Edu Timesall[1]


Published on

these are my eleven articles published in The Times of india
on Broadcast journalism

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Edu Timesall[1]

  1. 1. Pedagogy of Broadcast journalism December 18, 2006 -1 “I believe that much of journalism teaching whether it is concerned with professional practices or with social political effects-is too functional & too divorced from the higher reaches of authorship & thought.” G. Staurt Adam Professor Emeritus of Journalism at Carlton University Ottawa has said this in his book ‘journalism- the democratic craft’. I subscribe to his views in our environment too. Broadcast journalism is one such area where the complexity is more serious and demands overhaul in academic input and pedagogy. Comparatively broadcast journalism is a new area of instructional design in our media schools and very little attempts were made to develop appropriate teaching style. But on the advent of digital revolution and emergence of satellite television on Indian soil called for serious attention in broadcast teaching. As it created enormous possibilities for young creative journalists to have openings in lucrative, glamorous media. Indian universities have taken due cognizance of the changing environment in the journalism field. They incorporated all components of broadcast ranging from news gathering to packaging news and from non linear editing to satellite communication in their teaching modules of electronic journalism along with some practical assignments and hit and miss apprenticeship in broadcasting stations. University departments, due to paucity of funds are not able to have equipped studios and modern infrastructure, but just providing sophisticated electronic gadgets do not serve the purpose. We have not so far successful in creating confidence amongst students that they are capable to be professional broadcast journalists. Unless students develop news judgment, find their own reporting evidentiary method they cannot make their presence felt, and if they apply linguistic techniques with proper narrative approach and appropriate method of interpretation they are bound to become true professional in broadcast media. Visual language has been described as a new genre of communication that is set to become a major global language of this century; and as a teacher we should be able to explain and demonstrate usage of this modern text in proper syntax. That will help in all stories particularly in cross cultural information exchange. However we cannot blindly allow visuals to dominate the texture of news story. Narration, voiceover and piece to camera are equally important and make story more convincing and acceptable. It is always said that journalism has to be learned as a practical and live experience through news rooms and event locations. But we should not forget that the theory of communication which
  2. 2. encompasses human sociology, culture trend and practices, which finally matters in deciding approach and style of presentation. Teachers must keep it in mind the linkage of theory with practical in every stage of the process. All of us have accepted that journalism is stream of an art faculty. But we hardly keep it in mind at the time of teaching and imparting knowledge. The continuous monitoring and appropriate instructions are necessary to suit to students’ perceptions and ability particularly in the area of audiovisual news presentation. This is possible only if we add the perspective of the artist and critic to the perspective news journalist. Dr. Keshav sathaye Media practitioner & Faculty - broadcast journalism. . Grammar of television News December 25,2006 Education Times-2 I was deployed for the coverage of non-align meet at New Delhi in the year 1983.We were camped at Rashtrapati Bhavan along with our camera crew to cover the calling on ceremony. Leaders like Yasar Arafat, Fidel Castro were among those dignitaries who called upon Gyani Zail Singh then the president of India. We had a very short time at our disposal as we had to incorporate it in the latest news bulletin. To save the time we had to arrange the shots in such a manner where very little editing was involved. Fortunately we could manage to put it for transmission without much hassles. What I want to stress is that the construction of a story on a cerebral plane and reproduce it in the video format demands creative and anticipatory set of mind. Once we accept visual as an important text broadcast media we will realize the importance of grammar in visual presentation. We always tend to run away from grammar and theory part of media education considering it as a forte of academicians and scholars. Unless we understand rules of the game we may not produce great stories in fact we will make the story faceless. it is very easy to understand the analogy between print and broadcast media. Alphabets make words, words make sentence, sentences make paragraph and paragraphs make chapter in the same manner video frames make shot, shots make sequence and sequences make scene and scenes make the complete
