Bioenergy from ag_waste


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  • World populations is currently 6.7 b but it is predicted to reach 10 b by year 2050. So the question is, how can a world of 10 billion people be provided with adequate supplies of energy. During the same period of time our energy demand will increase by 63 to 160 %.
  • But in regards to energy the gap between demand and supply of energy is not the only concern that that we have. Concerns over : resource depletion, pollution and climate change.
  • Alternate sources of feedstock are needed to supplement the looming imbalance between supply and demand of fossil-based feedstocks. Renewable energy source could provide adequate supplies of clean, safe and sustainable energy . At 47 percent of renewable energy consumption, biomass is the single largest renewable energy resource. Therefore there is a strict need for development of new technologies that can make biomass resources accessible to supply this increasing demand.
  • Does Oil consider Biomass? No, cause it is not reneable.
  • Ethanol fermentation , a form of anaerobic respiration used primarily by yeasts when oxygen is not present in sufficient quantity for normal cellular respiration transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. These reactions are often catalyzed by the addition of an acid or base. Transesterification: alcohol + ester → different alcohol + different ester Gasification is a process that converts carbonaceous materials, such as coal, petroleum, or biomass, into carbon monoxide and hydrogen by reacting the raw material at high temperatures with a controlled amount of oxygen. Fast pyrolysis is a process in which organic materials are rapidly heated to 450 - 600 oC in absence of air. Under these conditions, organic vapours, pyrolysis gases and charcoal are produced. The vapours are condensed to bio-oil. Typically, 70-75 wt.% of the feedstock is converted into oil
  • This is basically an Overview of the our class topics …. Everything starts from “Photosynthesis”, which is the process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar. Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae (Kingdom Protista).
  • Bioenergy has many advantages as well as drawbacks that must be considered in order to ensure efficient implementation.
  • Talk about: as business and industry are taking more interest in producing renewable energy from biomass, the demand for new technical and design skills is increasing. And it’s on the universities and colleges to meet this demand by training engineers and scientists expert in areas related to bioenergy. Just to give an example I am doing a search on the web about the amount of federal investment on bioenergy and thought I would share it with you: I googled “USDA DOE” which are the main federal agencies supporting “biomass research” in “Google News”… and see what came first: Then I just did “Biomass Research” and look at the 4 th link: Ohio 3 rd frontier commission has announced “ $12 MILLION FOR ADVANCED ENERGY GRANTS ” … just $12 million in Ohio… and the share of the Ohio Sate Univ. is: $1.5 million 12.5% of the total budget… and this is just a small portion of the entire funding allocated for biomass and bioenergy research. I also, searched “Renewable Energy” and see what came first: in “The New York Times” published just today “ Majoring in Renewable Energy” the article reports on development of “degree programs” in univ. and colleges nation-wide to meet the demand of the market for training students in these areas. Oregon institute of technology offering the country's first 4-year undergraduate degree in “renewable-energy systems”… And other universities such as stand ford, Illinois State Univ. and even some community colleges… Our offering of this course “Biomass to Bioenergy” is the basically the Fist step here at OSU to go toward that goal of supply the demand of the market …. With that introduction if you do not have a question I would like to briefly go over the course outline to give you an idea of what you will be learning and what we will be discussing in this class. For that I have put together a “Biomass-to-Bioenergy Routes” that summaries the class…
  • Biodiesel Use in blends below 5% does not require any modification of the engine. Some minor modifications might be necessary when using biodiesel at 100%. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is mainly used on site for cogeneration applications. The solid and liquid residues from the process are often used as fertilisers on farm land. 
  • Biodiesel Use in blends below 5% does not require any modification of the engine. Some minor modifications might be necessary when using biodiesel at 100%. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is mainly used on site for cogeneration applications. The solid and liquid residues from the process are often used as fertilisers on farm land. 
  • Heat can also be produced on a medium or large scale through cogeneration which provides heat for industrial processes in the form of steam and can supply district heat networks.
  • Heat can also be produced on a medium or large scale through cogeneration which provides heat for industrial processes in the form of steam and can supply district heat networks.
  • In this regard, microbial fuel cells, in which biomass fuels are directly converted to electrical energy by undergoing oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions at an anode and a cathode is a promising technology.
