Nutrition report

387 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
387
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Cation-  positive charge and characteristically moving toward the negative electrode in electrolysis
    converting glucose to glycogen that can be stored in the liver
    It is one of the main blood minerals called "electrolytes" (the others are sodium and chloride), which means it carries a tiny electrical charge (potential).
  • When potassium leaves the cell, it changes the membrane potential and allows the nerve impulse to progress. This electrical potential gradient, created by the "sodium-potassium pump," helps generate muscle contractions and regulates the heartbeat.
  • Diuretics-Hypokalemia is most commonly caused by the use of diuretics. Diuretics are drugs that increase the excretion of water and salts in the urine
    Electrolytes play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis within the body. They help to regulate myocardial and neurological function, fluid balance, oxygen delivery, acid-base balance and much more. 
  •  bananas- broccoli- chicken- citrus fruits (i.e. oranges)- dried fruits- fish (salmon)- leafy green vegetables, i.e. broccoli)- legumes (beans, peas, lentils, and peanuts)- potatoes with skins- tomatoes
  •  kidneys normally remove excess potassium from the body
    Most cases of hyperkalemia are caused by disorders that reduce the kidneys' ability to get rid of potassium.This may result from disorders such as:
    Acute kidney failure
  • Anion-
  • with hydrogen to make stomach acid (hydrochloric acid). Chloride makes up about 0.15 percent of our body weight and is found mainly in the extracellular fluid along with sodium. Less than 15 percent of the body chloride is found inside the cells, with the highest amounts within the red blood cells. As one of the mineral electrolytes, chloride works closely with sodium and water to help the distribution of body fluids.
    A constant exchange of chloride and bicarbonate, between red blood cells and the plasma helps to govern the pH balance and transport of carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, from the body. With sodium and potassium, chloride works in the nervous system to aid in the transport of electrical impulses throughout the body, as movement of negatively charged chloride into the cell propagates the nervous electrical potential.
     (HCl), the key digestive acid
  • Chloride deficiency can arise from diarrhea, vomiting, or sweating
  • Alkalosis can cause transient hypokalemia by two mechanisms. First, the alkalosis causes a shift of potassium from the plasma andinterstitial fluids into cells; perhaps mediated by stimulation of Na+-H+ exchange and a subsequent activation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity.[5]Second, an acute rise of plasma HCO3- concentration (caused by vomiting, for example) will exceed the capacity of the renal proximal tubule to reabsorb this anion, and potassium will be excreted as an obligate cation partner to the bicarbonate.[6] Metabolic alkalosis is often present in states of volume depletion, so potassium is also lost via aldosterone-mediated mechanisms.
  • Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver and poor liver function
  • However....
  • But still, the human body can adapt to this...
  • Among adults more men have hypertension that female
  • I WILL ACT NOW!
    Success will not wait. If I delay, it will become betrothed to another and be lost to me forever.
  • Nutrition report

    1. 1. Water Vital nutrient crucial to every bodily functionVital nutrient crucial to every bodily function Medium for chemical reactionsMedium for chemical reactions Contributes to the structure of tisseueContributes to the structure of tisseue Regulates body temp.Regulates body temp. Lubricant in digestion,water in saliva facilitatesLubricant in digestion,water in saliva facilitates chewing(Hydrolysis of nutrients)chewing(Hydrolysis of nutrients)
    2. 2. EnzymesEnzymes -substances that initiate and accelerate a chemical reaction-substances that initiate and accelerate a chemical reaction CoenzymesCoenzymes -portion of the enzyme required for activation of protein-portion of the enzyme required for activation of protein molecule to from the whole enzymemolecule to from the whole enzyme HormonesHormones -Glandular secretions that stimulate and retard life-Glandular secretions that stimulate and retard life processesprocesses
    3. 3. Body’s Source Of Water ->Drinking water and beverages.->Drinking water and beverages. 6-8 glasses per day6-8 glasses per day ->ingested solid food->ingested solid food Metabolic water- from the metabolism ofMetabolic water- from the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatscarbohydrates, proteins, and fats Water requirements are based on body size and areWater requirements are based on body size and are determined per kg of body weightdetermined per kg of body weight
    4. 4. Body Fluids-basic Cell processes WaterWater ProteinProtein Solutions of electrolytes( +,- ions)Solutions of electrolytes( +,- ions) eg. Sodium, Potassium ,Chlorideeg. Sodium, Potassium ,Chloride Nonelectrolytes (less)Nonelectrolytes (less) eg. Glucose, ureaeg. Glucose, urea
    5. 5. makes up 65% of our body weight ( 10% lossmakes up 65% of our body weight ( 10% loss can already cause metabolic disorders)can already cause metabolic disorders) Percentage of water present depends on amt ofPercentage of water present depends on amt of fat in the body. More fat, less waterfat in the body. More fat, less water Also related to body surface and metabolicAlso related to body surface and metabolic activity. At birth 78%, adulthood 65%)activity. At birth 78%, adulthood 65%)
