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Plasma and bose einstein condensate


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Some think, there are only 3 states of matter. Well I say they are wrong. This slide show gives all the require info about the 4th and 5th states of matter, i.e. Plasma and Bose Einstein Condensate.

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Plasma and bose einstein condensate

  1. 1. Plasma and Bose Einstein Condensate
  2. 2. IntroductIon to Plasma The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist. In effect a plasma is a cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where all the electrons have come loose from their respective molecules and atoms, giving the plasma the ability to act as a whole rather than as a bunch of atoms.
  3. 3. Examples for Plasma Sun Nebula Lightning Auroras
  4. 4. More About Plasma Plasmas are the most common state of matter in the universe comprising more than 99% of our visible universe and most of that not visible. Plasma occurs naturally and makes up the stuff of our sun, the core of stars and occurs in quasars, x-ray beam emitting pulsars, and supernovas. On earth, plasma is naturally occurring in flames, lightning and the auroras. Most space plasmas have a very low density, for example the Solar Wind which averages only 10 particles per cubic-cm. Inter-particle collisions are unlikely hence these plasmas are termed collision less.
  5. 5. IntroductIon to Bose-eInsteIn condensate (BEC) In 1995, two scientists, Cornell and Weiman, finally created this new state of matter. Two other scientists, Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein, had predicted it in the 1920. They didn't have the equipment and facilities to make it happen in the 20s. If plasmas are super hot and super excited atoms, the atoms in a BoseEinstein condensate (BEC) are total opposites. They are super-unexcited and super-cold atoms .
  6. 6. Bose-Einstein Condensate
  7. 7. More About BEC Bose-Einstein condensation is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995, and is now the subject of intense theoretical and experimental study. "Condensates" are extremely low-temperature fluids which contain properties and exhibit behaviours that are currently not completely understood, such as spontaneously flowing out of their containers. The effect is the consequence of quantum mechanics, which states that since continuous spectral regions can typically be neglected, systems can almost always acquire energy only in discrete steps.
  8. 8. If a system is at such a low temperature that it is in the lowest energy state, it is no longer possible for it to reduce its energy, not even by friction. Without friction, the fluid will easily overcome gravity because of adhesion between the fluid and the container wall, and it will take up the most favorable position, all around the container. This transition occurs below a critical temperature, which for a uniform three-dimensional gas consisting of noninteracting particles with no apparent internal degrees of freedom is given by: where:  is  the critical temperature,  is  the particle density,  is  the mass per boson,  is  the reduced Planck constant,  is  the Boltzmann constant, and  is  the Riemann zeta function;                       (sequence A078434 in OEIS)
  9. 9. Kevin Anil
  10. 10. Kevin Anil