  • Voltage was measured across a 1000 ohm resistor and data was logged into a computer using a data acquisition unit. Power density was calculated as :current times voltage divided by area of the electrode. Current was voltage times resistant
  • Here is a short cartoon that shows how the substrate enters the bacteria cell, and you can see the biochemical reactions that lead to the production of electrons and hydrogen ions inside and then the transfer of these ions across the cell wall to the anode electrode and through the PEM which leas to the electricity production
  • Bioenergy from ag_waste

    1. 1. Bioenergy fromAgricultural Wastes PRESTED BY-DEEPAK KESHRI
    2. 2. World Energy Prospects Worlds Population 12 10 10 6.7Population 8(billion) 6 4 Increase in 2 Population Energy demand 0 2008 2050 63- Year 60% 160% Source: •CIAs The World Factbook • World POPClock Projection, U.S. Census Bureau • Energy Sources, 26:1119-1129,2004
    3. 3. Other concerns Pollution Climate change Resource depletion
    4. 4. Renewable energy sourcesSummary of energy resources consumption in United States, 2004 •By 2030, bio-energy, 15-20% energy consumptionSource:USDA-DOE, 2005,
    5. 5. OverviewBioenergy historyAg wastes and other biomassBiomass to Bioenergy Conversion processes Pros & ConsApplications Biofuels Bioheat Bioelectricity
    6. 6. Some U.S. bioenergy history Bioenergy is not new!1850s: Ethanol used for lighting ( kids/energyfacts/ sources/renewable/ethanol.html#motorfuel)1860s-1906: Ethanol tax enacted (making it no longer competitive with kerosene for lights)1896: 1st ethanol-fueled automobile, the Ford Quadricycle (
    7. 7. More bioenergy history(photo from  1908: 1st flex-fuel car, the Ford Model T  1919-1933: Prohibition banned ethanol unless mixed with petroleum  WWI and WWII: Ethanol used due to high oil costs  Early 1960s: Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol industrial fermentation discontinued in US  Today, about 110 new U.S. ethanol refineries in operation and 75 more planned
    8. 8. Ag wastes and other biomassWaste Biomass Crop and forestry residues, animal manure, food processing waste, yard waste, municipal and C&D solid wastes, sewage, industrial wasteNew Biomass: (Terrestrial & Aquatic) Solar energy and CO2 converted via photosynthesis to organic compounds Conventionally harvested for food, feed,
    9. 9. Agricultural and Forestry Wastes Crop residues Animal manures Food / feed processing residues Logging residues (harvesting and clearing) Wood processing mill residues Paper & pulping waste slurries
    10. 10. Municipal garbage & other landfilled wastesMunicipal Solid Waste Landfill gas-to-energyPre- and post-consumer residuesUrban wood residues Construction & Demolition wastes Tree trimmings Yard waste Packaging Discarded furniture
    11. 11. % U.S. Data crop residue animal manure forest residue MSW, C&D Category Millions of U.S. (%) dry tons/yr Crop 218.9 43 (modified from residuesPerlack et al., 2005) Animal 35.1 7 manures Forest 178.8 35 residues Landfill 78 15 wastes
    12. 12. % Ohio data crop residue animal manure forest residue (modified from Jeanty MSW, C&D et al., 2004)Category Billions of Ohio (%) BTUsCrop residues 53,717 18Animal 2,393 1manuresForest residues 33,988 12Landfill wastes 199,707 69
    13. 13. Biomass to BioenergyBiomass: renewable energy sources coming from biological material such as plants, animals, microorganisms and municipal wastes
    14. 14. Bioenergy Types Biofuels  Liquids Methanol, Ethanol, Butanol, Biodiesel  Gases Methane, Hydrogen Bioheat  Wood burning Bioelectricity  Combustion in Boiler to Turbine  Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs)
    15. 15. Conversion Processes  Biological conversion  Fermentation (methanol, ethanol, butanol)  Anaerobic digestion (methane)  Anaerobic respiration (bio- battery)  Chemical conversion  Transesterification (biodiesel)  Thermal conversion  Combustion  Gasification  Pyrolysis
    16. 16. Biomass-to-Bioenergy Routes ConversionPhotosynthesis Biomass processes Biofuels and Bioenergy Application Heating Heat Wet biomass Anaerobic Biogas (organic waste, manure) H2, CH4 C6H12O6 + 6O2 fermentation Electrical devices Electricity Gasification Fuel gas Solid biomass Combustion (wood, straw) Pyrolysis Pyrolytic oil Hydrolysis co2 Sugar and starch plants Hydrolysis Ethanol Sugar Butanol 6CO2 + 6H2O (sugar-cane, cereals) Liquid biofuels Extraction fermentation Transport Oil crops and algae Crushing Methyl ester (sunflower, soybean) Pure Oil Refining (biodiesel) Transesterification
    17. 17. Advantages of Biomass   Widespread availability in many parts of the world Contribution to the security of energy supplies Generally low fuel cost compared with fossil fuels Biomass as a resource can be stored in large amounts, and bioenergy produced on demand Creation of stable jobs, especially in rural areas Developing technologies and knowledge base offers opportunities for technology exports Carbon dioxide mitigation and other emission reductions (SOx, etc.)