  3. 3. video story. In television news shots reflect the treatment of the story. Its size, composition and angle are the main determinants which speak on its own. Media teachers are required to concentrate on the language of visuals along with its desired outcome and effects on the viewers. No doubt those media communication theories are significant and are evolved from scientific research inputs. But instead of following it blindly a continuous monitoring and appraisal of changing structure is desired. I am aware that all these technological inputs are relevant only when we show and tell something important and news worthy. The content has to be a focus point of all these endeavors. True journalists understand the significant and primary objective of his news gathering activity and gives due weight age to core segment over packaging. Students of broadcast journalism must be made acquainted with multitasking skills. They are supposed to do lots of important things at a time particularly in live mode of transmission. Journalist has to look after technical arrangements and also plan his sequence of questions or treatment to the story; meanwhile he is in touch with main studio for further instructions. He has to play role of technocrat, creative videographer, negotiator, story teller and controller of the event. Over a period of time we have transformed serious business of journalism into dramatized entertainment. Let’s accept the changing trends and demands. As a teacher we can remind students that commercial viability is definitely important but at the same time we should crave for cultural relevance too. Dr. Keshav sathaye Media Practitioner & Faculty in Broadcast journalism Piece to camera…
  4. 4. .responsibility not an authority January1 , 2007- 3 16 years back in Jan, 1991 CNN [Cable News Network] made a history in broadcast journalism by its up to date live coverage of Gulf war. The credit goes particularly to a trio John Holliman, Peter Arnett reporters and anchor Bernard Shaw and many others in the team. Arnett the veteran reporter who had successfully covered Vietnam War from ground level became the hero of the event. The reason is obvious; under a tremendous pressure he could bring out the dramatic moments from the war field and millions of viewers spell bound by his presentation skills. The broadcast reporters have to do this segment frequently in their career as a part of their assignments. Most of the time reporters speak from the event location in live mode. And it is really a testing time for the new comer in the field as the story is evaluated and appreciated by its presentation techniques popularly known as P to C i.e. piece to camera. There are three major components that attribute to the body of PtoC A] Use of language, B] Ability to introduce or recapitulate the story C] capacity to communicate through a camera. Media schools must assure that these focal points are taken care of in their study material and practical assignments. Usually a segment of a very short duration ranges between 30 seconds and 60 seconds. Reporter is required to tell gist of the story in a cohesive form by directly looking into a camera lens. In a triangular relationship between content, story teller and viewers, reporter has to do a fine audio visual presentation through the orchestration of images action and sound to suit to the logic and perception of the viewers. Teachers may try out various mock events in the course of their teaching, visualizing different types of situations. He is required to tell something which is not apparent and obvious. His mastery over language and use of precise words and connotation gives an upper edge in the assignment. The shot size and angle have to be arranged in such a way which could reveal the ambience and business on the location. The story may be of war, Xmas celebration bomb explosion or election campaign we must allow viewers to sense and experience the excitement of the happenings.
  5. 5. Many a time we see reporters, instead of elaborating the content of the story tempts to pass judgment or tries to give their own interpretation. I think it does not come under the purview of reporters as editors and correspondents are competent enough to do the job. This style of reporting spoils the image of broadcast station and ultimately reflects in their viewer ship. Most of the time the event is live, if the immature reporters keep on presenting the story in such a fashion it may affect the brand image and reputation of media house. In fact he should try to tell what he sees and observes he must be able to provide raw material for the news editors which ultimately prove useful in constructing views and opinions. Camera with microphone is a double edged weapon. It should remind us of responsibility rather than authority. If we can give this message to our students they are bound to make relevant and realistic stories. Dr.Keshav Sathaye Writing for visuals January,8,2007 Education Times- 4 The recent breaking news on TV was of saddam Hussein's execution.Tv channels were constantly busy in showing videoclips . There was no commentary, no interpretation. It was just a tablodization of an important news,which was concentrating more on entertaing the audience rather than informing them.This is what we call market driven news environment. Showing Saddam Hussein getting hung is not justified at all under any pretext. We are making the line thinner between reality show and responsible journalism. We are taking too much liberty under the guise 'truth must prevail.' With the help of modern technology we can capture anything under the sun, but the point is under what reference those visuals are shown. A boy in Pakistan hanged himself while imitating Saddam's execution. Broadcast journalist must keep in mind that meaningless visuals are dangerous and they have to be supported by appropriate, well-thought words. Your intention and purpose must reflect in your audio visual clippings and only then you will be successful in reaching to your viewers in a desired contextual manner. In media schools teachers are required to highlight the importance of words and
