Developmental milestones and red flags


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developmental milestones from 1 month up to 12 years of age. red flags from 1 month up to 5 years.

Developmental milestones and red flags

  1. 1. CASTRO, Kevin Cedrick R. 2010-06974B SE – CA-English and SPED EDSP 102 Developmental Milestones and Disabilities that Can Affect the Individual’s Development Physical Age Cognitive Language Social/Emotional Self-help Fine Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills Head at 90 degree Listens attentively to Reacts to loud sounds Reacts to discomfort angle, uses arms to sounds and voices (by and pain Can coordinately suck 0 month Calms down or smiles prop 1 month) when they are when spoken to Recognizes parent’s breastfeeding or Visually track through Cries deliberately for voice drinking formulae milk Purposeful grasp Recognizes your voice midline assistance (by 1 through a nipple 1 month month) and calms down if Makes eye contact artificial Transfer objects from crying Roll over hand to hand Coordinates eye Shows affection by Head lag disappears movements (by 2 When feeding, starts or looking, waving, Plays with fingers, stops sucking in Has already been able months) kicking and smiling hands and toes response to sound to open their mouth 2 months Plays with feet Discovers hands and Shows feelings of when see breast or Holds and manipulates Coos and makes nipple artificial Exercises body by feet as extension of security when held or objects; sucks on pleasure sounds stretching, moving self (by 3 months) talked to everything! Touch genitals, rock Likes to repeat Has a special way of Expresses delight Can grab at objects Show their interest or on stomach for enjoyable acts (by 4 crying for different (by 6 months) enthusiasm feeling 3 months pleasure months) needs May form attachment when seeing mother’s to one special object breast (ASI) or nipple Can smile at self in Smiles when he or she Usually responds to Recognizes and artificial mirror (by 5 months) sees you objects or faces as responds to name (by Laughs when tickled they move 5 months) Follows sounds with his or her eyes Builds trust when cries 4 months Start to place their toys Reacts to sound of Studies objects intently are answered into their mouth voices, rattle or bell (by 6 months) Responds to changes
  2. 2. in the tone of your May begin to cling to Vocalizes to voice primary caregiver Put their both hands him/herself, people on mother’s breast or5 months and toys Notices toys that make bottle when milk- sounds feeding. Can raise him/herself up on forearms (while Pays attention to music on tummy) and hold head up Babbles in a speech- like way and uses Rolls from back to many different sounds, tummy (by 4-6 including sounds that months) begin with p, b, and m Able to hold their6 months bottle by themselves. Laughs Babbles when excited Able to feed or unhappy themselves by using their thumb and finger Makes gurgling sounds tips. when alone or playing with you Start to be able to hold the spoon and try to feed themselves. “Raking” with hands Sits in “tripod” Anticipates events (by Enjoys playing peek-a- Enjoys being near7 months 7 months) boo and pat-a-cake people and played with Drink water or milk Finger-thumb Push head and torso from the covered cup opposition up off the floor Finds hidden objects Turns and looks in the No longer smiles or directly drink it from (by 10 months) direction of sounds indiscriminately the open cup by sips8 months Eye-hand Support weight on via the edge of the coordination, but legs Can point to body parts Listens when spoken Responds gaily to play cup. no hand preference to interactions with others Gets to and from Puts nesting toys Transfers toys from sitting together correctly Understands words for Cries, smiles, kicks,9 months hand to hand common items such as coos, laughs to attract Crawls, pulls to Develops expectations “cup,” “shoe,” or “juice” social attention standing about familiar events
  3. 3. Responds to requests Responds differently to Stooping and Waves bye-bye (“Come here” or “Want strangers (stranger recovering more?”) anxiety by 8 months) Learns to crawl, stand Babbles using long and Shouts for attention up and walk short groups of sounds (by 8 months); rejects (“tata, upup, bibibi”) confinement Sits without support (by 8 months) Babbles to get and Cries if other child keep attention cries Sees almost everything with good Communicates using Pays attention to 10 months vision gestures such as his/her own name waving or holding up Begins to cruise and arms Recognizes different eventually walk tones of voice and Imitates different responds speech sounds Able to interpret the Has one or two words emotional expression (“Hi,” “dog,” “Dada,” or of familiar adults “Mama”) by first birthday Copies simple actions of others11 – 11.9 months Recognizes himself as an individual apart from mother Learning to cooperate; shows guilt at wrongdoing Actively seeks to maintain interactions with adult
  4. 4. Displays separation anxiety when apart from mother Tries to alter mothers plans through persuasion or protest Teases and tests parental limits Can demonstrate affection Discriminates positive and negative attention Identifies family Knows a few parts of Prefers to keep members in the body and can point caregiver in sight while Eating photographs to them when asked exploring environment Picks up small objects Can throw a ball Feed him/herself with with pointer finger and a spoon. Enjoys cause and Follows simple Demands personal thumb Walks well effect-relationship commands (“Roll the attention ball”) and understands Hold a cup by the1 – 1.6 year Turns pages in a book Can walk while holding Is able to make simple questions May reveal handles. an object choices between clear (“Where’s your shoe?”) stubbornness Can build a tower of alternatives Drink from a cup, with cubes More complex motor Enjoys simple stories, Unable to share little spilling. skills Begins to solve songs, and rhymes problems Responds to simple Play with food. Points to pictures, requests Remembers more when named, in books
  5. 5. Is possessive Suck from a straw. Acquires new words on a regular basis Begin to chew food Begins to show with mouth closed. Sorts shapes and Uses some one- or empathy Kicks backward and colors two-word questions Give up nursing or forward (“Where kitty?” or “Go Reveals a sense of drinking from a bottle Mimics adult behavior bye-bye?”) trust near the age of two Stands on a balance beam Points to and names years. Puts two words Begins to play next to objects together (“More cookie” children Drinks from a straw Walks up stairs with or “No juice”) help; learns to climb Refers to self by name1.6 – 2 years Can draw scribbles Shows emotions of Dressing up stairs first, then Uses many different pride and down Learns by helping consonant sounds at embarrassment Take off hat. the beginning of words Runs well Learns concepts such May dawdle as size, shape and Take off socks. Enjoys riding small- weight as he/she Engages in wheeled riding toys moves and plays with Take off shoes when imaginative play objects in the the laces are undone. environment. Tests limits of behavior Unzip large zippers. Performs for an audience Grooming Improving fine Rule of Three: 3 yrs: 3 Comprehends size Has a word for almost Has a strong sense of Enjoy trying to brush2 – 2.6 years motor skills and ft, 33 lbs. everything ownership teeth. eye-hand Beginning to coordination: cut Weight gain: 4-5 lbs understand time Uses two- or three- May begin cooperative Wash and dry hands with scissors, draw per year sequences (e.g. before word phrases to talk play with help. shapes lunch) about and ask for2.6 – 3 years Growth: 3-4 inches things May show need for Household Strings large beads per year Matches shapes and security object colors Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n Help with simple Holds scissors Physically active, sounds Is becoming more
  6. 6. correctly can’t sit still for long Counts and independent household tasks manipulates objects Speaks in a way that is Zips and snaps Clumsy throwing understood by family Push and pull doors balls Is beginning to think members and friends open and shut. about consequences Refines complex Names objects to ask skills: hopping, Is able to concentrate for them or to direct jumping, climbing, for longer periods of attention to them running, ride “big time wheels” and tricycles Completely undresses self Walks backwards Hears you when you call from another room Independently puts on Can balance on one socks, coat, sweater, foot (by 3 years) Hears the television or pants radio at the same Learns to use the sound level as other Manipulates large potty, most are toilet- family members buttons and snaps trained Answers simple Eats entire meal Walks up and down “Who?” “What?” independently “Where?” and “Why?”3 – 3.9 years stairs independently questions Uses a spoon and fork effectively Talks about activities at daycare, preschool, Can pour liquid with or friends’ homes some assistance Uses sentences with Washes hands four or more words unassisted Speaks easily without Learns toilet training having to repeat syllables or words Wipes nose unassisted
  7. 7. Pays attention to a short story and Can cut with a knife answers simple independently questions about it Can put shoes on right Hears and understands feet; tie shoes most of what is said at Enjoys being with home and in school Knows clothing front other children from back Can catch a beanbag Uses sentences that Comprehends special Has an increased drive give many details Toileting – fully Can copy a simple concepts (e.g. around, for independence independent4 – 4.9 years design in front, high, next to) Tells stories that stay Expresses anger more on topic Brushes teeth Uses scissors to cut a Rote counts up to 20 dramatically independently straight line Can hop on one foot, Communicates easily Can complete a 6-8 Is aware of social skip and jump with other children and Buttons front buttons piece puzzle approval or adults disapproval Can catch a ball with Feeds self with fork Begins to understand both hands Says most sounds (held with fingers). time concepts Performs for others correctly except for a few (l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, Zips separating front Understands simple Has pride in personal and th) zipper. math concepts accomplishments Uses rhyming words Recalls main details of Develops sex role a story identification Names some letters and numbers Begins taking turns and negotiating Uses adult grammar5 – 5.9 years Uses possessives Uses double negatives Joins sentences
  8. 8. Follows up to 4 step directions Uses third person Tells simple jokes Has a 2000 word vocabulary Fluent speech. Stubborn and Draws with precision demanding and to detail. Can pronounce Learns to skip with majority of the sounds Eager for fresh Able to perform and6 years Ties shoe laces. Developing reading rope. of his/her own experiences complete routine skills well. language. chores such as May be quarrelsome sweeping floors or May write Talk fluently and with with friends. cleaning desks with independently. confidence. much more accuracy Desires to be Grows 2 to 2.5 inches More interested in perfect and is quite Enjoys many activities complicated projects and stays busy self-critical Can perform more because they have Hand-eye coordination difficult movements greater attention span Likes to paint and Uses a vocabulary of Worries more; may draw is becoming even such as standing in several thousand have low self- more refined one place while Uses serious, words twisting, turning, or confidence Can already eat by7 years logical thinking; Able to write and draw spinning him/herself Begins to grasp that with control and Tends to complain; letters represent the precision Can combine motor Is thoughtful and Bathe all by himself sounds that form words has strong skills such as running reflective and kicking a ball emotional reactions (such as in soccer) or performing dances to Able to understand Understands the music reasoning and difference between
  9. 9. make the right right and wrong Able to ride a bicycle decisions without training wheels Takes direction Can tell time; well; needs knows the days, punishment only months, and rarely seasons Avoids and Can describe withdraws from points of similarity adults between two objects Is a better loser and less likely to Able to solve more place blame complex problems Waits for her turn Individual learning in activities style becomes more clear-cut Starts to feel guilt and shame Seeks to Has strong need Dresses and grooms understand the Can converse at an for love and self completely Stamina increases reasons for things almost adult level understanding, Finger control is Can use tools (i.e., especially from8 years old quite refined Can run and swim hammer, screwdriver) Begins to feel Reading may be a mother further major interest competent in skills Can already eat by and have Can be helpful, himself/herself preferences for cheerful, and some activities and pleasant as well as Can do almost all
  10. 10. subjects rude, bossy, and household chores selfish Bathe all by himselfThinking isorganized and May be quitelogical sensitive and overly dramaticBegins torecognize concept Emotions changeof reversibility quickly(4+2=6 and 6-2=4) Impatient; finds waiting for special events torturous Makes friends easily; develops close friends of same sex Favors group play, clubs, and team sports; wants to feel part of a group More influenced by peer pressure Can be obsessed with, and motivated by money
  11. 11. Are incredibly Are more curious about the emotionally mature Have stronger and world around them, smoother muscle and may want to Are better able to control, research topics that handle conflicts interest them. and frustrations. May experience the beginnings of Have longer Growth of Language More independent, puberty. attention spans and Patterns Used: and will be will tend to spend  Descriptive emotionally more May also be more lots of time on  Loves vocabulary ready to socialize susceptible to activities and and language play and without their body image subjects that they information parents (such as at issues. are excited about.  Baby-talk sleepovers at9 years old sometimes re- friends houses). Increased coordination Able to think emerges critically, and may  Use of hyperbole Have a strong Pushes self to physical limits want to share their  Age of negatives; “I hate it”, ”I desire to belong to opinions about can’t”, “boring”, a group and to fit Fatigues easily things. “yeah right” in, and may be Numerous injuries  Dirty jokes more susceptible to Read and write  Graffiti peer influence and increasingly more Somatic complaints peer pressure complicated texts Tension outlets such May be more as nail-biting, hair- Learn how to work twisting, lip-pursing moody and feel with multiple digits, more stress and geometry, and data pressure, and will organization in rely upon the math. support and love
  12. 12. provided by parents. Memorizing details productively Fairness issues peak and can be solved Increased ability to abstract Quick to anger – quick to forgive Likes rules and Generally content logic Can accomplish tasks Large muscle development Works well in groups in a shorter time due Classification and Good listeners, actively to longer attention Needs outdoor time collections of receptive Enjoys both family and span Handwriting often and physical challenge peers interest; likes to10 years old sloppier than at nine Voracious readers Can do all things by organize Likes clubs, sports, him/herself Snacks and rest periods helpful for Expressive, talkative, and activities growing bodies Able to like to explain Can discriminate concentrate, read Usually truthful; dangers when for extended developing more engaging in an activity mature sense of right periods and wrong, good at solving social issues Good problem solvers Cooperative and competitive Proud of Academic products
  13. 13. Moody; sensitive Prefers new tasks and Oppositional; tests experiences to Vast appetite for food limits reflection or revision of and physical activity previous work Often does best away Growth spurt of early Impulsive – talks from home Able to abstract adolescence for some before thinking girls Impulsive; rude; Deductive reasoning Can be cruel or harsh unaware advances Constant motion; with words Fine motor capability is11 years old restless Loves to argue good Can establish and Argumentative; debater modify rules, develop More illness: colds, flu, Difficulty with decisions hypotheses ear infections Appreciates humor Self-absorbed Increased ability to de- Need for more sleep Imitates adult language center and see world Extremes of emotion from various Physical aggression perspectives not uncommon Inclusion/exclusion; height of cliques; Loves to argue seeks to belong High Energy Increased ability to Sarcasm emerges abstract in intellectual Adult personality pursuits begins to emerge Much Rest needed Double meanings, word play, jokes of May show emerging More reasonable, Growth spurt: intellectual interest ability in a particular tolerant than at 1112 years old signs of puberty skill or content area Enjoys conversation Enthusiastic, with adults and peers Can and will see both uninhibited Menstruation for sides to an argument majority of girls Peer “vocabulary” Will initiate own activity (slang) important High interest in current Food important, events, politics, social Empathetic
  14. 14. especially mid- justice; also pop morning in school culture, materialism Self-aware, insightful Research and study Can set realistic goals Physical education skills advance with in the short term and sports valued increase of organizational Appears secure discipline Peers more important than teachers and parentsReferences:
  15. 15. Red Flags for the Development for Each Area until Age 5 Physical Age Cognitive Language Social/Emotional Self-help Fine Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills1 month2 months Persistent fisting3 months Rolling prior to 3 (hypertonia) months (hypertonia)4 months5 months Hands frequently No visual tracking clenched (motor, Not rolling (visual impairment) visual, and/or cognitive Does not smile or Not holding head and No response to sounds deficits, neuromuscular squeal in response to shoulders up when on (hearing impaired) Not starting to babble6 months disorder) people (visual loss, tummy Not beginning to (hearing deficit) Not reaching for and attachment problems, (neuromuscular or repeat actions to elicit maternal depression) holding (grasping) toys neuromotor disorders) pleasurable results (motor, visual, and/or cognitive deficits) Avoids close contact or cuddling W-sitting and bunny Inconsolable at night Absent stranger7 months hopping (spasticity or anxiety hypotonia) Difficult self soothing/regulating Doesnt attempt to8 months attract attention No interest in games like peek-a-boo9 months No gestures (e.g. Not sharing enjoyment Unable to hold and/or Not sitting without pointing, showing, with others using eye
  16. 16. release toys support waving) contact or facial expressions (autism, Cannot move toy from Not moving (e.g. Not using 2-part vision impairment) one hand to another creeping, crawling) babbles (e.g. mama, dada) Persistence of Does not take weight primitive reflexes well on legs when held (neuromotor disorders) by an adult for all included here (neuromuscular or neuromotor disorders, cerebral palsy) Not sitting independently Not crawling ("commando" crawling- -moving across the Inability to localize10 months floor on his belly) sound (unilateral hearing loss) for all included here (neuromuscular or neuromotor disorders, cerebral palsy)11 months Majority of nutrition is Not creeping (on all Doesnt search for Not performing for No babbled phrases still puree/liquid fours, what is typically hidden/removed social attention that sound like talking ( called "crawling") objects (intellectual (autism, sensorial Cannot chew solid disability) No response to familiar disorders)12 months food Not sitting upright in a words (articulation child-sized chair Continues to problem Does not notice Unable to pick up disorder) solve using repetition someone new small items using Not pulling to stand actions rather than trial (intellectual disability, index finger and thumb Not crawling or bottom and error (intellectual autism, sensorial
  17. 17. shuffling disability, learning impairment) disability) Not standing holding Does not play early on to furniture Not anticipating effects turn-taking games of actions (knocking (autism) over blocks) for all included here (intellectual disability, (neuromuscular or learning disability, neuromotor disorders, autism, ADHD) cerebral palsy) Not using toys for intended purposes functional play (intellectual disability) Not showing interest in children her age (autism,behavioral problems) Extreme difficulty waiting for desired item (ADHD) Rigidity regarding routine, food items, clothing, etc. (autism) Limited or fleeting eye contact (communication disorder, autism) Persistent mouthing of objects (intellectual disability)13 months14 months Not standing alone Not feeding him/herself (neuromuscular
  18. 18. disorders) finger foods Lack of consonant Not attempting to use production (mild a spoon Not imitating body action on a doll (i.e., hearing loss, Not picking up and kiss the baby, feed the production problems) drinking from a regular15 months baby) (visually Does not use at least 3 open cup impaired, autism, words (hearing Not able to pull off hat, intellectual disabilities) impaired, intellectual socks or mittens on disability) request Lack of imitation16 months (hearing loss, cognition problems, autism)17 months Doesnt understand Lack of protodeclarative pointing (problem in function of common social relatedness) Not holding or objects (intellectual No clear words scribbling with crayons Not attempting to walk disability) (articulation disorder, (dysgraphia, without assistance hearing impairment) Continues to mouth or intellectual disabilities) Not standing alone use Cannot understand Does not attempt to sensory/exploratory short requests18 months tower blocks tactics to play Lacks interest in (intellectual disability, (behavioral problems, for all included here (intellectual disability) playing and interacting hearing impairment, intellectual disabilities) with others (autism, (neuromuscular or Constantly moving receptive disorders) behavioral problems) Hand dominance neuromotor disorders, from one item to Does not say mama, (contralateral cerebral palsy) another/inability to dada or other names weakness) attend for brief periods (articulation disorder, (ADHD) hearing impairment, Requires constant intellectual disability) attention to remain Not attempting to wash19 months engaged (ADHD) own hands or face
  19. 19. 20 months21 months Advanced Not assisting with noncommunicative dressing tasks22 months speech (echolalia) (excluding clothes (autism) fasteners)23 months Not imitating actions Does not have at least and movements 50 words, and use at (autism) Inability to walk up and least 25 (intellectual Not engaging in down stairs disabilities) pretend play (autism) Unable to run Not putting words Not showing interest in together, e.g. push car Unable to throw a ball children her age No interest in self-care24 months Most of what is said is (autism, behavioral skills, e.g. feeding, not easily understood problems) dressing for all included here Extreme difficulty (neuromuscular or waiting for desired neuromotor disorders, (communication items (ADHD) cerebral palsy) disorders, receptive, production and Too passive (autism, articulation problems) inert behavioral problems)25 months26 months Not able to match two sets of objects by item27 months (i.e., blocks in one container and people in another) (intellectual disability, learning
  20. 20. disability) Not able to imitate a model from memory (i.e., show me how you brush your teeth) (intellectual disability, autism, ADHD)28 months29 months Not jumping (neuromuscular disorders) Not independent on No 2-word30 months stairs (up and down) spontaneous phrases (neuromotor or neuromuscular disorders) Not able to match two sets of objects by color31 months (visual impairment, intellectual disability, down syndrome)32 months33 months Not able to deliberately34 months undo large buttons, snaps and shoelaces35 months Difficulty manipulating Not running well Not demonstrating Speech difficult to Extreme difficulty Difficulty helping with 3 years small objects e.g. simple categorization understand separating from parent self-care skills (e.g. Cannot kick or throw a
  21. 21. threading beads ball (learning disability, Not using simple Not initiating or feeding, dressing) (cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities) sentences e.g. big car reciprocating simple Cannot jump with 2 dysgraphia) go interactions with feet together children her age Does not ask by name for objects Abnormal aggression for all included here Repeats phrases in Not interested in (neuromuscular or response to questions pretend play neuromotor disorders, cerebral palsy) Difficulties in noticing and understanding feelings in themselves and others Cannot pedal a tricycle No understanding of Cannot catch, kick or time, or recognizing Unable to play games throw a ball concepts like with other children and "yesterday" and "next Speech difficult to agree to rules Unable to use pencils Cannot balance well in scribbling or drawing standing on one leg summer" (dyscalculia, understand No spontaneous Not toilet trained by4 years intellectual disability) (dysgraphia, Unable to follow singing, dancing, or day intellectual disabilities) Unable to draw lines direction with two steps acting for all included here and circles Unwilling to play (neuromuscular or (dysgraphia, cooperatively neuromotor disorders, intellectual disability) cerebral palsy) Cannot draw simple Awkward when Cannot answer questions in a simple Unable to dress him or Play is different than5 years pictures (dysgraphia, running, walking, conversation (articulation disorders, receptive herself their friends (autism) intellectual disabilities) climbing, and using disorders) Unable to go to the
  22. 22. stairs (dyspraxia, Unable to follow the bathroom without physical impairment) rules of a simple game assistance (behavioral problems, Ball skills are very Unable to help with intellectual disabilities) different from other Difficulty telling a simple chores peers (neuromuscular Cannot draw simple parent what is wrong pictures (dysgraphia, Unable to hop 5 times on each foot Concerns from teacher about school readiness Difference between left Lack of or limited eye contact (autism, visual and right sides of body impairment) all from self-help in strength, movement, (intellectual disabilities, or tone (cerebral palsy) Lack of response to Poor interaction with autism, neuromotor or sound or visual stimuli adults or other Loose or floppy neuromuscular (sensorial children (behavioral movements (low tone) disorders, or lack of Any age impairments) problems, autism) or stiff and tense (high training from toe) (dyspraxia, Strong parental caregivers) cerebral palsy) concern Significant loss of skills Not achieving indicated developmental milestonesReferences: