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Transition from 1G to 4G


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Transition from 1G to 4G

  1. 1. BY:- Sandip Dobariya(13) Keval Patel(07)
  2. 2.  Analog & digital communication  0G  1G  GSM & CDMA  2G & its improvement  3G & its improvement  4G
  3. 3. 0G 1G 2G •2.5G(GPRS) •2.75G(EDGE) 3G •3.5G(WCDMA) •3.75G(HPDA) •3.9G 4G •LTE •HPDA+ •Wi-MAX
  4. 4.  In analog system the data is transmitted in form of analog signal.  The analog signals are the signal in witch the amplitude is varying with the time continuously. Amplitude is varying continuously
  5. 5.  In digital system the data is transmitted with the use of digital signal.  Digital signals are signals which has only some discreet value mainly two, ‘0’ & ‘1’.
  6. 6. Voice Calls Only No SMS No Internet • Services included:
  7. 7.  Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. Since they were the predecessors of the first generation of cellular telephones, these systems are sometimes retroactively referred to as pre cellular (or sometimes zero generation) systems.  It is ah half duplex system.
  8. 8.  These early mobile telephone systems can under stand in that they were available as a commercial service that was part of the public switched telephone network, with their own telephone numbers, rather than part of a closed network such as a police radio or taxi dispatch system.  These mobile telephones were usually mounted in cars or trucks, though briefcase models were also made. Typically, the transceiver (transmitter-receiver) was mounted in the vehicle trunk and attached to the "head" (dial, display, and handset) mounted near the driver seat.
  9. 9.  Technologies used in pre cellular systems included the Push to Talk (PTT or manual), Mobile Telephone System (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS), and Advanced Mobile Telephone System (AMTS) systems.  Push-to-talk (PTT), also known as Press-to- Transmit, is a method of conversing on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode.  For example, an air traffic controller usually talks on one radio frequency to all aircraft under his supervision. All can hear each other's transmissions and those of the controller, and take turns speaking, using procedure words such as "over" and "out".
  10. 10.  Only voice calls  No data transfer  No text messages Voice Calls Only No SMS No Internet • Services included:
  11. 11.  1G (or 1-G) refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology, mobile tele communications. These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications.  The main difference between two succeeding mobile telephone systems, 1G and 2G, is that the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog, while 2G networks are digital.
  12. 12.  1G speeds vary between that of a 28k modem(28kbit/s) and 56k modem(56kbit/s),[3] meaning actual download speeds of 2.9KBytes/s to 5.6KBytes/s.
  13. 13.  On 1G the signals are transmitted in analog forms.  So, it basically used for phone calls.  There were no facility to send text or data transfer(GPRS).  It uses small bandwidth.  Mainly nit used for longer distance communication. Because signal becomes weak & becomes noisy.
  15. 15. • Widely used • Runs on SIM card
  16. 16.  GSM is basically depends on time division multiplexing (TDMA).  GSM is a standard set developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones.  This was expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit switched transport(CSD), then packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution or EGPRS).
  17. 17.  GSM networks operate in a number of different carrier frequency ranges (separated into GSM frequency ranges for 2G and UMTS frequency bands for 3G), with most 2G GSM networks operating in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.  One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module, commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phone book.
  18. 18. System Band Uplink (MHz) Downlink (MHz) T-GSM-380 380 380.2–389.8 390.2–399.8 T-GSM-410 410 410.2–419.8 420.2–429.8 GSM-450 450 450.6–457.6 460.6–467.6 GSM-480 480 479.0–486.0 489.0–496.0 GSM-710 710 698.2–716.2 728.2–746.2 GSM-750 750 747.2–762.2 777.2–792.2 T-GSM-810 810 806.2–821.2 851.2–866.2 GSM-850 850 824.2–849.2 869.2–894.2 P-GSM-900 900 890.0–915.0 935.0–960.0 E-GSM-900 900 880.0–915.0 925.0–960.0 R-GSM-900 900 876.0–915.0 921.0–960.0 T-GSM-900 900 870.4–876.0 915.4–921.0 DCS-1800 1800 1,710.2–1,784.8 1,805.2–1,879.8 PCS-1900 1900 1,850.2–1,909.8 1,930.2–1,989.8
  19. 19.  Code division multiple access  Data is encrypt on a single frequency
  20. 20.  CDMA is basically code division multiplexing.  In this the signal which is transmitted are encrypt d into a specific code. And the encrypted signal is transmitted over a channel.
  21. 21.  In CDMA a locally generated code runs at a much higher rate than the data to be transmitted. Data for transmission is combined via bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) with the faster code. The figure shows how a spread spectrum signal is generated.
  22. 22.  Have very low power output that is 0.2 watts (compared to the GSM system) that use 1.5 to 3 watts, making batteries CDMA system more durable. Requires lower transmit power, so cell phone talk time may be longer.  Improve sound quality.  Cell phone talk time becomes longer.  Enable encryption of voice, data and video.
  23. 23.  Advantages GSM-based technology is a broad coverage and vast roaming both in the country and even around the world, while CDMA is still very limited.  No SIM card is Present. So GSM is widely used than CDMA technology.
  24. 24.  The details of the roaming process differ among types of cellular networks, but in general, the process resembles the following:  When the mobile device is turned on or is transferred via a handover to the network, this new "visited" network sees the device, notices that it is not registered with its own system, and attempts to identify its home network. If there is no roaming agreement between the two networks, maintenance of service is impossible, and service is denied by the visited network.  The visited network contacts the home network and requests service information (including whether or not the mobile should be allowed to roam) about the roaming device using the IMSI number.  If successful, the visited network begins to maintain a temporary subscriber record for the device. Likewise, the home network updates its information to indicate that the cell phone is on the host network so that any information sent to that device can be correctly routed.  In wireless telecommunications, roaming is a general term referring to the extension of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. Roaming ensures that the wireless device is kept connected to the network, without losing the connection.
  25. 25. 2G Voice calls SMS Internet • Services included:
  26. 26.  2G (or 2-G) is short for second- generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland in 1991.  While radio signals on 1G networks are analog, radio signals on 2G networks are digital. 2G systems use digital signaling to connect the radio towers to the rest of the telephone system.
  27. 27. 2G 2.5G 2.75G
  28. 28.  2.5G is basically using GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) for data transfer.  GPRS could provide data rates from 56 kbit/s up to 115 kbit/s. It can be used for services such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), and for Internet communication services such as email and World Wide Web access.  GPRS is part of a series of technologies that are designed to move 2G networks closer to the performance of 3G networks.
  29. 29.  2G requires the phone to make a special connection to the network before it can transfer data (like making a voice call) which can take up to 30 seconds. Because its data transfer rate is still to slow.  GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) is a method of enhancing 2G phones to enable them to send and receive data more rapidly. With a GPRS connection, the phone is "always on" and can transfer data immediately, and at higher speeds: typically 32 - 48 kbps.
  30. 30.  2.75G is basically using (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution) for data transfer.  It is also known as EGPRS.  EDGE is considered a pre-3G radio technology.  EDGE increases the speed of each timeslot to 48 kbps and allows the use of up to 8 timeslots, giving a maximum data transfer rate of 384 kbps.  EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003—initially by AT&T in the United States.
  31. 31. Voice calls SMS Video calls Mobile TV High speed internet Video Conferencing GPS Facilities: 3G
  32. 32.  3G, short for 3rd Generation, is a term used to represent the 3rd generation of mobile telecommunications technology.  The basic standard for 3G network is defined by the International Mobile Telecommunications - 2000 (IMT2000) specifications.  To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 2 Mbit/s for stationary or walking users, and 384 kbit/s in a moving vehicle.  However, many services advertised as 3G provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service.
  33. 33.  Recent 3G releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.  The communication spectrum between 400 MHz to 3 GHz was allocated for 3G. Both the government and communication companies unanimously approved the 3G standard.
  34. 34.  The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by DoCoMo in Japan in 1998.  3G was relatively slow to be adopted globally. In some instances, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies, especially so to achieve high data transmission rates.  The 3G standard is perhaps well known because of a massive expansion of the mobile communications market post-2G and advances of the consumer mo phone. An especially notable development during this time is the smartphone , combining the abilities of a PDA with a mobile phone, leading to widespread demand for mobile internet connectivity.
  35. 35.  This are the technologies which are advance than 3g but cannot classified as 4G.  There are three technologies are came after 3G namely: They are not fully satisfied for the criteria of 4G. But they are the steps for transition from 3G to 4G. 3G 3.5G 3.75G 3.9G
  36. 36.  3.5G is a grouping of disparate mobile telephony and data technologies designed to provide better performance than 3G systems, as an interim step towards deployment of full 4G capability.
  37. 37.  3.75G is mainly based on HSPA.  High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile telephony protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of existing 3rd generation mobile telecommunication networks
  38. 38.  The latest networks allows bit-rates to reach as high as 168 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s.  The first HSPA specifications supported increased peak data rates of up to 14 Mbit/s in the downlink and 5.76 Mbit/s in the uplink. in the uplink.  This is the main difference between WCDMA (3G) network & HPDA (3.75G) network.
  39. 39.  Before 4G networks the operator provides 3.9G network, which is also called pre-4G network.  This is not classified as 4G because of it uses some less bandwidth than full 4G networks.  But this the last step for the transition from 3G to 4G.
  40. 40.  The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are: 1. Mobile TV 2. Video on demand 3. Video Conferencing 4. Telemedicine 5. Location-based services 6. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  41. 41. 4G Voice calls SMS HD Video call HD Mobile TV Ultra High speed internet Video Conferencing GPS Facilities:
  42. 42.  New mobile generations have appeared about every ten years since the first move from 1981 analog (1G) to digital (2G) transmission in 1992. This was followed, in 2001, by 3G , in 2011/2012 expected to be followed by "real" 4G, which refers to all-Internet Protocol (IP) packet- switched networks giving Ultra Mobile Broadband (gigabit speed) access.  In telecommunications, 4G is the fourth generation of cell phone mobile communications standards.
  43. 43.  In March 2008, the International Telecommunications Union-Radio communications sector (ITU-R) specified a set of requirements for 4G standards, named the International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced (IMT-Advanced) specification, setting peak speed requirements for 4G service at 100 megabit per second (Mbit/s) for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 gigabit per second (Gbit/s) for low mobility communication (such as stationary users).
  44. 44. 3G 4G Data Throughput: Up to 3.1mbps Practically speaking, 3 to 5 mbps but potential estimated at a range of 100 to 300 mbps. Peak Upload Rate: 50 Mbit/s 500 Mbit/s Peak Download Rate: 100 Mbit/s 1 Gbit/s Switching Technique: packet switching packet switching, message switching Network Architecture: Wide Area Cell Based Integration of wireless LAN and Wide area. Services And Applications: CDMA 2000, UMTS, EDGE etc Wimax2 and LTE-Advance Frequency Band: 1.8 – 2.5GHz 2 – 8GHz
  45. 45.  WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations.  WiMAX can provide at-home or mobile Internet access across whole cities or countries.
  46. 46.  LTE (Long Term Evolution), marketed as 4G LTE, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. It is based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies, increasing the capacity and speed.  LTE does not fulfill the requirements of 4G.  However due to marketing pressures and the significant advancements that WIMAX,HSPA+ and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, ITU later decided that LTE together with the aforementioned technologies can be called 4G technologies.
  47. 47.  he LTE Advanced standard formally satisfies the ITU-R requirements to be considered IMT-Advanced. and to differentiate LTE-Advanced and WiMAX- Advanced from current 4G technologies, ITU has defined them as "True 4G"
  48. 48.  Ultera high speed internet  High defination TV  HD video calling  Wi-MAX  Others as per 2G or 3G
  49. 49.  5G network is assumed as the perfection level of wireless communication in mobile technology.  5G network is very fast and reliable.
  50. 50.  A first remarkable feature of 5G network is the broadband internet in mobile phones that would be possible to provide internet facility in the computer by just connecting the mobile.  Data sharing in 5G network is very easy. It omits the condition of putting both mobile face to face so that data could be shared.(Like Bluetooth)
  51. 51. CDMA GSM Wi-Fi
  52. 52. Comparison of Mobile Internet Access methods Common Name Family Primary Use Radio Tech Downstream (Mbit/s) Upstream (Mbit/s) LTE 3GPP General 4G OFDMA/MIMO/SC -FDMA 100 Cat3 150 Cat4 300 Cat5 (in 20 MHz FDD) 50 Cat3/4 75 Cat5 (in 20 MHz FDD) HSPA+ 3GPP Used in 4G CDMA/FDD MIMO 21 42 84 672 5.8 11.5 22 168 UMTS W- CDMA HSDPA+HSUP A UMTS/3GSM General 3G CDMA/FDD CDMA/FDD/MIMO 0.384 14.4 0.384 5.76 UMTS-TDD UMTS/3GSM Mob ile Inter net CDMA/TDD 16 EDGE Evolution GSM Mobile Int ernet TDMA/FD D 1.6 0.5
  53. 53. Thank You