  6. 6. its proper fusion with pictures. If you have a rich vocabulary and know proper meaning of the word, you have won the half battle. Journalists are the architects of the news story. They build it brick by brick by using their talent, news judgment and power of words. Ina newspaper it is an essential commodity and in broadcast you have the limitations, as the medium is primarily dominated by visuals. But we should not forget that television being an audiovisual medium does require precise words to support and validate the visual story. The other important aspect of this exercise is an ability to understand the language of visuals. Visual never speaks on its own. One has to add a reference with the help of editing and a narration. I remember the small news story we had shown on Doordarshan on Late Prime Minister Smt.Indira Gandhi after her assassination on 31Oct, 1984.We had prepared the story from file pictures and offered an obituary. The same visuals could have been shown at different occasion with different purpose by rearranging shots and writing a fresh story. Reading between the lines may help you in adding appropriate meaning to the story. Never load your visuals, give them proper space to grow; some silent moments will add to its purpose. Remember , your approach and intentions make the whole difference. Majority of the broadcast journalists try to simplify the story; but they never realize they are under estimating their viewers. Linear approach in story telling makes your byte unattractive and boring. Writing for visuals is a matter of practice and common sense. Usually voiceover is used for narrating the story. You have to consider the tone and texture of the visuals while selecting the words and treatment. Broadcast journalists work as a team. So many times it may happen that you have to write a story for the visuals captured by another reporter. Your story is put in for transmission and is presented by a news anchor. The style of presentation and communicative skills of the concerned anchor is another decisive dimension to your piece of writing. I am sure if communication departments highlight these various factors in their teaching modules, we will make our stories informative rather than sensational ones. Dr. Keshav Sathaye Media practitioner And faculty in Broadcast journalism
  7. 7. Breaking everything except News January 15, 2007 Education Times- 5 Frank Luther Mott Pulitzer Prize winning author& a professor of journalism at the University of Iowa has rightly pointed out in his essay what’s the news? that “the chief fault and failure of American journalism today and this applies to all media of information is the disproportionate of space and emphasis given to the obviously interesting news of immediate rewards at the expense of the significantly important news of situations and events which have not yet reached the stage of being exciting for the casual reader the divided responsibility of this failure is not easy to place with fairness to all; it is basically that of the reader, but publishers,editors,and news gatherers cannot escape their share of it” Shall we try to do some retrospection in the light of the above statement in broadcast journalism in India, particularly in breaking news segment? Breaking news has become the ultimate USP [unique selling proposition] of broadcast media. We have seen the most responsible journalism through this from some news channels at the time of war, terrorist attack ,earthquake, Tsunami, bomb explosion in Mumbai and torrential rainfall in Maharashtra. We could save the life of little prince .when he felled in tube well in Halderi village in the state of Hariyana due to timely intervention of broadcast media. But unfortunately they are only exceptions. Majority of the items covered as breaking news are sensational in its approach and have very little relation with news value. It is high time now that we should really try to define what is breaking news and what is not? Do you remember news stories like building collapse of NMV School, Pune Appeared as breaking news was out of proportion and created nothing but chaos It has been observed that the majority of such stories are so called human interest stories. The very word human interest story was used at the time of civic war and had been introduced first in Sun magazine and was defined as the ‘chatty little reports of tragic or comic incidents in the lives of people’. I would like to mention here a few examples of breaking news which we have witnessed. They are expulsion and comeback of Ganguli in Indian cricket team, sweet water at Mumbai’s sea shore, Incarnation and life after death, car moving without a driver and so on. If we analyze these stories; what we find is, that except Ganguly’s story all others are not news at all. Those are just part of our superstitions and beliefs. Even Ganguly, s story is not an unusual and unexpected.
  8. 8. In the commercialization process we have forgotten the demarcation line between facts and fiction. The professional international news channels also have divorced from the principles of element of news. Timeliness, prominence, proximity and probable consequences are major criterion factors in deciding value of breaking news. A better understanding of these elements must be imbibed in the minds of journalist at the time of their training. News is a media product and being sold as FMCG [fast moving consumer goods] obviously packaging and emotional appeal gets more mileage than the content of the news. It is used as a Viagra, artificially boosting social libido of the viewers, it results in developing news taste for sensational and emotional products rather than developmental news. At least news media should not follow the road of consumerism. Instead of giving what public like we should try to train our viewers to like what we give. The news of social development, economic reform, upliftment of downtrodden people, and sacrifice of common man for noble cause could be displayed as breaking news. We should train our camera to be sensitive towards less privileged people and our microphones must pickup voices of have-nots. Dr. Keshav Sathaye Media practitioner and faculty in broadcast media Television News Reading: Perform or Perish January 29, 2007 Education Times-*6 The most glamorous area in broadcast journalism is news reading. If you are serious about this profession and ready to take maximum efforts you will earn a lot of fame and fortune too. We have glaring examples of the battalion of such news readers like Siddhartha Kak, Dolly thakore, Luku Sanyal Rajdeep Sardesai, Pranay Roy, Veena Mishra Pradeep Bhide and many more. But who pursue the profession for name sake without any preparation end up with disastrous failure. Let us first understand difference between news reading, news casting and news anchoring. News reading means just reading out news the person need not be a journalist. In case of news caster he /she are having journalistic background. News anchor is usually a professional compere and celebrity from performing
  9. 9. field. Many news channels go for such person to attract viewers.Howevr the students of journalism have more chances in the field because of their in depth knowledge of issues, facts and happenings. As they are aware of news value they are likely to present it in right perspective and spirit. News reading is a performing art. It requires good expression, pronunciation, presence of mind and capacity to appear authentic. You have to be comfortable with microphone and friendly with camera. Whatever you do before camera is minutely observed by the millions of viewers and your simple mistake is get magnified. Media schools hardly go in details of teaching practical news reading in their courses as they lack infrastructure and trained teachers. Since it is an accepted fact that journalism comes under faculty of art, we must seriously consider incorporating news reading training modules in our syllabus. All of us are aware that news presentation is a live presentation all over the world. You can’t afford to commit any mistake and there is no scope for improvement in the same performance. Your voice is the most important commodity in the business. Sitting posture and your looking style in the camera are other vital factors. The most trickiest skill is the transaction between you and lens of the camera. You should look into as if you are directly looking in the eyes of millions of viewers. Your speed of delivery should be befitting to the perception of your viewers. Three words a second is considered as an ideal one, however you may modify it according to your judgment and comfort. Many academicians are of the view that news reader should appear neutral, the notion behind it is that the whole affair has to be unbiased. Let’s take their advice at a discount and try to be expressive according to the content of the story. The success of your presentation is in its approach, your voice modulation tone and texture should show a sense of accountability, visually you are required to be enough authoritative and reliable. News presentation is a team work and you are the last link of the whole process. In studio you are in a commanding position and have to do lots of activities in half an hour. It includes time management, link with reporters on location, taking instructions from panel producer, incorporating last minute changes and still calm, composed and convincing. Dr.Keshav sathaye
  10. 10. Media Practitioner and Consultant. Television talk show March 5, 2007 Education Times 7 Talk show is the most popular and prestigious format of TV programming all over the world. The majority of talk shows which are presented on news channels are produced designed and anchored by professionals who have made significant contribution to broadcast journalism as a researcher, socio political commentator and newscaster. The talk show is an invention of twentieth century broadcasting. It takes a very ancient form of communication, dialogue and transforms it into a low cost but highly popular form of information and entertainment through the institutions, practices and technologies of television. . It is usually an unscripted programme and its presentation style is a dynamic one, in a sense that it revolves around the topic and burning issues giving ample scope to participants to express their views. The cost of the production is too reasonable compare to other formats like sitcoms and documentaries. ‘Big fight’ on NDTV is the classic example of model talk show in Indian continent. It represents the voice of people on the issues of public importance. It has a strong research input along with participation of experts and academicians in the concerned fields and vibrant presenter, who eloquently presents facts and figures to substantiate and focus the burning issues. If we compare talk shows genre with print journalism we can easily make out that it have characteristics of editorial, feature and reader forum .The production team must work out the detailed outline of the programme and ensure that the contents and approach of the programme is in consistent with the issues and scope of the subject. It is all about facts and opinions. Diversified views of experts and cross sections of society give equilibrium and balance to the show. Voxpopuli makes this show more realistic and accountable. "Walk the Talk" on NDTV 24x7 has become the most natural show due to its outdoor format and Shekhar Gupta’s command over subject matter. Talk show may be Characterized as a literary narrative, or as a social text. As literary texts, talk shows contain characters, settings, and even a loosely defined plot structure which re-enacts itself in the talk rituals that happens in front of the camera. These narratives center on the host as the central recurring character who frames and organizes the show. Phil Donahue, Oprah Winfrey, Rajdeep
  11. 11. Sardesai, Karan Thapar, Simmii Garewal have given a face and character to this format. Students of communication and journalism have wide scope in this area as researcher, producer and presenter, provided our syllabus of broadcast journalism give due weight age to its academic as well as its practical aspects. It is observed that teachers of broadcast journalism focus more on news writing and reporting techniques. Talk shows and current affairs topics also should be covered as an important component of the teaching module. Talk shows in regional languages do not reflect studious approach in research and content designing. The production aesthetic and coordination among experts and viewers is missing most of the time eventually affect the quality of the show. . This is due to misconception and inadequate understanding of the purpose of the show. It is the responsibility of the communication schools to create awareness about such useful formats amongst students. We have seen talk shows bringing about change in the attitude of the society and even making authority to do justice to the destitute. I think it is the inherent criteria of successful talk show. Dr. Keshav sathaye Media Practitioner and faculty in Broadcast journalism. TV news producer-March 12, 2007 Education Times- 8 On the advent of rising news channels in the country there is a great demand for a versatile captain a better known as a producer in the broadcast media world. The job is a classic mix of technical know-how and a managerial mind set. There are very few schools and courses at university level which can impart the knowledge and skills to equip students to fit the bill. The person works in close association with news editors, reporters, engineers, news caster and studio crew. The news producer is the last link between newsroom and viewers. The responsibility of smooth presentation of the news show lies with this captain. Usually a producer has to do various jobs in a short duration of time. News transmission is always in live mode all over the world. A simple mistake can tarnish the image of a news channel. He should be ready to work under tremendous pressure and anticipate crisis at any moment and till to keep his cool. The today's management has traced the need for a multi tasking approach in
  12. 12. Corporate sector. At the time of news transmission producer has to keep track of at least 3 cameras of the studio and edited footage of video to be inserted at the proper time in the news bulletin Giving command to VTR and vision mixer engineer and instruct news caster about the pace of performance add to the complexity of the job. The most crucial element of news producing is time management. It is very difficult to predict accurate timing on the basis of number of news items. Some times,the news reader may read out the news at the different speed and space that can adversely affect the sequencing and prioritization of the bulletin. Producer should keep track of the speed of the bulletin and instruct the floor manager accordingly to comfortably cover the entire bulletin. Keep it in mind that the news production is not just the race against the time. The video insert in the news item is usually of 30 to 40 seconds. Selection of vital part from the available footage requires proper understanding of news value. He or she must be well versed with technical aspects and media technology. Use of non linear editing, knowledge of special effects like chroma key helps the producer to make the show appealing and attractive. A sensible producer can also contribute by giving suggestions about set designing, lighting patterns and costumes of the news presenter. Newscasters have a major role to play in attracting viewers. It is the privilege of news producer to assess performance of the news casters and guide them to give in their best. News producer can give face and character to the news bulletin by their involvement and versatile approach. It is possible for media schools to groom such talented technical savvy students and open up a new challenging career for them. We should tap the potentials of such students by offering various demonstrations in our class room activities. They must be made aware of production techniques, satellite communication by arranging institutional visits. We have adequate flexibility in our syllabus, let's take positive advantage Of the same and offer pool of creative producers to broadcast industry. Dr. Keshav Sathaye Media practitioner and faculty in broadcat media Television interview –master the technique- March 19, 2007 Education Times- -9 TV interview is one of the popular format and important segment, which has its own niche in broadcast journalism. The genre helps a journalist to know facts
  13. 13. about people and places. The primary objective of an interview is to get information about the latest happenings in our society which has an important relevance to our immediate environment. Interview could be a door stepper, set piece, or an eye witness statement. Journalist should be able to get first hand information and reveal truth through this endeavor. The uniqueness of TV interview is that whatever you do in front of the camera is a planned and designed activity, however it is presented in such a way that it appears as if it's just happening before our eyes. The success of an interview depends upon your skill of constructing the questions and the way of its presentation. proper selection of words, use of natural and informal language and style creates a soothing comfort zone for an interviewee. In a studio atmosphere where lights and setting gives an awkward sensation to the guest it is the duty of the interviewer to make himher at home and relaxed. Remember that political and social personalities are very cautious in front of the camera as they don't want to get exposed and hence their answers are sometime over guarded and reveal nothing .That approach makes your interview dull and boring; here your commanding style and honesty of purpose come to your rescue. Usually a probing style disturbs the interviewee if your questions reflect curiosity and genuine purpose of knowing facts you are likely to be rewarded with the desired information and data. Your search for an inner person should be visible through your preparations, and ability to create a natural rapport during interview. Karan Thapar, Rajat Sharma, Pranoy Roy have mastered the art of interviewing on television by their homework, confident presentation and delicately handling the swinging psychograph of the guest. Your television interview should be like an artistic ex-pression. It must have a visible theme and should tend to progress naturally. Revealing a person in a smooth manner keeping the pace and rhythm to the mood of the content, needs sense of purpose and involvement. You should also be able to assess the outcome of the interview while it is in progress. That helps you to navigate your dialogue in the desired direction. As discussed earlier, there are different types of interviews that come your way. It could be an event oriented interview, institutional or personality profile or just
  14. 14. reaction of a common man to any given situation and circumstanceA good interviewer must try to adapt his style to suit the requirements of the genres of interviews In an audiovisual field,your look, ex-pressions, voice quality, mannerisms, approach are as important as your academic inputs. Your presentation skills add flavour and aroma to the main body of the interview. Interview techniques have been given a due weight age in the curriculum of journalism and communication studies. However our study material doesn't go beyond the realm of theoretical perspectives. If we try to give real -life exposure to our students by arranging different types of interviews. Thus we will be able to produce confident journalist who can become master of ceremony in their own rights. Dr. Keshav sathaye Media practitioner And faculty in Broadcast journalism Broadcast Media Management: Mantra of new age! March 26,2007 Education Times -10 '' Medium is the message '' the statement was made a few decades ago by a renowned social scientist Marshall Mc Luhan just to highlight the ever growing impact of television media on the society. Today we see his projection absolutely factual and realistic. In today's environment it has become a dire need to study media merchandise, systems and product scientifically and to scrutinize its activities. Media schools have already taken a cognizance of emerging trends in broadcast media management and given it a place in their syllabi. But unfortunately, Journalism and communication schools do not consider management studies as their core subject. Statistics reveal that in the year 2004 and 2005 20 billon rupees were poured in India by investors in media and entertainment industry. This clearly indicates its niche in media business. Media industry which has to operate in a tremendous tight time schedule frame does require management inputs to produce quality media products. The crucial managerial skills which are required in broadcast media are in the area of consumers [Audience], production and distribution, marketing and advertising and human resources.