    18. 18. Environmental Benefits
    19. 19. Drawbacks of BiomassGenerally low energy contentCompetition for the resource with food, feed, and material applications like particle board or paperGenerally higher investment costs for conversion into final energy in comparison with fossil alternatives
    20. 20. Applications
    21. 21. Biofuel Applications: LiquidsEthanol and Butanol : can be used in gasoline engines either at low blends (up to 10%), in high blends in Flexible Fuel Vehicles or in pure form in adapted enginesBiodiesel : can be used, both blended with fossil diesel and in pure form. Its acceptance by car manufacturers is growing
    22. 22. Process for cellulosic bioethanol
    23. 23. Why Butanol?More similar to gasoline than ethanolButanol can:  Be transported via existing pipelines (ethanol cannot) Fuel engines designed for use with gasoline without modification (ethanol cannot)Produced from biomass (biobutanol) as well as petroleum (petrobutanol)Toxicity issues (no worse than gasoline)
    24. 24. Biodiesel from triglyceride oils Methoxide Methyl Ester Triglyceride Glycerine Triglyceride consists of glycerol backbone + 3 fatty acid tails The OH- from the NaOH (or KOH) catalyst facilitates the breaking of the bonds between fatty acids and glycerol Methanol then binds to the free end of the fatty acid to produce a methyl ester (aka biodiesel) Multi-step reaction mechanism : Triglyceride→Diglyceride →Monoglyceride →Methyl esters+ glycerine
    25. 25. Biodiesel ProductionMethanol Raw Oil Catalyst NaOH Crude Biodiesel (methyl ester) Crude glycerin Acid (phosphoric) Excess methanol Catalyst KOH Catalyst Mixing Transesterification Reaction Neutralization Methanol Recovery Recovered methanol Biodiesel, glycerin Phase Separation gravity or centrifuge Crude Glycerine Biodiesel, impurities Purification Wash water (washing) water Fertilizer Fuel Grade K3PO3 Biodiesel
    26. 26. Biofuel Applications: Gases Hydrogen : can be used in fuel cells for generating electricity Methane : can be combusted directly or converted to ethanol
    27. 27. Bioheat Applications  Small-scale heating systems for households typically use firewood or pellets  Medium-scale users typically burn wood chips in grate boilers  Large-scale boilers are able to burn a larger variety of fuels, including wood waste and refuse-derived fuel Biomass Boiler(for more info: Dr. Harold M. Keener, OSU Wooster, E-mail
    28. 28. Bioelectricity Applications  Co-generation: Combustion followed by a water vapor cycle driven turbine engine is the main technology at present  Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs): Direct conversion of biomass to electricity
    29. 29. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) PEMElectrons flow from an anode through a resistor to a cathodewhere electron acceptors are reduced. Protons flow across aproton exchange membrane (PEM) to complete the circuit.
    30. 30. Bio-electro-chemical devices Bacteria as biocatalysts convert the biomass “fuel” directly to electricity Oxidation-Reduction reaction switches from normal electron acceptor (e.g., O2, nitrate, sulfate) to a solid electron acceptor: Graphite anodeIt’s all about REDOX CHEMISTRY!
    31. 31. Microbial fuel cells in the lab•Two-compartment MFC• Proton exchange membrane: Nafion 117 or Ultrex Membrane• Electrodes: Graphite plate Cathode 84 cm2• Working volume: 400 ml ANODE CATHODE Anode
    32. 32. Not to Scale 6CO2 + 24e- + 24H+ e- e- 2CO2 + 8e- + 8H+Cellulose Cathode Acetate H+ e- H+ n=1 e- e- Glucose e- β-Glucan β-Glucan (n ≤7) (n≤7) H+ O2 H+ n≥2 Propionate Cellodextrin edon A Bacteria 3CO2 + 28e- + 28H+ Cell Wall H2O Proton Exchange β- Glucan (n-1) Membrane ButyrateAnode Bacteria Cell 4CO2 + 18e- + 18H+ Cathodecompartment compartment
    33. 33. My own MFC story Undergraduate in-class presentation, 2003  Bond, D.R. Holmes, D.E., Tender L.M., Lovley D.R. 2002. Electrode- reducing microorganisms that harvest energy from marine sediments. Science 295: 483–485. Extra-curricular student team project, 2004-2005  USEPA - P3 first round winner 2005  #1 in ASABE’s Gunlogson National Competition 2005 Research program, 2005 to present  3 Ph.D. students, 2 undergrad honors theses, 4 faculty  Over $200,000 in grant funding  High school science class project online resource
    34. 34. References Ezeji, T., N. Qureshi, H.P. Blaschek. 2007. Butanol production from agricultural residues: Impact of degradation products on Clostridum beijerinckii growth and butanol fermentation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 97, 1460-1469. Jeanty, P.W., D. Warren, and F. Hitzhusen. 2004. Assessing Ohio’s biomass resources for energy potential using GIS. OSU Dept of Ag, Env., and Development Economics, for Ohio Dept of Development. Klass, Donald L. 1998. Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemicals . Academic Press. ISBN: 9780124109506. Perlack et al. 2005. Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. USDOE-USDA. Rabaey, K., Verstraete, W. 2005. Microbial fuel cells: Novel biotechnology for energy generation. Trends. Biotechnol. 23:291-298. Rismani-Yazdi, H., Christy, A. D., Dehority, B.A., Morrison, M., Yu, Z. and Tuovinen, O. H. 2007. Electricity generation from cellulose by rumen microorganisms in microbial fuel cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 97, 1398-1407. Skrinak, N. 2007. OSU Microbial Fuel Cell Learning Center <> USDOE Biomass Program. ABCs of Biofuels <>. Accessed April 2008.
    35. 35. For more info(or to request reference list) Ann D. Christy, Ph.D., P.E. Associate Professor Dept of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering 614-292-3171 Email: