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Nutrition report


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Nutrition report

  1. 2. Water <ul><li>Vital nutrient crucial to every bodily function </li></ul><ul><li>Medium for chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to the structure of tisseue </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates body temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricant in digestion,water in saliva facilitates chewing(Hydrolysis of nutrients) </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>-substances that initiate and accelerate a chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Coenzymes </li></ul><ul><li>-portion of the enzyme required for activation of protein molecule to from the whole enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>-Glandular secretions that stimulate and retard life processes </li></ul>
  3. 4. Body’s Source Of Water <ul><li>->Drinking water and beverages. </li></ul><ul><li>6-8 glasses per day </li></ul><ul><li>->ingested solid food </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic water- from the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats </li></ul><ul><li>Water requirements are based on body size and are determined per kg of body weight </li></ul>
  4. 5. Body Fluids-basic Cell processes <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions of electrolytes( +,- ions) </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Sodium, Potassium ,Chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Nonelectrolytes (less) </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Glucose, urea </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>makes up 65% of our body weight ( 10% loss can already cause metabolic disorders) </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of water present depends on amt of fat in the body. More fat, less water </li></ul><ul><li>Also related to body surface and metabolic activity. At birth 78%, adulthood 65%) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Inter-Extracellular Fluids <ul><li>Intracellular( within) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 60% water </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of water and solutes </li></ul><ul><li>Site of metabolic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic solutes: potassium and manganese cations </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly Protein, phosphate, carbonate&sulfate anions </li></ul><ul><li>Extracellular </li></ul><ul><li>Contains 40% water </li></ul><ul><li>Interstitial fluid and blood plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Environment surrounding the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium is major cation </li></ul><ul><li>Less protein,Chloride and Bicarbonate are anions </li></ul>
  7. 8. Osmotic Equilibrium <ul><li>-inter& extracellular fluids are stable; no gains or losses of Na, K </li></ul><ul><li>-no abnormal shift of water into or out of cells that can impair cellular functions </li></ul>
  8. 9. Water Balance <ul><li>Achieved when there is osmotic equilibrium bet. different body fluid compartments and when water intake= output </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism for regulating the flow of water </li></ul><ul><li>Excreted in Urine, feces,sweat,expired air </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sodium <ul><li>An essential nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains extracellular fluid volumes and cellular osmotic pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in transmission of nerve impulses; permeablity of cell membrane; muscular contraction </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Needs depends on age, environmental temp.,humidity, amt. of physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases when there is significant loss when sweating, diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>3-4g of salt per day </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium balance is maintained by renal(kidney) and hormonal mechanisms(adrenal gland) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Salt and Na containing cpd. <ul><li>Flavoring agents </li></ul><ul><li>Technological reasons: raise the bp of water, lower the fressing pt of water; preservative of food;cure meats, ferments food, etc… </li></ul>
  12. 13. Consumption of Sodium <ul><li>Sodium naturally on food and Discretionary sodium( salt added) <limit </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium free- < 5mg per serving </li></ul><ul><li>Very low sodium – 35 mg or less </li></ul><ul><li>Low sodium- 140 mg or less </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced sodium- 75% less </li></ul><ul><li>Unsalted,no salt added, w/o salt- salt not used in the preparation </li></ul>
  13. 14. POTASSIUM <ul><li>Principal cation in intracellular fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Present in very small amount in extracellular fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular Potassium – control cardiac function , muscle and nerve irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intracellular potassium – essential in many cellualr enzymatic functions : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycogen synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose degradation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acid uptake </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. POTASSIUM <ul><li>It assists in the regulation of the acid-base balance. </li></ul><ul><li>It assists in protein synthesis from amino acids and in carbohydrate metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential for the normal electrical activity of the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining a balance between the many electrical and chemical processes of the body </li></ul>
  15. 16. POTASSIUM (cont) <ul><li>Minimum amount of potassium : 300 mEq(milliequivalents) per day </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum amount of potassium : 400 mEq </li></ul>
  16. 17. Potassium Deficiency ( hypokalemia) <ul><li>Caused by prolonged potassium-free diet </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced intake of bicarbonate precursor </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive losses from : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acidosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diuretics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purgatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe potassium deficiency quickly leads to electrolyte imbalance which affects all muscles, nerves and numerous key body functions. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Potassium Deficiency (cont) <ul><li>Manifested by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular signs : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor pulse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak heart sounds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Cooked Lima beans581 </li></ul><ul><li>Banana440 </li></ul><ul><li>Avocado136 </li></ul><ul><li>Potatoes130.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Tomatoes96.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Oranges90 </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen peas63.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Cauliflower43.8a </li></ul><ul><li>Dried Aproicots35.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Raisins16.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Canned Tuna6 </li></ul><ul><li>Pork5.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken3.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon3.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Cod3.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Whole milk2.8 </li></ul>SourcePotassium: Sodium ratio
  19. 20. Potassium Excess <ul><li>Hyperkalemia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when the level of potassium in the bloodstream is higher than normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden increase intake about 18 g of potassium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause fatal cardiac arrest </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. CHLORIDE <ul><li>Occurs in the combination with sodium or potassium cations </li></ul><ul><li>Highest concentrations: in the secretions of the gastrointestinal tract and in the CSF </li></ul><ul><li>Low concentration : in muscles and nerve tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Anion component of hydrogen chloride (HCL) in gastric juices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiation of digestion of protein </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Functions of Chloride: <ul><li>Regulate the osmotic pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate the water balance in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a coenzyme in the digestive process </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain the acid-base balance of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances the ability of the blood to carry large amounts of CO 2 to the lungs for exhalation </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in the conversion of potassium </li></ul>
  22. 23. Chloride Deficiency <ul><li>HYPOAKALEMIC ALKALOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked loss of chloride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condition in which the concentration of potassium (K + ) in the blood is low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alkalosis- increase in the concentration of bicarbonate (accumulation of base) body fluids becoming too alkaline </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Chloride Deficiency (cont) <ul><ul><ul><li>CAUSES: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low-potassium diet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive vomiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive sweating </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Hyperchloremia <ul><li>Too much chloride may be caused by: </li></ul><ul><li>• eating or absorbing too much ammonium chloride, or the bowel’s reabsorbing too much chloride </li></ul><ul><li>• dehydration, which raises the proportion of chloride to other fluids in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Too much chloride from salted foods can: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase your blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause a buildup of fluid in people with congestive heart failure or cirrhosis </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Food Sources <ul><li>Common table salt </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><li>Meat products </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  tomatoes, lettuce, celery, olives, seaweed and the grain, rye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily chloride intake : 2 to grams </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Acid-Base Balance
  27. 28. Acid-Base Balance <ul><li>Normal pH in the blood is 7.35 – 7. 4 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevented by lung and kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ acidosis”- accumulation of acid </li></ul><ul><li>“ alkalosis” – accumulation of base </li></ul>
  28. 29. Classification of Foods <ul><li>Grouped as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkali-producing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid-producing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Alkali-producing Foods <ul><li>Fruits (except cranberries, prunes and plums ) </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables (exce pt corn and lentils ) </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Nuts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once metabolized will yield an alkaline ash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce Na + , K + , Ca 2 + and Mg 2 + </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Acid- producing Foods <ul><li>Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will yield acid end products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce P, S, and Cl </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. REMEMBER!! <ul><li>The Human Body has a wide range of adaptability!! </li></ul>However....
  32. 33. <ul><li>Lactic acid and acetoacetic acid which are produced in the body in high amounts in certain conditions can cause acidosis !! </li></ul>But still, the human body can adapt to this...
  33. 34. Effects of H 2 O and Electrolyte Imbalance on Oral Health <ul><li>General dehydration or edema of tissues will cause shrinkage or swelling of the oral tissues </li></ul><ul><li>High salt diet resulting to high sodium residue tend to accumulate body water </li></ul><ul><li>Low-carbs, high-fat diet or high protein diet for loss of weight tend to lose large amounts of water from the excessive oxidation of body fats </li></ul>
  34. 35. Xerostomia <ul><li>“ Dry mouth” </li></ul><ul><li>Result from decrease salivary flow due to dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with lack of lubrication of mucosal surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Roof of the mouth and tongue develop a burning sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Corners of the mouth become macerated and infected causing a tendency of licking </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes dental plaque formation and more dental caries production </li></ul>
  35. 36. Hypertension
  36. 37. Hypertension <ul><li>“ HBP” </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated arterial blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stoke (brain ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>failure, (CHD ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal failure (kidney ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systolic and diastolic pressures > normal </li></ul>
  37. 38. Normal BP ( age groups ) Age Group BP Infants 90/60 3-6 110/70 7-10 120/80 11-17 130/80 18-44 140/90 45-64 150/95 65 and above 160/95
  38. 39. Hypertension <ul><li>Mild : diastolic pressure is 9 0 – 105 </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate : diastolic pressure is 105 – 120 </li></ul><ul><li>Severe : diastolic pressure is exceeds 120 </li></ul>...Among adults more men have hypertension that female
  39. 40. Causes <ul><li>Maybe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unknown (essential hypertension ) or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>known (secondary hy pertension ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors contributing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetics, environment, nutritional ones, obesity, smoking, stress, diabetes, high cholesterol level and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excessive sodium intake </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Treatment <ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation, meditation and biofeedback techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Kempner (rice-fruit ) semistarvation diet </li></ul><ul><li>Limit dietary sodium intake to 200-250mg </li></ul><ul><li>Oral diuretics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>↓ sodium intake + diuretics = reduction of intracellular fluid volume, plasma volume and total exchangeable sodium </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. TY!