  15. 15. Teachers should bear in mind that media products are intangible and are in abstract form. It is very difficult to measure its impact by conventional parameters. The other peculiar characteristic of media product is that you cannot expect uniform output every time even you use same men and machinery. The human factor involved in the whole process is of paramount importance and has to be dealt with due care.Behaviroal school of management which professes importance of human relations, self actualization and theory of motivation has to be applied in day to day production and transmission activities. Since the quality of a programme is a sum total of the contents, treatment and human involvement. To understand our consumers, collect up-to-date profiles and demographic details, need planned organised efforts. That eventually helps us to produce media software as per needs of the audience. The management skills give you an insight to design pre production activities. The production management begins with content development and designing of programme format. Production manager has to calculate the production budget, recording schedules and hiring of equipments and man power to complete the production in minimal cost without compromising with quality. The marketing department does promotional activities to attract spot buying and sponsorship. They have to monitor market trends to identify media products to be scheduled at prime time or non prime slots. A continuous feedback from audience does help to know peoples perception and brand positioning. The possibility of partnership with other local or overseas channels can be tapped by negotiations and create opportunity for the organization to survive in international market. Media schools are required to anticipate the growth of broadcast media and to develop study modules which would be helpful for students who want to make career in media management sector. Management is an essence of any organization. News channels and entertainment industry cannot grow without management practices. We have to inject this thought in an integrated way in our core media subjects. That will help us to groom professionals in News and entertainment media. Dr.Keshav Sathaye Media practitioner And faculty in broadcast
  16. 16. Convergence of media and Future of electronic journalism –April 16 , 2007 Education Times-11 The common criticism on our education system is that we prepare students for examinations and not for facing future challenges. Let’s try to find out the future scenario of the Media world. This will help students to adjust themselves to the changing trends and practices in the mass media environment. Convergence of media is one of the challenges which have to be addressed on top priority. Basically it is a new communication theory which envisages that all media are converging and coming on one common digital platform. It means that you will have to work in the atmosphere, where Television, radio, web journalism will be available on a single gadget and will be consumed in a new different method and way. So we will have the role of the reader, listener and surfer accumulated in a single receiver of messages. As students, you must be able to understand the complexities and psyche of our readers and viewers. You will have to learn the term active viewers/readers in depth and also concentrate on studying the concept of fragmented audience. Please keep it in mind that though the media are converging they are not going far away from their inherent characteristics. News papers will be looked at as usual for their in-depth and extensive news coverage, Television for latest breaking news and live coverage from the scene, Radio as a dynamic audio medium to carry anywhere easily and web for quick updating of news and viewer friendly presentation. For becoming successful in e- news paper, communication students have to acquaint themselves with computer technology like page layout, font size, and color scheme, logical linkage of pages and understanding of reading habits of your readers. You have to use available space very meticulously for which your word power needs to be very selective and powerful. Using appropriate photographs and streaming video gives added weight age to your web based e- news paper. Remember that continuous updating of the events is one of the important features of electronic news paper Electronic Journalism field has one more important challenge of bloggers and community sites. People are creating their own communication platform and giving their best contents and views on various topics and subjects. Students of journalism must realize the new age competition and make them more informed and relevant. Now a days cell phone companies are using the mobile platform for news purposes. It is not direct threat to present media set up but it shows the
  17. 17. potentials of electronic gadgets and challenges the monopoly of broadcast and web based news media in fast dissemination of news. Convergence of media is not going to just affect the content delivery system but it will also have an impact on the industry as a whole. Pattern of cross media ownership; pricing, advertising strategy will have to be reorganized according to the dynamics of consumers. Your approach, promptness, authenticity must be accompanied with technical excellence, compatibility and user friendliness. Electronic media industry in India has great potentials to grow. The future is very bright provided you are ready to drive on the digital highway with the fuel of knowledge and multi tasking navigation skills. Dr. Keshav Sathaye Media Practitioner and Faculty in Broadcast journalism