INSTRUCTIONAL GOALSAND OBJECTIVESFoundation for Assessment
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking Curriculum 1920s 1980s Analyze learning outcomes in small and specific skills Learning was conceptualized as being quite hierarchical
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking Curriculum mastery of skills higher- order skills “essential skills”
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking Curriculum Highly specific objectives: Enabled the construction of precise test objectives Provided a natural basis for developing “criterion- referenced mastery test” The behavioral objectives used to construct such were typically concerned with relatively simple knowledge and skill outcomes.
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking Curriculum State the Teach the Test the task task taskLearning tasks are sequential in order.
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking Curriculum
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking Curriculum Cognitive research has discredited the notion that basic skills must be learned before higher-level thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving skills can be learned.
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking CurriculumImplications for assessment The types of The perspective Tasks need to be instructional suggests the presented in a objectives are need for more meaningful concerned with comprehensive context; that is, the more tasks that involve they need tocomplex learning extended involve “authentic” outcomes periods of time problem
From Overly Specific Objectives to theThinking Curriculum Two ends of the continuum Highly specific objectives General learning goals
From Overly Specific Objectives to the Thinking Curriculum In practice, neither extreme is apt to be entirely satisfactory as a guide to the development or selection of assessments. Specific • Overemphasis on disconnected discrete low-level skills and factual knowledge skills Broad • Too general a level to provide a adequate guidance for the cognitive development or selection of assessments that will have process desirable measurement properties
Types of Learning Outcomes to Consider General goals need to be supplemented by more systematic thinking about the types of learning outcomes that would provide evidence that the goals are being achieved.
Types of Learning Outcomes to Consider Classification of learning outcomes under a few general headings: Indicates types of learning outcomes that should be considered Provides a framework for classifying those outcomes Directs attention toward changes in student performance in a variety of areas
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Three Major Areas: Cognitive Domain – knowledge outcomes and intellectual abilities and skills Affective Domain – attitudes, interests, appreciation, and modes of adjustment Psychomotor Domain – perceptual and motor skills These categories begin with relatively simple knowledge outcomes and proceed through increasingly complex levels of intellectual ability.
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Cognitive Domain: Knowledge – remembering of previously learned material; lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain Comprehension – ability to grasp the meaning of material; go one step beyond the simple remembering of material and represent the lowest level of understanding Application – ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations; require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Analysis – ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood; represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material Synthesis – ability to put parts together to form a new whole; stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Evaluation – ability to judge the value of material for a given purpose; highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all of the other categories plus value judgments based on clearly defined criteria
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Affective Domain: Receiving – student’s willingness to attend particular phenomena or stimuli; lowest level in the affective domain Responding – active participation on the part of the student; higher levels of this category include objectives that are commonly classified under interest
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Valuing – worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior; based on the internalization of a set of specified values, but clues to these values are expressed in the student’s overt behavior Organization – bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system; concerned with the conceptualization of a value or with the organization of a value system
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Characterization by a Value or Value Complex – the individual has a value system that has controlled his behavior for a sufficiently long time for him to have developed a characteristic lifestyle; major emphasis is on the fact that the behavior is typical or characteristic of the student
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Psychomotor Domain: Perception – use of the sense organs to obtain cues that guide motor activity Set – readiness to take a particular type of action Guided Response – concerned with the early stages in learning a complex skill Mechanism – performance acts where the learned response has become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Complex Overt Response – skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns Adaptation – skills that are so well developed that the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements or to meet a problem situation Origination – creating of new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem