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  2. 2. WHAT IS A HYBRID VEHICLE?Any vehicle which combines two or more sources of power.Examples:  Diesel– electric  Nuclear – electric  Gasoline - electric 2
  3. 3. HYBRID STRUCTURE The two power sources found in hybrid vehicles may be combined in different ways, either in parallel or seriesEither one will allow the gasoline engine to shut down when it is not needed. 3
  4. 4. PARALLEL HYBRID Gasoline motor Batteries which powers an electric motor Both can power the transmission at the same time Electric motor supplements the gasoline engine 4
  5. 5. SERIES HYBRID Gasoline motor turns a generator Generator may either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission At low speeds is powered only by the electric motor 5
  6. 6. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS Power for the electric motor is supplied by high-voltage nickel-metal hydride battery Batteries for all hybrids are produced by Panasonic EV Energy in Japan Voltage ranges from 144 volts to 650 volts of DC current 6
  7. 7. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS High voltage wiring may color coded orange, bright blue or even yellow Batteries vary in design, however, all incorporate individual cells connected to one another 7
  8. 8. BATTERIES Individual cells originally contained liquid potassium hydroxide The liquid is almost totally absorbed by the paper membranes inside each cell of the battery Because the liquid is absorbed these batteries are considered “dry cell” batteries 8
  9. 9. BATTERIES 9
  10. 10. BATTERY RECHARGING The Ni-MH batteries are recharged through a process call regenerative braking Regenerative braking takes energy from the forward momentum of the vehicle and captures it while coasting or braking. Occasionally batteries are recharged by the electric motor 10
  11. 11. WHO’S MAKING HYBRIDS NOW? Honda  Lexus • Accord • RX 400h SUV • Civic • GS 450h • Insight • LS 600h L Toyota  Mercury • Prius • Mariner SUV • Camry  Dodge • Highlander • Ram – contractor’s edition Ford  General Motors • Escape • Silverado and Sierra Mazda • Malibu • Tribute • Tahoe/Yukon Saturn  Nissan • Vue • Altima • Versa 11
  12. 12. SUMMARYDue to the proliferation of hybrid vehicles on the road today, responders must be familiar with how these vehicles operate, and how to handle an emergency which involves one of these vehicles. Additionally, responders must stay up-to- date with current vehicle technology, as it is continuously changing. 12
  13. 13. THANK YOU 13