CAUSES OF THE WAR Historians have traditionally cited four long-term causes of the First World War MILITARISM – The growth of nationalism and imperialism led to increased military spending ALLIANCE SYSTEM – By 1907 Europe was divided into two armed camps IMPERIALISM – Economic and political control over weaker nations NATIONALISM – a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation
MILITARISM Empires had to be defended and European nations increased military spending enormously in the late 19th and early 20th century By 1890 the strongest nation militarily in Europe was Germany Germany had a strong army and built up a navy to rival England’s fleet France, Italy, Japan and the United States quickly joined in the naval buildup
Battleships were being stockpiled by Europeannations, Japan and America in the late 19th and early 20th century
ALLIANCE SYSTEM By 1907 there were two major defense alliances in TRIPLE ENTENTE Europe The Triple Entente, later known as the Allies, consisted of France, Britain, and Russia The Triple Alliance, later known as the Central Powers, consisted ofFRANCE BRITAIN RUSSIA Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy (Soon joined by the Ottoman Empire
IMPERIALISM For many centuries, European nations built empires Colonies supplied European nations with raw materials and provided markets for manufactured goods As Germany industrialized it competed directly with France and Britain Major European countries also competed for land in Africa
NATIONALISM Often nationalism ledto rivalries and conflictsbetween nations Additionally, variousethnic groups resenteddomination by othersand wantedindependence Russia and Austria- Germany was allied withHungary disagreed over Austria-Hungary whilethe treatment of Serbs in Russia, France and Britain were partnerscentral Europe
THE SPARK: AN ASSASSINATION The Balkan region was considered “the powder keg of Europe” due to competing interests in the area Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean Sea Germany wanted a rail link to the Ottoman Empire Austria-Hungary, which had taken control of Bosnia in 1878, accused Serbia of subverting its rule over Bosnia Finally, in June of 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne was gunned down by a Serbia radical igniting a diplomatic crisis The Archduke is assassinated in Sarajevo in June 1914
THE FIGHTING BEGINS The Alliance system pulled onenation after another into the conflict– The Great War had begun On August 3, 1914, Germanyinvaded Belgium, following astrategy known as the SchlieffenPlan This plan called for a quick strikethrough Belgium to Paris, FranceNext, Germany would attackRussia The plan was designed to preventa two-front war for Germany The Schliefflen Plan
THE WAR BECOMES A STALEMATE Unable to save Belgium, the Alliesretreated to the Marne River in Francewhere they halted the Germanadvance in September of 1914 Both sides dug in for a long siege By the spring of 1915, two parallelsystems of deep trenches crossedFrance from Belgium to Switzerland There were 3 types of trenches;front line, support, and reserve Between enemy trenches was “noman’s land” – an area pockmarkedwith shell craters and filled withbarbed wire British soldiers standing in mud
German SoldiersThe conditions in these trenches were horrific; aside fromthe fear of bombardment, soldiers also had to contend withthe mud, flooding and disease associated with living insuch a harsh environment.
Trench Warfare: Basic Info.• New weapons used seemed to be made more for defense; so trenches were made for the soldiers protection.• There are two sides.• Middle = No Man’s Land.
Trench Warfare: Analysis• This was their new tactic in war.• After the war, it had left horrific scars.• Made many people not want to have another World War ever again.
The British government wanted to encourage men to enlist for war. They said the war would be safe, hardly any fighting, a good lark and over by Christmas.A picture of soldiers going They used advertising ‘Over the Top’ posters to encourage this idea!
The reality of ‘going over the top’ was very different!
Soldiers were expectedto carry all of theirequipment with them atall times.They were supposed tokeep it clean and in goodcondition
How the uniform and equipment changedafter just three weeks in the trenches…
Posters alwaysshowed men readyand willing to fight.They never showedthe boredom of thetrenches or actualfighting taking place.Why do you think thegovernment showedno fighting?
No smiling and relaxed faces… No clean uniforms…Their equipment is scatteredeverywhere…Boredom and sleep areobvious…
The soldiers had verylittle decent food,and what food theyhad was oftenattacked by rats.These rats were thesize of small rabbitsand badgers becausethey had fed on thedecomposing bodiesof dead soldiers.
FIRST BATTLE OF THE SOMME During the First Battle of the Somme - which began July 1, 1916 and lasted until mid-November – the British suffered 60,000 casualties the first day Final casualties for the First Battle of the Somme totaled 1.2 million, yet only 7 miles of ground was gained This bloody trench warfare, in Gas attacks were common which armies fought for merefeatures of trench life and often yards of ground, lasted for three caused blindness and lung years disease
AMERICANS QUESTION NEUTRALITY In 1914, most Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away – they wanted neutrality Some simply did not want their sons to experience the horror of warfare German-Americans supported Germany in World War I However, many American felt close to the British because of a shared ancestry and language Most importantly, American economic interests were far stronger with the Allies French propaganda poster portrayedthe Germans as inhuman and impactedAmerican attitudes toward the Germans
THE WAR HITS HOME During the first two years of the war, America was providing (selling) the allied forces dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, copper wire and tubing and other war material Both the Germans and British imposed naval blockades on each other German U-boat 1919 The Germans used U-boats (submarines) to prevent shipments to the North Atlantic Any ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk
THE LUSITANIA DISASTER United States involvement in World War I was hastened by the Lusitania disaster The Lusitania was a British passenger liner that carried 1,198 persons on a fateful trip on May 7, 1915 A German U-boat sank the British passenger liner killing all aboard including 128 American tourists The Germans claimed the ship was carrying Allied ammunition Americans were outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers May 7, 1915
1916 ELECTION The November 1916 election pitted incumbent Democrat Woodrow Wilson vs. Republican candidate Supreme Court justice Charles Evans Hughes Wilson won a close election using the slogan, “He kept us out of war” That slogan would prove ironic because within a few months the United States Wilson would be embroiled in World War I
AMERICA EDGES CLOSER TO WAR Several factors came together to bring the U.S. into the war; 1) Germany ignored Wilson’s plea for peace 2) The Zimmerman Note, a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German Ambassador in Mexico, proposed an alliance Germany promised Mexico a return of their “lost territory” in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona (Zimmerman note) 3) Next came the sinking of fourEncoded message from Germany unarmed U.S. merchant ships by to Mexico German subs
Zimmermannoteinterceptedby a Britishagent anddecoded
AMERICA DECLARES WAR A light drizzle fell on Washington on April 2, 1917, as senators, representatives, ambassadors, members of the Supreme Court, and other guests crowded into the Capital building to hear Wilson deliver his declaration of war Wilson said, “The world must be safe for democracy” Congress passed the resolution a few days later
SECTION 2: AMERICAN POWER TIPS THE BALANCE America was not ready for war – only 200,000 men were in service when war was declared Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May of 1917 By the end of 1918, 24 million had signed up and almost 3 million were called to duty About 2 million American troops reached Europe
FRESH U.S. SOLDIERS JOIN FIGHT After 2 ½ years of fighting, the Allied forces were exhausted One of the main contributions of the Americans was fresh and enthusiastic troops American infantry were nicknamed “doughboys” because of their white belts Most doughboys had never ventured far from the farms or small towns they lived in
NEW WEAPONS USED Machine Guns – Guns could now fire 600 rounds per minute The Tank – New steel tanks ran on caterpillar treads Airplanes – Early dogfights resembled duals, however by 1918 theBritish had a fleet of planes that could deliver bomb loads Poison Gas – mustard gas was used to subdue the enemy
Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum est (1917)Bent double, like old beggars under sacks,Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,Till on the haunting flares we turned our backs,And towards our distant rest began to trudge.Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots,But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame, all blind;Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hootsOf gas-shells dropping softly behind.Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! An ecstasy of fumbling,Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time,But someone still was yelling out and stumblingAnd floundering like a man in fire or lime.Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,As under a green sea, I saw him drowning.In all my dreams, before my helpless sight,He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning.If in some smothering dreams, you too could paceBehind the wagon that we flung him in. Famous poem by WilfredAnd watch the white eyes writhing in his face, Owen about the evils ofHis hanging face, like a devils sick of sin; mustard gasIf you could hear, at every jolt, the bloodCome gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs,Obscene as cancer, bitter as the cudOf vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,My friend, you would not tell with such high zestTo children ardent for some desperate glory,The old Lie: Dulce et decorum estPro patria mori. “It is sweet and right to die for your country.”
AMERICAN TROOPS GO ON THE OFFENSIVE When Russia surrendered to the Germans in 1917, it allowed the Central Powers to focus on the Western Front By May, the Germans were within 50 miles of Paris The Americans arrived and immediately played a major role in pushing the Germans backMen of the 42nd Division during the In July and August the Americans Second Marne. These men were helped the Allies win the Secondkilled by artillery fire just 5 minutes Battle of the Marne after this photo was taken
AMERICAN WAR HERO Alvin York, a blacksmith from Tennessee, originally sought an exemption from the war as a Conscientious Objector York eventually decided it was morally acceptable to fight if the cause was right On October 8, 1918, armed with only a rifle and a revolver, York killed 25 Germans and (with six doughboys) captured 132 prisoners Upon his return home he was The man promoted to Sergeant and hailed a heroThe movie
GERMANY COLLAPSES;GERMANY COLLAPSES, THE GREAT WAR ENDS WAR ENDS On November 3, 1918, Germany’s partner, Austria- Hungary, surrendered to the Allies That same day, German sailors mutinied against their government Other revolts followed, and Germany was too exhausted to continue So at the eleventh hour, on the eleventh day, of the eleventh month of 1918, Germany signed a truce ending the Great War War ends 11/11/18
Total Killed Prisoners Total Casualties % Countries Wounded Mobilized & Died & Missing Casualties of MobilizedAllied Powers Russia 12,000,000 1,700,000 4,950,000 2,500,000 9,150,000 76.3 France 8,410,000 1,357,800 4,266,000 537,000 6,160,800 76.3British Empire 8,904,467 908,371 2,090,212 191,652 3,190,235 35.8 Italy 5,615,000 650,000 947,000 600,000 2,197,000 39.1United States 4,355,000 126,000 234,300 4,500 364,800 8.2 Japan 800,000 300 907 3 1,210 0.2 Romania 750,000 335,706 120,000 80,000 535,706 71.4 Serbia 707,343 45,000 133,148 152,958 331,106 46.8 Belgium 267,000 13,716 44,686 34,659 93,061 34.9 Greece 230,000 5,000 21,000 1,000 17,000 11.7 Portugal 100,000 7,222 13,751 12,318 33,291 33.3Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 7,000 20,000 40.0 Total 42,188,810 5,152,115 12,831,004 4,121,090 22,104,209 52.3 Central Powers Germany 11,000,000 1,773,700 4,216,058 1,152,800 7,142,558 64.9 Austria- 7,800,000 1,200,000 3,620,000 2,200,000 7,020,000 90.0 Hungary Turkey 2,850,000 325,000 400,000 250,000 975,000 34.2 Bulgaria 1,200,000 87,500 152,390 27,029 266,919 22.2 Total 22,850,000 3,386,200 8,388,448 3,629,829 15,404,477 67.4Grand Total 65,038,810 8,538,315 21,219,452 7,750,919 37,508,686 57.6
US Causalities Major Wars War Number Serving Battle Deaths Disease & Accidents Wounded Total CasualtiesRevolutionary War NA 4,435 NA 6,188 NAWar of 1812 286,730 2,260 NA 4,505 NAMexican War 78,718 1,733 11,550 4,152 17,435Civil War 2,213,363 140,414 224,097 281,881 646,392Spanish-American War 306,760 385 2,061 1,662 4,108World War I 4,743,826 53,513 63,195 204,002 320,710*World War II 16,353,659 292,131 115,185 670,846 1,078,162Korean War 5,764,143 33,651 NA 103,284 NAVietnam War 8,744,000 47,369 10,799 153,303 211,147Persian Gulf War 467,539 148 145 467 760
SECTION 3: THE WAR AT HOME The entire U.S. economy wasfocused on the war effort The shift from a consumereconomy to war economyrequired a collaborationbetween business andgovernment In the process, the power ofthe U.S. government expanded Congress gave PresidentWilson direct control over theeconomy
WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD The War Industries Board (WIB) encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques Under the WIB, industrial production and wages increased 20% Union membership almost doubled during the war years – from 2.5 million to 4 million To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson set up the National War Labor Board in 1918Poster encouraging production
VICTORY GARDENS To conserve food, Wilsonset up the Food Administration(FA) The FA declared one day aweek “meatless” another“sweetless” and two days“wheatless” Homeowners planted“victory gardens” in theiryards Schoolchildren workedafter-school growing tomatoesand cucumbers in public parks Farmers increasedproduction by almost 30% byadding 40 million acres offarmland
SELLING THE WAR The U.S. had two major tasks; raising money and convincing the public to support the war The U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war effort The government raised about 1/3 of that through an income tax and “sin” taxes The rest was raised through war bonds sold to the public (Liberty Loans & Victory Loans)
PROPAGANDA To popularize the war,the government set up thenations first propagandaagency called theCommittee on PublicInformation (CPI) George Creel led theagency and persuadedmany of the nation’s artiststo create thousands ofpaintings, posters, cartoonsand sculptures to promotethe war
ATTACK ON CIVIL LIBERTIES As the war progressed, CivilLiberties were compromised Anti-Immigrant feelings wereopenly expressed especiallyanti-German and Austrian-Hungarian Espionage and Sedition Actswere passed by Congress These acts were designed toprevent anti-war protests butwent against the spirit of theFirst Amendment (Free Any anti-Americanspeech) sentiments were targeted during wartime Socialists and labor leaderswere targeted
SOCIAL CHANGE DURING THE WAR The greatest effect of the First World War on the African American population was that it accelerated the Great Migration The Great Migration was the large scale population shift for hundreds of thousands of blacks from the south to Northern cities They left to escape discrimination and to seek greater job opportunitiesThis African American family settled in Chicago Popular destinations included Chicago, New York and Philadelphia
WOMEN IN THE WAR Many women were calledupon to take on jobs previouslyheld by men who were serving inthe war They became railroad workers,cooks, dockworkers, factoryworkers, and miners Many women served asvolunteers in organizations suchas the Red Cross Their service hastened thepassage of the 19th Amendmentin 1920 giving women the rightto vote
THE FLU EPIDEMIC In the fall of 1918, the United States suffered a home-front crises when a flu epidemic affected 25% of the population Mines shut down, telephone service was cut in half, factory work was delayed Cities ran short on coffins while corpses lay unburied for as long as a week The epidemic killed as many as Seattle, like many other places, 500,000 in the U.S. before itbecame a masked city. All police wore disappeared in 1919 them, as shown in this photo from Worldwide the epidemic killed 30 "The Great Influenza" million people
SECTION 4: WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE Despite the hero’s welcome hereceived in Europe, Wilson’s plan forpeace would be rejected by the Allies Wilson’s plan was called the“Fourteen points” Included in his “points” were: No secret treaties Freedom of the Seas More free trade Reduction of arms Wilson’s 14 points in Less colonialism his own short hand League of Nations to promote peace
ALLIES REJECT WILSON”S PLAN, SIGN TREATY The Big Four leaders, Wilson (U.S.), Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (England), and Orlando (Italy), worked out the Treaty’s details Wilson conceded on most of his 14 points in return for the establishment of the League of Nations On June 28, 1919, the Big Four and the leaders of the defeated nations gathered in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles and signed the Treaty of Versailles Hall of Mirrors
TREATY OF VERSAILLESThe Treaty established ninenew nations including; Poland, Czechoslovakia, andYugoslavia The Treaty broke up theAustro-Hungarian Empire andthe Ottoman Empire empires The Treaty barred Germanyfrom maintaining an army,required them to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France, andforced them to pay $33 billionin reparations to the Allies The Big Four met at Versailles
THE WEAKNESS OF THE TREATY The harsh treatment of Germany prevented the Treaty from creating a lasting peace in Europe The Treaty humiliated the Germans by forcing them to admit sole responsibility for the war (War-Guilt Clause) Furthermore, GermanyGermans felt the Versailles would never be able to pay Treaty was unfair $33 billion in reparations
DEBATE OVER TREATY AT HOME In the United States, the Treatywas hotly debated especially theLeague of Nations Conservative senators, headedby Henry Cabot Lodge, weresuspicious of the Leagues’ jointeconomic and militarycommitments Many wanted the U.S. Congressto maintain the right to declare war Ultimately, Congress rejectedU.S. involvement in the veryLeague the U.S. President hadcreated The U.S. never did join the league
THE LEGACY OF WWI At home, the war strengthened both the military and the power of the government The propaganda campaign provoked powerful fears in society For many countries the war created political instability and violence that lasted for years Russia established the first Communist state during the war Americans called World War I, “The War to end all Wars” --- however unresolved issues would WWI 1914-1918 eventually drag the U.S. into an even22 million dead, more than half civilians. deadlier conflict An additional 20 million wounded.