then taking you out of the situation. You may have to wait it out if your location is remote. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Acknowledgement Reference This figure from the U.S. Army Field Manual 21-76 is more intended for military operations but tipping of the wings or circling are generally accepted as recognition a signal or distress call has been received.
  51. 51. PART III Vehicle Distress <ul><li>If in an accident, immediately turn off your engine to avoid a fire. </li></ul><ul><li>Use hazard lights if no threat of spark or fire (check vehicle and use discretion.) </li></ul><ul><li>Carry a supply of road flares. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry a collapsible tent pole you can affix a contrasting flag to. </li></ul><ul><li>Get an On Star equipped vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>Have your cell phone on you or near you secured so it can’t fall out of reach. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove reflective devices and place in more visible places. Ex. Remove headlights, taillights, mirrors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Most old cell phones still connect to 911. Carry one in your kit. </li></ul>Blaze orange bandanna attached to vehicle Reflective Parts
  52. 52. Maritime Signaling <ul><li>It is illegal to operate boats without a minimum of signaling gear on board. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a pre-trip checklist to ensure all gear is accounted for. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact the U.S. Coast Guard and they will perform a safety check of your equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>The ocean is a big place, what is your range? Will you be inshore? Near shore? Offshore? </li></ul><ul><li>How far will you be from safety? What are your real needs? Carry what you really need, not what you fantasize about needing. </li></ul><ul><li>Make your kit redundant. Have a bail-out-bag but also personal gear handy. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel 16 on your boat’s radio is the Emergency Band. Monitor it and use it for initial distress calls. </li></ul>All of my flares for my watercraft are carried in a durable clear dry box within arm’s reach at all times.
  53. 53. Urban Distress <ul><li>Hang a white towel, shirt or bed sheet out your window. </li></ul><ul><li>Call 911 and speak slowly and thoroughly. Details are important. Remember location, number of people involved, existing medical conditions, etc. Do not assume someone else has called for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a way of alerting others for help? The need may arise? Can you do it on the phone? E-mail? Fax? </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, urban disasters have a finite lifespan. They will eventually end and go back to normal (hopefully.) </li></ul><ul><li>Your priority is getting rescued/help, not setting up traps, building shelters (you’re surrounded by them) or building fires (you’ll be arrested for arson.) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep I.C.E. (In Case of Emergency) programmed into your phone. Have a reliable person a first responder could contact if your phone is found with you and you’re unconscious. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Other Signaling Scenarios <ul><li>Discreet signaling may be necessary. Consider how you would let others know you need help if someone holding you against your will was next to you (i.e. hold up, kidnapper, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Consider having a code word for help you normally wouldn’t use like “Hippopotamus” or mention a pet you don’t have. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have an I.C.E. card you can drop off? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you safely let someone know you need help? There is no easy answer and you must make the judgment call what is right for the situation. </li></ul>
  55. 55. PART IV: Self Assessment and Recommended Gear <ul><li>At the very minimum, carry a whistle and a mirror on a lanyard around your neck. </li></ul><ul><li>Back this gear up with a second set somewhere else. In other words, carry one set around your neck and one in your daypack. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a sharpie marker handy. You may end up leaving notes for someone or on someone. </li></ul><ul><li>Back up above listed gear with second layer gear like a set of flares, flaggers tape, etc. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Practice, Practice, Practice! <ul><li>Whatever you decide to carry, you must practice with it. Do not carry untested gear. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the most effective and correct means to signal. Don’t use an aerial flare to signal for help if you have a cell phone and service. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn your skills, know them and own them. </li></ul><ul><li>The life you end up saving may just be your own! </li></ul>
  57. 57. Self Assessment <ul><li>What is the basic concept behind a signaling device? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the two senses primarily used to recognize signals? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one commercial product to create sound and a visual signal? </li></ul><ul><li>What two colors are easily seen in different seasons? </li></ul><ul><li>How should a signal fire be constructed? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you properly place a signal fire? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the proper way to use a signal mirror? </li></ul><ul><li>What is S.O.S. in Morse Code? </li></ul><ul><li>Where should you carry a whistle and mirror? </li></ul><ul><li>Name three ways to visually attract attention of a rescuer. </li></ul><ul><li>Why shouldn’t gunfire always used as a signaling device in woodland areas? </li></ul><ul><li>How are signaling devices similar? Different? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you signal for help from a car? Boat? House? </li></ul>
  58. 58. Miscellaneous Notes