    6. 6. Inter-Extracellular Fluids Intracellular( within) Contains 60% waterContains 60% water Consists of water and solutesConsists of water and solutes Site of metabolic processesSite of metabolic processes Ionic solutes: potassium andIonic solutes: potassium and manganese cationsmanganese cations Mostly Protein, phosphate,Mostly Protein, phosphate, carbonate&sulfate anionscarbonate&sulfate anions Extracellular Contains 40% waterContains 40% water Interstitial fluid and blood plasmaInterstitial fluid and blood plasma Environment surrounding the cellEnvironment surrounding the cell Sodium is major cationSodium is major cation Less protein,Chloride andLess protein,Chloride and Bicarbonate are anionsBicarbonate are anions
    7. 7. Osmotic Equilibrium -inter& extracellular fluids are stable; no gains or-inter& extracellular fluids are stable; no gains or losses of Na, Klosses of Na, K -no abnormal shift of water into or out of cells that-no abnormal shift of water into or out of cells that can impair cellular functionscan impair cellular functions
    8. 8. Water Balance Achieved when there is osmotic equilibrium bet.Achieved when there is osmotic equilibrium bet. different body fluid compartments and whendifferent body fluid compartments and when water intake= outputwater intake= output Mechanism for regulating the flow of waterMechanism for regulating the flow of water Excreted in Urine, feces,sweat,expired airExcreted in Urine, feces,sweat,expired air
    9. 9. Sodium An essential nutrientAn essential nutrient Functions:Functions: Maintains extracellular fluid volumes andMaintains extracellular fluid volumes and cellular osmotic pressurescellular osmotic pressures Aids in transmission of nerve impulses;Aids in transmission of nerve impulses; permeablity of cell membrane; muscularpermeablity of cell membrane; muscular contractioncontraction
    10. 10. Needs depends on age, environmentalNeeds depends on age, environmental temp.,humidity, amt. of physical activity.temp.,humidity, amt. of physical activity. Increases when there is significant loss whenIncreases when there is significant loss when sweating, diarrheasweating, diarrhea 3-4g of salt per day3-4g of salt per day Sodium balance is maintained by renal(kidney)Sodium balance is maintained by renal(kidney) and hormonal mechanisms(adrenal gland)and hormonal mechanisms(adrenal gland)
    11. 11. Salt and Na containing cpd. Flavoring agentsFlavoring agents Technological reasons: raise the bp of water,Technological reasons: raise the bp of water, lower the fressing pt of water; preservative oflower the fressing pt of water; preservative of food;cure meats, ferments food, etc…food;cure meats, ferments food, etc…
    12. 12. Consumption of Sodium Sodium naturally on food and DiscretionarySodium naturally on food and Discretionary sodium( salt added) <limitsodium( salt added) <limit Sodium free- < 5mg per servingSodium free- < 5mg per serving Very low sodium – 35 mg or lessVery low sodium – 35 mg or less Low sodium- 140 mg or lessLow sodium- 140 mg or less Reduced sodium- 75% lessReduced sodium- 75% less Unsalted,no salt added, w/o salt- salt not used inUnsalted,no salt added, w/o salt- salt not used in the preparationthe preparation
    13. 13. POTASSIUM Principal cation in intracellular fluidPrincipal cation in intracellular fluid Present in very small amount in extracellular fluidPresent in very small amount in extracellular fluid Extracellular PotassiumExtracellular Potassium – control cardiac function ,– control cardiac function , muscle and nerve irritabilitymuscle and nerve irritability Intracellular potassiumIntracellular potassium – essential in many cellualr– essential in many cellualr enzymatic functions :enzymatic functions : Glycogen synthesisGlycogen synthesis Glucose degradationGlucose degradation Amino acid uptakeAmino acid uptake
    14. 14. POTASSIUM It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance.It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance. It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids andIt assists in protein synthesis from amino acids and in carbohydrate metabolism.in carbohydrate metabolism. It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth.It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth. It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart.It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart. Maintaining a balance between the many electrical and chemical processesMaintaining a balance between the many electrical and chemical processes of the bodyof the body
    15. 15. POTASSIUM (cont) Minimum amount of potassium : 300Minimum amount of potassium : 300 mEq(milliequivalents) per daymEq(milliequivalents) per day Maximum amount of potassium : 400 mEqMaximum amount of potassium : 400 mEq
    16. 16. Potassium Deficiency (hypokalemia) Caused by prolonged potassium-free dietCaused by prolonged potassium-free diet Reduced intake of bicarbonate precursorReduced intake of bicarbonate precursor Excessive losses from :Excessive losses from : DiarrheaDiarrhea AcidosisAcidosis DiureticsDiuretics SteroidsSteroids PurgativesPurgatives Severe potassium deficiency quickly leads to electrolyte imbalance which affectsSevere potassium deficiency quickly leads to electrolyte imbalance which affects all muscles, nerves and numerous key body functions.all muscles, nerves and numerous key body functions.
    17. 17. Potassium Deficiency (cont) Manifested by :Manifested by : Muscle weaknessMuscle weakness ParalysisParalysis Reduced reflexesReduced reflexes Mental confusionMental confusion Cardiovascular signs :Cardiovascular signs : Poor pulsePoor pulse Weak heart soundsWeak heart sounds
    18. 18. Cooked Lima beans581Cooked Lima beans581 Banana440Banana440 Avocado136Avocado136 Potatoes130.3Potatoes130.3 Tomatoes96.7Tomatoes96.7 Oranges90Oranges90 Frozen peas63.3Frozen peas63.3 Cauliflower43.8aCauliflower43.8a Dried Aproicots35.3Dried Aproicots35.3 Raisins16.5Raisins16.5 SourcePotassium: Sodium ratio
    19. 19. Potassium Excess HyperkalemiaHyperkalemia occurs when the level of potassium in theoccurs when the level of potassium in the bloodstream is higher than normalbloodstream is higher than normal Sudden increase intake about 18 g of potassiumSudden increase intake about 18 g of potassium Can cause fatal cardiac arrestCan cause fatal cardiac arrest
    20. 20. CHLORIDE Occurs in the combination with sodium or potassiumOccurs in the combination with sodium or potassium cationscations Highest concentrations: in the secretions of theHighest concentrations: in the secretions of the gastrointestinal tract and in the CSFgastrointestinal tract and in the CSF Low concentration : in muscles and nerve tissuesLow concentration : in muscles and nerve tissues Anion component of hydrogen chloride (HCL) inAnion component of hydrogen chloride (HCL) in gastric juicesgastric juices Initiation of digestion of proteinInitiation of digestion of protein
    21. 21. Functions of Chloride: Regulate the osmotic pressureRegulate the osmotic pressure Regulate the water balance in the bodyRegulate the water balance in the body Acts as a coenzyme in the digestive processActs as a coenzyme in the digestive process Helps maintain the acid-base balance of the bloodHelps maintain the acid-base balance of the blood Enhances the ability of the blood to carry largeEnhances the ability of the blood to carry large amounts of COamounts of CO22 to the lungs for exhalationto the lungs for exhalation Aids in the conversion of potassiumAids in the conversion of potassium
    22. 22. Chloride Deficiency HYPOAKALEMIC ALKALOSISHYPOAKALEMIC ALKALOSIS Marked loss of chlorideMarked loss of chloride condition in which the concentrationcondition in which the concentration of potassium (Kof potassium (K++ ) in the blood is low) in the blood is low Alkalosis- increase in the concentration ofAlkalosis- increase in the concentration of bicarbonate (accumulation of base) body fluidsbicarbonate (accumulation of base) body fluids becoming too alkalinebecoming too alkaline
    23. 23. Chloride Deficiency (cont) CAUSES:CAUSES: Low-potassium dietLow-potassium diet DiarrheaDiarrhea Excessive vomitingExcessive vomiting Excessive sweatingExcessive sweating
    24. 24. Hyperchloremia Too much chloride may be caused by:Too much chloride may be caused by: •• eating or absorbing too much ammonium chloride, or theeating or absorbing too much ammonium chloride, or the bowel’s reabsorbing too much chloridebowel’s reabsorbing too much chloride •• dehydration, which raises the proportion of chloride to otherdehydration, which raises the proportion of chloride to other fluids in the bloodfluids in the blood Too much chloride from salted foods can:Too much chloride from salted foods can: Increase your blood pressureIncrease your blood pressure Cause a buildup of fluid in people with congestive heart failureCause a buildup of fluid in people with congestive heart failure or cirrhosisor cirrhosis
    25. 25. Food Sources Common table saltCommon table salt DairyDairy Meat productsMeat products Fruits and vegetablesFruits and vegetables   tomatoes, lettuce, celery,tomatoes, lettuce, celery, olives, seaweed and the grain,olives, seaweed and the grain, ryerye Daily chloride intake : 2 to gramsDaily chloride intake : 2 to grams
    26. 26. Acid-Base Balance
    27. 27. Acid-Base Balance Normal pH in the blood isNormal pH in the blood is 7.35 –7.35 – 7.7.4455 Prevented by lung and kidneysPrevented by lung and kidneys ““acidosis”- accumulation of acidacidosis”- accumulation of acid ““alkalosis” – accumulation of basealkalosis” – accumulation of base
    28. 28. Classification of Foods Grouped as:Grouped as: Alkali-producingAlkali-producing Acid-producingAcid-producing NeutralNeutral
    29. 29. Alkali-producing Foods Fruits (except cranberries, prunes and plumsFruits (except cranberries, prunes and plums)) Vegetables (exceVegetables (except corn and lentilspt corn and lentils)) MilkMilk NutsNuts Once metabolized will yield an alkaline ashOnce metabolized will yield an alkaline ash Produce NaProduce Na++ , K, K++ , Ca, Ca22++ and Mgand Mg22++
    30. 30. Acid-producing Foods MeatMeat CerealsCereals EggsEggs Will yield acid end productsWill yield acid end products Produce P, S, and ClProduce P, S, and Cl
    31. 31. REMEMBER!! The Human Body has aThe Human Body has a wide range ofwide range of adaptability!!adaptability!! However....
    32. 32. Lactic acidLactic acid andand acetoaceticacetoacetic acidacid which are produced inwhich are produced in the body in high amounts inthe body in high amounts in certain conditions cancertain conditions can causecause acidosisacidosis!!!! But still, the human body can adapt to this...
    33. 33. Effects of H2O and Electrolyte Imbalance on Oral Health General dehydration or edema of tissues willGeneral dehydration or edema of tissues will cause shrinkage or swelling of the oral tissuescause shrinkage or swelling of the oral tissues High salt diet resulting to high sodium residueHigh salt diet resulting to high sodium residue tend to accumulate body watertend to accumulate body water Low-carbs, high-fat diet or high protein dietLow-carbs, high-fat diet or high protein diet for loss of weight tend to lose large amountsfor loss of weight tend to lose large amounts of water from the excessive oxidation of bodyof water from the excessive oxidation of body fatsfats
    34. 34. Xerostomia ““Dry mouth”Dry mouth” Result from decrease salivary flow due to dehydrationResult from decrease salivary flow due to dehydration Associated with lack of lubrication of mucosal surfacesAssociated with lack of lubrication of mucosal surfaces Roof of the mouth and tongue develop a burning sensationRoof of the mouth and tongue develop a burning sensation Corners of the mouth become macerated and infectedCorners of the mouth become macerated and infected causing a tendency ofcausing a tendency of lickinglicking Promotes dental plaque formation and more dental cariesPromotes dental plaque formation and more dental caries productionproduction
    35. 35. Hypertension
    36. 36. Hypertension ““HBP”HBP” Elevated arterial blood pressureElevated arterial blood pressure Can lead to:Can lead to: Stoke (brainStoke (brain)) failure, (CHDfailure, (CHD)) Renal failure (kidneyRenal failure (kidney)) Systolic and diastolic pressuresSystolic and diastolic pressures >> normalnormal
    37. 37. Normal BP (age groups) Age Group BP Infants 90/60 3-6 110/70 7-10 120/80 11-17 130/80 18-44 140/90 45-64 150/95 65 and above 160/95
    38. 38. Hypertension Mild : diastolic pressure is 9Mild : diastolic pressure is 90 – 1050 – 105 Moderate :Moderate : diastolic pressure isdiastolic pressure is 105 – 120105 – 120 Severe :Severe : diastolic pressure isdiastolic pressure is exceeds 120exceeds 120 ...Among adults more men have hypertension that female
    39. 39. Causes Maybe:Maybe: unknown (essential hypertensionunknown (essential hypertension) or) or known (secondary hyknown (secondary hypertensionpertension)) Factors contributing:Factors contributing: - genetics, environment, nutritional ones, obesity,genetics, environment, nutritional ones, obesity, smoking, stress, diabetes, high cholesterol level andsmoking, stress, diabetes, high cholesterol level and excessive sodium intakeexcessive sodium intake
    40. 40. Treatment Weight lossWeight loss Relaxation, meditation and biofeedbackRelaxation, meditation and biofeedback techniquestechniques Use of Kempner (rice-fruitUse of Kempner (rice-fruit) semistarvation diet) semistarvation diet Limit dietary sodium intake to 200-250mgLimit dietary sodium intake to 200-250mg Oral diureticsOral diuretics ↓sodium intake + diuretics = reduction of intracellular fluid volume, plasma volume and total exchangeable sodium
    41. 41. TY!

    ×