Hydrothermal Treatment Of Solid Waste


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it is thermochemical treatment for treatment of solid waste. it is new research method for recovery of solid fuel from MSW

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Hydrothermal Treatment Of Solid Waste

  1. 1. 06-03-2011<br />1<br />Hydrothermal Treatment of Solid Waste<br />By: ketan wadodkar<br />M.Tech. Environment Engineering<br />Enrollment No. 10519013<br />1st yr.<br />Under guidance of Dr. Renu Bhargava <br />
  2. 2. What is hydrothermal process?<br />It employs the combination of heat and water as a media to convert unutilized resources in various shapes and characteristics into uniform product.<br />It is a functional way to active reactions via dissolution.<br />It involves heating of raw slurry at 300-350˚C in at pressure to maintain water phase.<br />06-03-2011<br />2<br />
  3. 3. It comes under chemical conversion of solid waste before MSW is sent to landfill.<br />It is a thermo chemical conversion technology.<br />The other processes for recovery of solid fuel s from MSW are:<br />RDF (refuse-derived fuel)<br />carboniztion<br />06-03-2011<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Various uses of Hydrothermal Treatment in MSW<br />For solid fuel recovery method from MSW.<br />Decomposition and oxidation of municipal waste products.<br />Extraction of metals from MSWI fly ash.<br />Retention of Cs(I), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III)<br />Liquid fertilizer production from hydrothermally treated sewage sludge (the liquid residue obtained has possibility to be used as liquid fertilizer).<br />06-03-2011<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Here we will discuss Hydrothermal process as Solid Fuel recovery method<br />06-03-2011<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Introduction:<br />About 90% solid waste produced in china is disposed in landfills.<br />Which caused adverse effect on land.<br />Hence introducing this process results in reduction in volume and thermal destruction of toxic organic components.<br />Hydrothermal process converts different kinds of MSW into powdered products and improving there combustion performance.<br />06-03-2011<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Process:<br />Loading the raw material into reactor.<br />Injecting saturated stream of about 374˚C at 22.1MPa below critical point in the reactor.<br />Then the it is mixed with the help of stirrer while maintaining same temperature and pressure.<br />After this wet uniform product is obtained and can be easily dried up to obtain solid.<br />06-03-2011<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Fig: Hydrothermal Treatment<br />06-03-2011<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Fig: Commercial hydrothermal treatment plant in Hokkaido, Japan<br />06-03-2011<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Does not require moisture removal unlike other thermal treatment.<br />The moisture content of MSW can be used as heating medium to decompose MSW.<br />In this experiment, two saturated streams were examined: 233.9˚C and 3 MPa (LT) and 295˚C and 8 MPa (HT).<br />more than 85% of carbon in raw material was recovered as char, condensed liquid, and gas.<br />more than 80% of the recovered carbon was in the char regardless of LT and HT conditions.<br />Variation in yield and composition of char depending on temperature and holding time.<br />06-03-2011<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Fig: experimental apparatus<br />06-03-2011<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Heating value of char<br />The high heating value (HHV):<br /> HHV [kJ/kg] = 33,940×(C-3/8×O)+23,880×3/8×O+14,3510×(H-O/16)+9,430×S<br /> where C, H, N, S, and O are the respective weight ratios of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. O [–] is calculated with a mass balance. <br />the recovery ratio of the HHV of char produced from raw material was determined as follows:<br />Recovery ratio of HHV [%] = (HHVchar [kJ/kg]×char yield [%]) / HHVraw material [kJ/kg]<br />06-03-2011<br />12<br />
  13. 13. The organic chlorine in high combustion temperature will be released to the atmosphere as dioxin which cause corrosion and clogging in exhaust gas lines.<br />The washing process is then needed to separate the inorganic (water-soluble) chlorine from the product in the form of salt, so that a chlorine-free solid fuel product from MSW.<br />06-03-2011<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Fig: MSW before and after Hydrothermal Treatment<br />06-03-2011<br />14<br />
  15. 15. 06-03-2011<br />15<br />Case study on bouldin corp.<br />Site: Army base camp<br />
  16. 16. Bouldin corp. technology for Hydrothermal treatment<br />The system includes: two shredders, a grinder, a hydrothermal process (hydrolyzer), dryer, and particle screens.<br />The shredded waste is then augured through the hydrolyser where it is exposed to high-pressure steam.<br />The process causes cellulose fibers in the paper, cardboard, food, etc. to expand, creating a soft, gray, end product appropriately named “fluff”<br />06-03-2011<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Fig: Fluff<br />06-03-2011<br />17<br />
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  20. 20. Various hypothesis involved in this treatment<br />Cellulose matrix is expanded by sudden pressure release.<br />Migration and coalescing of liquid lignin could enhance cellulose expansion in wood and improve the reuse value of fluff.<br />The rapid expansion of cellulose fibers can occur at temperatures lower than currently used by Bouldin.<br />06-03-2011<br />20<br />
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  22. 22. Cost comparison:<br />Cost to landfill all the waste: $4.6million<br />Cost to process entire waste stream by Bouldin process: $2.339million<br />Cost to process entire waste stream by Bouldin process using waste wood as fuel: $1.734million<br />06-03-2011<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Advantages of Bouldin techniques:<br />Results showed the screened fluff had excellent soil amendment properties.<br />Chemical analysis of the fluff confirmed the processed waste was not a characterized hazardous waste.<br />Analysis of air samples for particulate matter and volatile organic compounds showed that the Bouldin system generated no air pollutants of concern.<br />It was concluded that extruded fluff had good potential for use as a construction material, though it would be limited to specific types of use.<br />06-03-2011<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Results and conclusion:<br />Min processing temp. lies between 120-150 ˚C.<br />The expansion of shredded wood into a fluff-like material was not successful.<br />Processed waste containing a large fraction of shredded wood is not offensive in appearance and can be used as a soil amendment without concern regarding aesthetics.<br />Further research into innovative base camp applications for the system is also recommended.<br />06-03-2011<br />24<br />
  25. 25. References:<br />Google<br />http://yk.wtert.jp/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=107&Itemid=161&lang=en<br />Hydrothermal conversion of municipal organic waste into resourcesMotonobu Goto a,*, Ryusaku Obuchi a, Tsutomu Hirose a, Tsuyoshi Sakaki b,Masao Shibata b Bioresource Technology 93 (2004) 279–284<br />Hydrothermal Processing of Base Camp Solid Wastes To Allow Onsite RecyclingGary L. Gerdes, Deborah Curtin, and Christopher Gutkowski September 2008 ERDC/CERL TR-08-13<br />RECOVERY OF SOLID FUEL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE USING HYDROTHERMAL TREATMENT I.-H. HWANG, T. MATSUTO, H. AOYAMA, T. NAKAGISHI AND T.MATSUO Venice 2010, Third International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste<br />L. Kacimi et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials 181 (2010) 593–601<br />06-03-2011<br />25<br />
  26. 26. 06-03-2011<br />26<br />Thank you<br />